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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Yumei Xu, Chaohui Wang and Tingting Zhang

This study aims to develop a measurement scale of tourism-led rural gentrification from the perspective of rural residents.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a measurement scale of tourism-led rural gentrification from the perspective of rural residents.

Design/methodology/approach

The procedure for developing the measurement scale included a thorough review of related literature on tourism-led rural gentrification and multiple stages of qualitative and quantitative investigations. A total of 1,080 rural residents in Huzhou and Huangshan participated in the project. The semi-structured interviews and questionnaire were applied to collect the data. This study analyzed the data with the methodologies of exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The measurement scale developed in this study included seven dimensions: Accelerated Ecological Awareness, Individual Behavior, Rural Economic Development, Enhanced Living Standards, Talents and Demographic Changes, Human and Cultural Shift and Cohesive Community.

Research limitations/implications

This measurement scale was developed and validated in China and may not be relevant in other contexts. The scale focuses on tourism-led rural gentrification only from the perspective of rural residents. The findings broaden the knowledge on tourism-led rural gentrification by researching the topic from the point of view of rural residents.

Practical implications

For policymakers and tourism enterprises, this study provides a valuable index for a full understanding of tourism-led rural gentrification. For investors, the research offers insights for priority investments to advance tourism development in rural regions.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few attempts to empirically measure tourism-led rural gentrification. The results improve on the knowledge about tourism-led rural gentrification in China.

研究目的

本研究的主要目的是从居民视角开发和验证旅游引导的乡村绅士化测量量表。

研究设计和方法

开发和验证旅游引导的乡村绅士化测量量表主要包含两方面的工作:旅游引导的乡村绅士化相关文献梳理; 多阶段的定量和定性研究。本研究共邀请1080位研究对象参与调研, 并通过深度半结构访谈和调查问卷收集数据, 使用EFA、CFA和SEM等研究方法研究结果。

研究结论

本研究开发和验证的测量量表包括7个维度:文明素养感知、经济发展感知、生活水平感知、发展环境感知、社会风尚感知、人居环境感知和社区秩序感知。

研究的局限性/意义

本研究基于中国背景开发和验证了旅游引导的乡村绅士化测量量表, 未验证该量表在其他国家或地区的普适性, 且仅从居民视角展开研究。我们的研究结果丰富了旅游引导的乡村绅士化内容。

实践意义

对于政策制定者和旅游企业来说, 本研究为他们充分了解旅游引导的乡村绅士化提供了参考; 对投资者来说, 本研究为投资者投资提供了有价值的借鉴和参考。

原创性/价值

本研究是测量旅游引导的乡村绅士化的重要尝试, 丰富了对中国旅游引导的乡村绅士化的认识。

关键词:

旅游引导的乡村绅士化 居民感知 量表开发 量表验证

文章类型: 研究型论文

Motivo de investigación

El objetivo principal del presente estudio es desarrollar y validar una escala de medición de gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo desde la perspectiva de los residentes.

Diseño y metodología de investigación

El desarrollo y la validación de la presente escala de medición consistió en dos tareas principales: un examen de la literatura relacionada con la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo; y múltiples etapas de investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Para este estudio, se invitó a un total de 1080 sujetos para participar de esta investigación, los datos se obtuvieron mediante entrevistas y cuestionarios semiestructurados en profundidad, y los resultados se han analizado mediante EFA, CFA y SEM.

Conclusiones de la investigación

La escala de medición desarrollada y validada en este estudio consta de 7 dimensiones: percepción de alfabetismo civilizacional, percepción de desarrollo económico, percepción de nivel de vida, percepción de entorno de desarrollo, percepción de costumbres sociales, percepción de asentamiento humano y percepción de orden comunitario.

Limitaciones/significado de la investigación

Este estudio desarrolló y validó la escala de medición basada en un contexto chino, pero no se pudo generalizar la escala de medición en otros países o regiones. Esta investigación solo analiza el fenómeno de gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo desde la perspectiva de los residentes. Nuestros resultados contribuyen a mejorar el contenido de la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo.

Significado práctico

Para los responsables políticos y las empresas de turismo, la presente investigación constituye una referencia para que comprendan plenamente la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo; para los inversores, constituye una valiosa referencia de inversión.

Originalidad/Valor

Este estudio es un importante intento para medir la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo y contribuye a enriquecer la comprensión de la gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo de China.

Palabras clave

Gentrificación rural impulsada por el turismo, Percepción de los residents, Desarrollo de la escala, Validación de la escala

Tipo de papel

Trabajo de investigación

Details

Tourism Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Tingting Zhang

This perspective article aims to summarize research on value co-creation and tourism experience management from the past decades and to propose several future research…

Abstract

Purpose

This perspective article aims to summarize research on value co-creation and tourism experience management from the past decades and to propose several future research priorities related to the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

This perspective article reviews the previous work and offers a process model on co-creating tourism experiences through a traveler’s journey. In addition, the article proposes five future research priorities related to value co-creation strategies in tourism experience management.

Findings

This perspective article depicts value co-creation activities during the pre-, mid-, and post-travel stages and proposes five research priorities: (1) big data and real-time co-creation will become ubiquitous in future travel experiences, (2) social media will continue to empower travelers throughout their travels, (3) human–robot interactions will increase for travelers’ co-creation activities, and (4) the diversity of travelers and younger generations (Generation Z) will impact co-created travel journeys.

Originality/value

Co-creation of tourism experiences has been increasing in the travel industry. It is necessary to review what has been said in the past and to project future research priorities and directions for travel academia and practitioners.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 75 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2021

Bin Li, Tingting Zhang, Nan Hua and Youcheng Wang

This study aims to develop a holistic and dynamic model that governs the various relationships among the critical factors of crisis management from a stakeholder…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a holistic and dynamic model that governs the various relationships among the critical factors of crisis management from a stakeholder perspective in the context of China’s COVID-19 epidemic outbreak.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 731 textual sources, and the text mining technique identified the themes of a holistic crisis management model. Then, content analysis was applied to reveal in-depth insights into the themes.

Findings

From a stakeholder perspective, the model comprises six elements: political environment, economic environment, technology, social environment, health and science and international relationships, which relate significantly to four procedural actions: prevention, response, recovery and adaptation. The overlapping stages and situational dynamic mechanisms of the process are another two new major findings of this study; learning and preparing are threaded throughout the whole dynamic process.

Practical implications

Hospitality stakeholders are advised to collaborate under the guidance of the dynamic crisis management model and adopt high-technology tools for the industry’s recovery management. Developing a new business model and marketing strategy is a useful approach to face similar crisis management challenges in the future.

Originality/value

This paper fills an existing research gap by presenting a health-related crisis management model that can be used to evaluate the dynamic process of collaborations among stakeholders in coping with external challenges forced upon the hospitality industry.

利益相关者视角下的危机管理动态模型:以covid-19在中国的发展为例

目的

本研究以中国新冠肺炎疫情为背景, 从利益相关者的角度构建危机管理关键因素之间各种关系的整体动态模型。

设计/方式/方法

本研究从731个文本来源收集定量数据, 并通过文本挖掘技术识别危机管理模型的构成要素,并运用内容分析对构成要素进行深入剖析。

发现

从利益相关者的角度来看, 该模型包括六个要素:政治环境、经济环境、技术、社会环境, 健康科学和国际关系。这些要素与预防、反馈、恢复和适应这四项运行程序密切相关。本研究的两大发现是防疫机制的动态机制和重叠特性, 学习和预备贯穿于疫情防控的整个动态过程。

实践意义

酒店利益相关者应在动态危机管理模型的指导下进行合作, 并运用高科技进行行业复苏管理。此外, 开发新的商业模式和营销策略也是面对新的外部环境的有效途径。

创新/价值

本文通过提出一个健康相关的危机管理模型来填补现有研究的空白, 该模型可用于评估酒店行业外部环境中利益相关者之间的动态合作过程。

Objetivo

En este estudio se recogieron datos cuantitativos de 731 fuentes textuales, se identificaron los elementos constitutivos del modelo de gestión de crisis a través de la minería textual y se analizaron en profundidad los elementos constitutivos mediante el análisis de contenido.

Diseño/método/enfoque

este estudio utiliza una combinación de minería de texto y análisis de contenido para explorar el manejo de crisis del brote de covid-19 en el sector turístico y hotelero de China. En primer lugar, se recogieron datos cuantitativos de 731 fuentes textuales y se identificaron los elementos constitutivos del modelo de gestión de crisis a través de la minería textual. En segundo lugar, se utiliza el análisis de contenido para analizar en profundidad los elementos constitutivos y, sobre la base de UN análisis de datos exhaustivo y una revisión de la literatura, se llega a UN marco teórico para el manejo de crisis.

Encontró

Desde el punto de vista de las partes interesadas, el modelo consta de seis elementos: el entorno político, el entorno económico, el entorno tecnológico, el entorno social, la ciencia de la salud y las relaciones internacionales. Estos elementos están estrechamente relacionados con los cuatro procedimientos operativos: prevención, retroalimentación, recuperación y adaptación. Los dos principales hallazgos de este estudio son los mecanismos dinámicos y las características de superposición de los mecanismos de prevención de epidemias, y el aprendizaje y la preparación a lo largo de todo el proceso dinámico de prevención y control de brotes.

Significado práctico

las partes interesadas del sector hotelero deben colaborar bajo la guía de UN modelo dinámico de gestión de crisis y utilizar la alta tecnología para la gestión de la recuperación del sector. Además, el desarrollo de nuevos modelos de negocio y estrategias de marketing es también una forma eficaz de afrontar el nuevo entorno externo.

Originalidad/valor

este artículo colma las lagunas de la investigación existente proponiendo UN modelo de gestión de crisis relacionadas con la salud que pueda ser utilizado para evaluar procesos dinámicos de colaboración entre los interesados en el entorno externo del sector hotelero.

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Tingting Zhang, Melissa F. Jahromi, Nan Hua and Lu Lu

Social commerce is relatively a nascent notion that highlights the transactions of e-commerce facilitated through social media. This study aims to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

Social commerce is relatively a nascent notion that highlights the transactions of e-commerce facilitated through social media. This study aims to investigate the motivational factors driving customer brand engagement in social commerce activities within the hospitality sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by self-determination theory, this research examined both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors by surveying 588 hospitality customers in a structured questionnaire.

Findings

The results showed that intrinsically customers were motivated by knowledge, accomplishment and stimulation; while extrinsically customers were motivated by external and introjected regulation to affect their cognitive, affectional and behavioral engagement with hospitality brands through social commerce activities.

Originality/value

Given the emerging trends in customer brand engagement practices within the context of social commerce, this study investigates an understudied phenomenon and its relational drivers, which reveals its theoretical significance.

研究目的

社交电商是相对新型的概念, 其强调通过社交工具来达成电子商务交易。本论文探索其促使顾客参与到酒店品牌的社交电商活动中的各项促进因素。

研究设计/方法/途径

本研究以自决理论(SDT)为理论基础, 通过以结构问卷的形式, 调研588名酒店顾客, 来检测顾客参与的内因和外因各种因素。

研究结果

研究结果表明顾客内在驱动力源自于知识、成就、和激发等因素; 顾客外在驱动力源自于外部控制和联合控制等因素以影响其在认知、感官、和行动方面顾客参与酒店品牌的社交电商活动中来。

研究原创性/价值

由于社交电商的顾客参与行为是行业中的新兴趋势, 因此本论文研究了一个在学术上研究不足的领域以及其驱动力因素, 从而证实了本研究的理论价值。

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2018

Tingting Zhang, Can Lu and Murat Kizildag

This paper aims to examine consumers’ adoption of mobile technology to facilitate their banking services and activities, and to investigate the factors influencing their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine consumers’ adoption of mobile technology to facilitate their banking services and activities, and to investigate the factors influencing their adoption and engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey is used to test proposed relationships between factors and consumers’ mobile banking adoption. Structural equation modeling is performed to analyze consumers’ intentions toward mobile banking.

Findings

Traditional technology acceptance model factors – perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use – are identified as effective factors in influencing consumers to adopt mobile technology for facilitating banking services. Moreover, technology safety concerns, including reliability and privacy factors, are found to play an important role in motivating consumers to embrace mobile banking. The “fun” feature of the technology and consumers’ innovativeness characteristics are considered important in influencing mobile banking adoption. Trust in the banks has its predominant role in mobile technology adoption for banking services.

Practical implications

A bank gaining trust from its clients is key to active adoption of mobile banking technology. Bankers are advised to pay more attention to reliability and privacy features when designing and promoting mobile banking technology to consumers. Moreover, advertisements to bank clients should stress the “fun” aspects of the mobile banking apps to attract them to the use of mobile banking technology.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the factors influencing bank consumers to adopting mobile banking apps to facilitate their banking services. Nine key factors in the technology adoption area are examined to provide a comprehensive understanding of bank clients’ use of mobile banking apps, which advances the understanding of mobile technology applied in the banking industry in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2018

Tingting Zhang, Anil Bilgihan, Jay Kandampully and Can Lu

Companies increasingly rely on online communities for social customer support, to develop and nurture relationships with customers, and to generate product and service…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies increasingly rely on online communities for social customer support, to develop and nurture relationships with customers, and to generate product and service development ideas. As yet, few studies have established the relationship between online communities and branding strategies. Therefore, the impact of online communities on branding requires investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that influence brand relationships developed through online communities.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model was developed based on marketing literature and tested using structural equation modeling with a sample size of 253 respondents.

Findings

Findings present the underlying reasons why and how online communities build stronger brand relationships with consumers. Online communities have been found to cultivate consumers’ sense of collectiveness with shared values conveyed through brand engagement; enhance consumers’ trust, leading to the establishment of a trustworthy image of the brand; and increase enjoyment and enrich consumers’ experience with the brand through participation and engagement.

Originality/value

This study provides insights to understand the direct relationship between online communities and brand performance. The findings of the study provide practical implications for brand relationship management and online community design.

研究目的

公司越来越依靠网上社区来提供社交式的消费者服务支持, 以建立和巩固与消费者的关系, 并且以获得产品、服务研发的新想法。至今为止, 很少的著作致力于研究网上社区与品牌战略的关系。因此, 网上社区对于品牌扩展的影响作用值得研究。本论文的研究目的即是研究通过网上社区建立起来的消费者品牌关系的诸多因素。.

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文的理论模型是以营销理论为基础而建立的。本论文采用结构方程模型, 253份样本数据, 来验证建立的理论模型。.

研究结果

各种通过网上社区建立更强消费者品牌关系的因素得以分析和整理。网上社区能够通过使消费者与品牌更贴近的各种活动, 以培养消费者对于品牌的认知和集体意识, 从而使消费者与品牌有一致的价值认知。此外, 网上社区还能增强消费者对于品牌的信任, 增强了消费者与品牌互动过程的愉悦感和体验感。.

研究原创性/价值

本论文对于网上社区和品牌表现之间的直接关系进行梳理和研究。其研究结果对于品牌关系管理和网上社区设计等方面有着很深的实际启示作用。.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Tingting Zhang, Can Lu, Edwin Torres and Po-Ju Chen

This paper aims to develop a theoretical model to understand co-creation/co-destruction of value through customer engagement in online channels. It also investigates the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a theoretical model to understand co-creation/co-destruction of value through customer engagement in online channels. It also investigates the contributing factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative approach uses the critical incidents technique to answer the research questions. The authors identify 350 critical incidents in which customers expressed online customer engagement-induced value co-creation or co-destruction experiences. The factors and resulting propositions are identified through data analysis. Data coding and analysis are facilitated by using MAXQDA 12.

Findings

Co-creation through positively valenced engagement behaviors may occur when customers are delighted, feel valued, experience reciprocity, receive organizational incentives, are solicited for feedback, can count on service recovery efforts and interact with helpful, empathetic, polite and responsive employees. Co-destruction through negatively valenced engagement behaviors emerges from rude employee behaviors, indifference, confrontation with company representatives, technological failure, the lack of complaint outlets and customers’ desire for revenge.

Practical implications

Selecting and training employees to be helpful, polite, responsive and empathetic toward online visitors can trigger co-creation. Communication between firms and customers should boost customer approval and delight. Organizations can offer incentives, reliable service delivery and a recovery design to stimulate visitor participation. Soliciting feedback requires sound technological support and direct communication links with visitors.

Originality/value

This study presents the conditions and framework contributing to the duality of customer engagement-induced co-creation and co-destruction values in online channels from the customer, organizational, employee, service design and technological perspectives. It also addresses how value is co-created or co-destructed through examples.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Nan Hua, Tingting Zhang, Melissa F. Jahromi and Agnes DeFranco

This study aims to investigate the impact of the speed of change (trend) in information technology (IT) expenditures on performance risk indicated by revenue volatility in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of the speed of change (trend) in information technology (IT) expenditures on performance risk indicated by revenue volatility in the US hotel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

To systematically investigate the impacts of IT expenditures on hotel performance risks, this study collects the same store proprietary data of 1,471 hotel properties from CBRE, a leading hotel consulting firm in the USA, from 2011 to 2017, with a total of 10,297 observations.

Findings

Econometric analyses are performed and results indicate a significant and positive impact of the speed of change of IT systems expenditures on the performance risk after comprehensively controlling for confounding factors following prior research.

Originality/value

With the increased importance of IT in day-to-day activities, hospitality business owners have started to quickly adjust their investment in IT infrastructure and superstructure to enhance their business performance. However, their fast-changing expenditures may introduce more risks to their businesses based on the speed–accuracy tradeoff, systems theory and the Schumpeterian Growth Model. This study is one of the pioneer projects that ever assessed the impact of IT expenditure and speed of change on performance risks of hotels.

研究目的

科技创新(TBI)在酒店业提高消费者体验的实践中属于首选方法。了解哪些影响消费者接受酒店TBI的因素至关重要。本论文假设, 除了常用的科技接受模型以外, 消费者对科技的态度会影响到TBI接受度。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文开发了一个关于对科技的态度作用于TBI的模型, 并邀请受访者观看在一家行业尖端的连锁酒店中采用无钥匙登记流程的VCR, 然后完成调研问卷。本论文采用科技接纳量表TAP来衡量消费者对科技的态度。

研究结果

科技态度对酒店订房意图, 作为消费者接受酒店TBI接受度的代表, 有很大的影响。然而, 科技态度只通过信任和好奇感两个中介变量来实现订房意图。

研究实践启示

研究结果提供有用见解, 鼓励酒店通过介绍TBI服务积极增强消费者对科技的态度。

研究原创性/价值

大多数研究电子商务接受度的文章往往专注在消费者使用产品或服务的态度变化或者情感倾向。相反, 本论文研究消费者对科技的态度作用于消费者接受酒店TBI服务的态度。本论文证明了对科技的态度显著影响了酒店TBI服务接受度。此外, 本论文还提供实践证明采用TAP量表来研究TBI服务的文章。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Tingting Zhang, William Yu Chung Wang and David J. Pauleen

This paper aims to investigate the value of big data investments by examining the market reaction to company announcements of big data investments and tests the effect for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the value of big data investments by examining the market reaction to company announcements of big data investments and tests the effect for firms that are either knowledge intensive or not.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on an event study using data from two stock markets in China.

Findings

The stock market sees an overall index increase in stock prices when announcements of big data investments are revealed by grouping all the listed firms included in the sample. Increased stock prices are also the case for non-knowledge intensive firms. However, the stock market does not seem to react to big data investment announcements by testing the knowledge intensive firms along.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the literature on assessing the economic value of big data investments from the perspective of big data information value chain by taking an unexpected change in stock price as the measure of the financial performance of the investment and by comparing market reactions between knowledge intensive firms and non-knowledge intensive firms. Findings of this study can be used to refine practitioners’ understanding of the economic value of big data investments to different firms and provide guidance to their future investments in knowledge management to maximize the benefits along the big data information value chain. However, findings of study should be interpreted carefully when applying them to companies that are not publicly traded on the stock market or listed on other financial markets.

Originality/value

Based on the concept of big data information value chain, this study advances research on the economic value of big data investments. Taking the perspective of stock market investors, this study investigates how the stock market reacts to big data investments by comparing the reactions to knowledge-intensive firms and non-knowledge-intensive firms. The results may be particularly interesting to those publicly traded companies that have not previously invested in knowledge management systems. The findings imply that stock investors tend to believe that big data investment could possibly increase the future returns for non-knowledge-intensive firms.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Murat Kizildag, Tarik Dogru, Tingting (Christina) Zhang, Makarand Amrish Mody, Mehmet Altin, Ahmet Bulent Ozturk and Ozgur Ozdemir

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore blockchain technology and its potential implementation to hospitality and tourism firms’ wide range of business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore blockchain technology and its potential implementation to hospitality and tourism firms’ wide range of business operations and transactions from a technological and functional point of view. This study’s central interest is to produce novel and rigorous in-depth-review analysis and foundations for a broad discussion and outlook on the potential applications of blockchain technology benefiting hospitality and tourism research, as well as the industry as a whole.

Design/methodology/approach

This study identifies and proposes several potential areas of the adoption and implementation of blockchain technology to the hospitality and tourism industry, including payment and cryptocurrencies, tracking and service customization, the disintermediation of hospitality and tourism, innovative loyalty programs, smart contracts, integrated property management systems, verified rating and review systems, collaborative initiatives and due diligence and smart tourism, each of which represents fertile avenues for future research.

Findings

This paper provides extensive critical discussions, reviews and answers to a fundamental question: “What critical functions of Blockchain mechanisms can be implemented to the existing core operational (i.e. booking and reservation systems, guest management, etc.) and business functions (i.e. loyalty/reward programs, agent transactions, etc.) of hospitality and tourism companies?”.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should specifically delve further into various angles of this “BizTech” environment based not only on business operations and competition but also on vendor and customer collaboration.

Practical implications

This study intends to serve as a guidance for future research, facilitate knowledge accumulation and create a new understanding and awareness in both practice and academia. One of the most important applications of blockchain in this industry would be that pertaining to direct booking, online reservation systems (i.e. airlines and online travel agencies) and check-in/out with digital identities. With industry-wide blockchain adoption, guests’ personal information can be digitally validated, saved and secured as previously established cryptographically secured codes verify one’s identity without disclosing essential personal information.

Originality/value

It is obvious that the hospitality and tourism industry needs urgent technological transformation, industrial innovations and new growth avenues such as the adoption of blockchain technology and systems to maintain its global market share in the future. Therefore, the implementation of blockchain systems can promote the formation of multi-center (i.e. guest operations and customer service), weakly intermediated (i.e. loyalty programs and/or review and rating systems) areas in this industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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