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This paper aims to investigate the ways in which gender influences entrepreneurial motivations and barriers in the Brazilian tourism sector. As an economic process…
This paper aims to investigate the ways in which gender influences entrepreneurial motivations and barriers in the Brazilian tourism sector. As an economic process, tourism entrepreneurship is widely spread in Brazil, with tourism development programs promoting it as a strategy to empower women, however limited research exists on how gender roles influence entrepreneurial ideals. This nationwide study aims to provide a contemporary insight into how tourism entrepreneurs in Brazil are situated within current entrepreneurship theorizing by questioning the complexity caused as gender roles influence entrepreneurial conceptualizations of what constitute motivations and barriers.
This study uses online questionnaires aimed, for the first time, at a large variety of tourism sub-sectors in Brazil. Having nation-wide scope, the questionnaires produce knowledge on what motivates and what constrains Brazilian tourism entrepreneurs through a gender lens. Quantitative analysis using SPSS statistical software tests the statistical significance of results and is complemented by the integration of feminist economic theories into the analytical framework.
The current study’s findings highlight the invisibility of gender’s workings, as the majority of participants did not conceive gender as playing a role in their entrepreneurial experience. Entrepreneurial motivations and barriers show a departure from past literature, such as the fact that similar numbers of male and female tourism entrepreneurs perceive networking as a significant entrepreneurial barrier. This and other interesting findings prompt for alternative conceptualizations of discourses surrounding women’s involvement in tourism entrepreneurship.
This study consists of an original contribution to knowledge on tourism entrepreneurship in Brazil as this is the first time an empirical study has been made on a nation-wide scale regarding the role of gender in Brazilian tourism entrepreneurs’ motivations and constraints.
In general, literature recognises that co-creative experiences add value to the tourism experience, yet empirical research within food-and-wine context remains scarce…
In general, literature recognises that co-creative experiences add value to the tourism experience, yet empirical research within food-and-wine context remains scarce. This study aims to analyse the tourists’ perceptions of the co-creation construct, their food-and-wine tourism experiences and their willingness to actively co-create in this type of experiences.
Departing from general co-creation theoretical concepts, this research explores how they can be applied in a specific food-and-tourism context. The end goal is to formulate a model that can be applied by food-and-wine managers when they create their tourism experience. A convenience sample of 19 tourists composed by 1 focus group (5 participants) and 14 face-to-face semi-structured interviews provided data for the qualitative research to explore tourists’ perceptions of co-creation and how these perceptions can be used to create engaging and successful food-and-wine experiences.
Results reveal that co-creation is perceived by tourists as one or a combination of seven categories: social interaction, novelty, creativity, social sustainability, environmental awareness, enjoyment and memorable experiences. Respondents have participated in food-and-wine activities while travelling as a complement to their tourism experience displaying more willingness to actively participate in food rather than wine experiences.
This study is exploratory in nature which makes the data not generalisable. The findings need further quantitative validation. Although the food-and-wine experiences were created based on existing experiences, they are composed of a different number of stages (without standardisation), which may make further statistical analysis (comparisons) difficult.
By conceptualising the co-creation construct, tourism managers may use the outcome of this study to turn their experiences more environmentally friendly and to improve the creative process of the experiences. The research findings not only emphasise the significance of understanding tourists’ co-creation conceptualisation, but also indicate the importance of integrating creativity and environmental awareness dimensions into experiences. Particularly, the study develops a theoretical model supportive of the co-creation dimensions that can be applied on food-and-wine tourism contexts.
This study fills a gap in the literature between co-creation in tourism and its application in food-and-wine settings by highlighting the significance that co-creation has in developing tourism business experiences.
总体而言, 历史文献表明共创可以增加旅游业的价值, 然而, 以美食和红酒为研究背景的实证研究还很少。该探索性研究旨在分析游客对共同创造结构的看法、游客的”美食+红酒”式旅游体验以及他们在这种类型的体验中积极共创的意愿。
基于共创理论概念, 该研究探讨如何将共创理论运用到具体的”美食+红酒”模式背景中, 该研究的最终目的是为美食和红酒领域的管理者提供一套模型, 用于开发旅游体验。该文章采用质化分析方式, 针对19名游客, 采用焦点小组（5个参与者）与面对面、半结构式采访（共14个）的方式收集数据, 从而探索游客对共创的理解以及如何结合这些看法开发富有吸引力且成功的”美食+红酒”旅游体验。
研究结果表示, 游客认为共创由以下七大要素组合而成：社交互动、新颖性、创造力、社会可持续性、环保意识、享受和难忘的经历。为丰富旅游经历, 受访者在旅行途中参与了”美食+红酒”活动, 他们表示相比较红酒类的体验, 更愿意积极参加和美食相关的活动。此外, 该研究揭示了开发环保类体验的重要性。
该研究从本质上来说是一次探索性的研究, 其数据不具普遍概括性。研究结果还需进一步的定量验证。尽管”美食+红酒”体验是基于现有体验而创造开发出来的, 但它们由一系列不同的步骤构成（没有标准化）, 这使得未来的数据对比分析更加艰难。
通过概念化共创的构架, 旅游管理者可以利用该研究的研究成果使旅游体验更具环保性, 同时可以优化体验的创造过程。
该研究成果不仅强调了解游客共创概念的重要性, 而且表明将创造力和环保意识融合到旅游体验中的重要性。特别是, 该研究开发了支持共创维度的理论模型, 该模型可用于”美食+红酒”旅游模式。
关键词 共创, “美食+红酒, ” 体验, 旅游, 需求观点, 内容分析
La experiencia gastronómica y enológica: hacia la co-creación en turismo
En general, la literatura reconoce que las experiencias co-creativas añaden valor a la experiencia turística, pero la investigación empírica dentro del contexto gastronómico y enológico sigue siendo escasa. El presente estudio exploratorio pretende analizar la percepción de los turistas sobre la construcción de la co-creación, sus experiencias en turismo gastronómico y enológico y su voluntad de co-crear activamente en este tipo de experiencias.
Partiendo de los conceptos teóricos generales sobre co-creación, esta investigación explora cómo pueden aplicarse al contexto específico de la gastronomía y el turismo. El objetivo final es formular un modelo que puedan aplicar los gestores gastronómicos y enológicos cuando creen su experiencia turística. Una muestra de conveniencia de 19 turistas compuesta por un grupo focal (cinco participantes) y catorce entrevistas semiestructuradas en persona, proporcionaron los datos para la investigación cualitativa con el fin de explorar las percepciones de co-creación de los turistas y cómo se pueden emplear para crear experiencias gastronómicas y enológicas atractivas y exitosas.
Los resultados revelan que la co-creación es percibida por los turistas como una o una combinación de siete categorías: interacción social, novedad, creatividad, sostenibilidad social, conciencia ambiental, disfrute y experiencias memorables. Los encuestados han participado en actividades relacionadas con la gastronomía y la enología mientras viajaban, como complemento a su experiencia turística, mostrando una mayor disposición a participar activamente en las experiencias gastronómicas que en las enológicas.
Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones
Este estudio es de carácter exploratorio lo que hace que los datos no sean generalizables. Los resultados necesitan una mayor validación cuantitativa. Aunque las experiencias gastronómicas y enológicas se crearon a partir de experiencias existentes, se componen de un número diferente de etapas (sin normalización), lo que puede dificultar el análisis estadístico posterior (comparaciones).
Implicaciones prácticas: Al conceptualizar el concepto de co-creación, los gestores turísticos pueden utilizar el resultado de este estudio para convertir sus experiencias en más respetuosas con el medio ambiente y para mejorar el proceso creativo de las mismas.
Los resultados de la investigación no sólo subrayan la importancia de entender la conceptualización de la co-creación de los turistas, sino que también indican la importancia de integrar la creatividad y la conciencia medioambiental en sus experiencias. En particular, el estudio desarrolla un modelo teórico que apoya las dimensiones de la co-creación que pueden aplicarse en el contexto del turismo gastronómico y enológico.
Este estudio llena el vacío existente en la literatura sobre la co-creación en turismo y su aplicación a entornos gastronómicos y enológicos, destacando la importancia de la co-creación en el desarrollo de experiencias en los negocios turísticos.
co-creación, Experiencias gastronómicas, Turismo, Perspectiva de demanda, Análisis de contenido
Tipo de papel
Trabajo de investigación
The purpose of this paper is to understand the main perceived impacts of overtourism in Portugal and the reactions of tourism stakeholders in the main Portuguese cities…
The purpose of this paper is to understand the main perceived impacts of overtourism in Portugal and the reactions of tourism stakeholders in the main Portuguese cities, especially the host.
This study uses a qualitative approach, based on the analysis of news published in Portuguese newspapers between March 2018 and March 2019, applying Bardin’s (2011) content analysis and matching with the theory as proposed by Laville and Dionne (1999).
The study reveals that the main perceived impacts are the evictions and transformation of old residence into short-term rentals (e.g. Airbnb) and small hotels, besides other impacts such as garbage in the streets, gentrification, loss of security and others.
The study considered the period of one year, being a limitation of analysis for contexts within that period, as well as the possible partiality of how the context of overtourism is dealt by newspapers.
This study seeks to understand the context of overtourism and its perception by the hosts and aims to present a basis of tourism planning for public and private sector stakeholders, in order to provide a better visit experience to the tourist, without losing the hosts’ quality of life.
Studies using newspapers as sources of data are rare. The newspapers are considered local witnesses; therefore, they bear important information for several purposes, not just for tourism but for other realities or contexts.
This study analyses the dimensions of cocreation in on-site food-related activities.
A systematic literature review was conducted in two databases (Scopus and Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science), and 67 peer-reviewed articles were identified on cocreation in tourism experiences.
The study reveals that food-related activities involving active participation are more likely to be successfully performed in more informal environments, in which culinary experiences cocreated by both tourists and hosts are favoured. Moreover, tourists who learn something new appreciate the value of cocreation within food tourism experiences better.
Although the researchers used two renowned databases to conduct the systematic literature review, there is the risk that some manuscripts related to the topic were excluded.
The transfer of new skills and knowledge through direct contact between tourists and hosts are prerequisites for the raise of the value of the cocreation process itself and of the final outcome of the cocreation experience. As a result, professional service providers should dedicate more attention to the inclusion of cocreative ‘learning’ elements in the food tourism experiences they create.
Due to the changing structure of the tourism ecosystem (technological advances), the manner in which experiences are designed, distributed and consumed (cocreated) is being transformed. The present study highlights some aspects to be developed by tourism destination managers.
This study is the first to explore food-related tourism experiences through the lens of cocreation.
This paper aims to conduct a review of the literature published, between 2006 and 2018, that used search engine data on tourism and hospitality research, namely, Google…
This paper aims to conduct a review of the literature published, between 2006 and 2018, that used search engine data on tourism and hospitality research, namely, Google Insights for Search and Google Trends. More specifically, it intends to identify the purpose and context of the data use, ascertaining the main findings and reviewing the methodological approaches.
A systematic literature review of Scopus indexed research has been carried out. Given the novelty of search engine data use in tourism and hospitality research and the relatively low number of search results in Scopus, other databases were used to broaden the scope of analysis, namely, EBSCO and Google Scholar. The papers selected were subjected to content and statistical analyses.
Google Trends data use in tourism and hospitality research has increased significantly from 2012 to 2017, mainly for tourism forecasting/nowcasting; knowing the interest of users’ searches for tourist attractions or destinations; showing the relationship between the official tourism statistics and the search volume index of Google Trends; and estimating the effect of one event on tourism demand. The categories and search terms used vary with the purpose of the study; however, they mostly focus on the travel category and use the country as the search term.
Google Trends has been increasingly used in research publications in tourism and hospitality, but the range of its applications and methods used has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, a systematic review of the existing literature increases awareness of its potential uses in tourism and hospitality research and facilitates a better understanding of its strengths and weaknesses as a research tool.
本文回顾2006年至2018年发表文献使用酒店旅游相关的搜索引擎数据, 即Google Insights for Search 以及Google Trends。确切地说, 本文旨在研究数据使用目的和背景, 归纳主要研究成果和研究方法。
本文采用Scopus索引, 由于旅游酒店领域使用搜索引擎数据的文献较少, Scopus搜索结果样本量较低, 本文扩展到其他数据库, 即EBSCO以及Google Scholar。选定的样本文献采用文本分析和统计分析法。
旅游酒店领域中对Google Trends数据使用的增加主要集中在2012年到2017年, 主要研究领域有（1）旅游预测/即时预报；（2）了解用户搜索旅游景点或目的地的需求；（3）官方旅游数据和Google Trends搜索量索引之间的关系；以及（4）评估大事件对旅游需求的影响。文献归类和搜索名词根据研究目的而不同。然而, 大多数文章使用‘旅游’归类以及使用国家作为搜索关键词。
Google Trends在酒店旅游领域研究中的使用逐渐增加, 但是据作者所知, 其应用的范畴和方法仍处在起步阶段。因此, 对现有文献的系统回顾可以提高对其在旅游酒店领域中应用的认知, 并且本文结果使其作为研究工具的优劣分析更深理解。
Google Trends, Google insights for search, 搜索引擎数据, 旅游酒店研究, 系统文献回顾
This paper aims to present a framework to analyse whether information published on social media is accessible for people with disabilities (PwD), namely, visual and…
This paper aims to present a framework to analyse whether information published on social media is accessible for people with disabilities (PwD), namely, visual and hearing disabilities, with an application to a music festival.
The methodology used in this exploratory study consists of establishing a recommended framework to assess social media accessibility for PwD, especially for people with visual and hearing disabilities (PwVHD), and analyse, through an observation grid, if the information published on the official pages of the “Rock in Rio Lisboa” music festival on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube is accessible for this target audience.
The results indicate that, although the Rock in Rio Lisboa music festival is promoted as a festival for all, posts on social media are not accessible for people with visual and/or hearing disabilities and do not meet most of the defined parameters established in the proposed assessment framework.
Social media accessibility has not been analysed in previous research in the tourism context. This paper aims to fill in the void by establishing criteria and parameters that can serve as a basis for a framework for accessibility assessment in social media for PwVHD.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro as a blended tourism destination (TD) image, by examining the categories of the image…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro as a blended tourism destination (TD) image, by examining the categories of the image, and whether it is positive or negative and cognitive or affective.
A quantitative approach was employed to verify the relations between the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro by visit, location, categories and subcategories and dimensions. Data were collected online from a “snowball” sample and were analyzed applying non-parametric hypothesis testing. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 25.0 for Windows.
Results reveal that respondents share the same image of the city of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil, a conclusion that is partially confirmed by statistical findings. The quantitative results also showed that the image is positive and “natural attractions” and “unique city attractions” are, respectively, the most mentioned subcategory and category. Cognitive attributes of the image have been more mentioned than affective ones.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro as a blended TD image has never been explored before, however, it has been assumed as being the same.