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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2021

Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan

While the financial relief efforts are struggling to keep up with the COVID-19 outbreak, there is a need for the diffusion of e-Zakat initiatives and work with fintech if…

Abstract

Purpose

While the financial relief efforts are struggling to keep up with the COVID-19 outbreak, there is a need for the diffusion of e-Zakat initiatives and work with fintech if governments truly strive to ensure that most vulnerable do not fall behind. The newly launched e-system – popularly known as ZAKATY (e-portal and smartphone application) – in Saudi Arabia is an example worth attention and study on how well people can accept and use the system and Zakat payer-centric e-services, especially amid such uncertain times. The purpose of this study is to explore how an extended unified model of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) can induce users to adopt the ZAKATY e-services provided by the General Authority of Zakat and Tax during this unprecedented challenge to pay Zakat online in an easy, fast and reliable way.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a quantitative approach through an online administered survey, a total of 479 usable responses from individual Zakat payers were obtained using snowball sampling and analyzed through smart partial least squares (SmartPLS) software.

Findings

This study confirms the suitability and utility of the UTAUT model used in predicting Zakat payers’ intention to adopt the e-Zakat system and its services, indicating that the model possesses 72% of the predictive capability to explain variance in intentions. It also shows that all UTAUT constructs (i.e. performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions) were statistically significant, except for effort expectancy. Online trust exerted a significant moderating effect on the relationship between UTAUT constructs and users’ intentions to uptake the system’s online services amid COVID-19.

Practical implications

To keep pace with rapid digital transformations amid the pandemic, Zakat institutions, as governmental entities, are likely pursuing to identify the main determinants that influence people’s intentions to engage in adopting e-Zakat services. This could be eventually translated into maximizing the proceeds of Zakat funds by developing ICT-based infrastructure and introducing reliable and efficient e-services that can be adopted by users.

Originality/value

Given the scarce literature on the relevance of e-Zakat systems’ adoption, this work could serve as a building block and springboard for literature and future research by empirically examining an extended framework derived from the UTAUT theory in the Zakat context.

Details

foresight, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2021

Ascarya Ascarya

This study aims to propose Islamic solutions to the Covid-19 health and economic crises, specifically using Islamic social finance (ISF) instruments, including zakat

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose Islamic solutions to the Covid-19 health and economic crises, specifically using Islamic social finance (ISF) instruments, including zakat, infaq and waqf.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies the qualitative content analysis method, guided by a model of composite approaches of poverty alleviation in Islam, integrated Islamic commercial and social finance (IICSF) and crisis management of Umar bin Khattab, to construct various programs and/or policy actions toward economic recovery in Indonesia.

Findings

The results show that ISF with its instruments, especially zakat, infaq and waqf could help the government and the economy to recover from the crisis. The proposed solutions include: save lives, including medical assistance using zakat-infaq and health-care waqf using waqf; save households, by creating a social safety net and graduation program using zakat-infaq; save businesses, especially micro-small enterprises (MSEs), through financial and business assistance (especially digital marketing) leveraging zakat-infaq-waqf and save financial institutions, especially micro-small financial institutions, by the development of cash waqf and the adoption of fintech and IICSF, especially in Islamic financial institutions targeting MSEs.

Research limitations/implications

This study is exploratory in nature, which needs further investigations using more sophisticated qualitative and/or quantitative methods.

Practical implications

If the above programs using ISF instruments are implemented, the economic surplus would be re-established and the acceleration of economic recovery can be realized.

Social implications

The successful adoption of ISF could at the same time reduce poverty, accelerate MSEs development and improve equitable well-being.

Originality/value

The Covid-19 pandemic has caused health, economic and social problems, which must be solved holistically, including ISF within IICSF.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Naji Mansour Nomran and Razali Haron

There is much debate in the literature about how the performance of Islamic banks (IBs) should be measured. Basically, IBs’ business models are different from that of…

Abstract

Purpose

There is much debate in the literature about how the performance of Islamic banks (IBs) should be measured. Basically, IBs’ business models are different from that of conventional banks; thus, the performance of IBs should be measured by using a Sharīʿah-based approach. This paper considers zakat (Islamic tax) as an alternative indicator to measure the performance of IBs. This paper aims to examine whether zakat ratios can be used as Islamic performance (ISPER) indicators for IBs besides the conventional performance (COPER) indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation covered a sample of 214 yearly observations of 37 IBs located in Indonesia, Malaysia, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates for the period 2007–2015. This study used a single-factor congeneric model and confirmatory factor analysis, performed using the AMOS 23.0 software.

Findings

The findings assert that the discriminant validity of multi-bank performance, as measured by ISPER [zakat on assets (ZOA) and zakat on equity (ZOE)] and COPER indicators (return on assets, return on equity and operational efficiency in terms of assets), is very high. Hence, ISPER and COPER measurements are valid, either together to measure the multi-performance of IBs from both the Islamic and conventional perspectives, or independently as each measurement is valid to measure the Islamic and conventional performance if it is used separately.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not investigate whether the findings are constant across time. This represents one of the limitations of this study.

Practical implications

It is strongly recommended that IBs calculate and disclose zakat ratios, particularly ZOA and ZOE, in their annual reports. Researchers and academicians should use these ratios for measuring the ISPER of IBs, either along with COPER or separately.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence is provided in this paper on the development and validity of zakat ratios as ISPER indicators in the Islamic banking industry. Zakat ratios are suitable indicators that can measure IBs’ performance and achieve the goals of IBs as well as those of Islamic economics. Technically, zakat has a dynamic ability to reflect the profitability of IBs. The more the IBs generate profit, the more they pay zakat. Furthermore, the greater the total assets of IBs, the higher the amount of zakat that they should pay. Thus, zakat ratios can be used as profitability measurements as in the case of tax ratios.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Pg Mohd Faezul Fikri Ag Omar, Haneffa Muchlis Gazali, Mohd. Nasir Samsulbahri, Nurul Izzati Abd Razak and Norhamiza Ishak

The purpose of this paper is to deliberate on the establishment of zakat (Islamic alms) on oil and gas in Malaysia. Being one of the five Islamic pillars, zakat

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deliberate on the establishment of zakat (Islamic alms) on oil and gas in Malaysia. Being one of the five Islamic pillars, zakat contributes significantly to the country’s socio-economic development and prosperity. However, in Malaysia and other Islamic countries, there is not yet a proper mechanism for calculating zakat on extracted minerals. Similar to gold and silver, oil and gas are valuable minerals, which, upon extraction, are subject to zakat payment. In Malaysia, however, this is not the case.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative method. It presents a thorough review on the stipulation for paying zakat on minerals, specifically oil and gas. The deliberation is based on secondary data entailing a comprehensive content analysis of prominent books on the subject, current zakat rulings and legal acts on oil and gas.

Findings

Oil and gas are subject to zakat payment, as indicated in several Qur’anic verses and based on the academic reasoning of Muslim scholars. The zakat calculation for oil and gas entails the nisab (minimum threshold value of the assets) but not the hawl (the requirement for one full Islamic year of ownership for the assets), by analogy with zakat on agricultural produce. Despite the obligation to pay zakat on minerals under the zakat al-mal (alms due on wealth) category, oil and gas is yet to be fully subject to this practice in Malaysia, although the country is known as an oil-producing Muslim country. Several legislative acts covering the managerial and business side of oil and gas operations have long been established, but the provision on zakat remains unclear. Hence, comprehensive legislation is needed to fine-tune the Malaysian oil and gas system, particularly with regard to zakat.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies mainly on secondary data and literature without performing any empirical investigations.

Practical implications

In terms of academic implication, this study enriches the existing body of knowledge on zakat. Practical implications would include enhanced decision-making concerning zakat on oil and gas on the part of zakat institutions, policymakers and the government of Malaysia.

Originality/value

This study provides practical and academic contributions to the deep understanding of zakat on oil and gas, which has received very little attention in the existing body of literature. Despite being limited in literature, this is a breakthrough study that sheds light on zakat on oil and gas.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Mutamimah Mutamimah, Suryani Alifah, Gunawan Gunawan and Made Dwi Adnjani

This paper aims to propose a framework for information and communication technology (ICT)-based collaborative zakat management to improve zakat management in Indonesia…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a framework for information and communication technology (ICT)-based collaborative zakat management to improve zakat management in Indonesia, especially in collection, distribution and empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used a constructive method that used the 3 C (communication, coordination and cooperation) model to develop a framework. This included initial assessment of the current usage of ICT in zakat management and the expectation of collaborative zakat management through in-depth interviews and questionnaires. A focus group discussion was conducted to validate the model.

Findings

ICT is currently used for the administration of zakat management, providing zakat online services and reporting zakat to the public; ICT is not used for collaboration. The proposed collaboration using the 3 C model consists of communication, coordination and cooperation. The focus group discussion validates the proposed ICT-based collaboration framework as an effective strategy for increasing zakat management.

Practical implications

The results highlight strengthening institutional capacity and decreasing overlaps in zakat collection, distribution and empowerment. Zakat institutions need to restructure and reconstruct business processes based on ICT collaboration, and government must provide regulations and ICT infrastructure.

Social implications

The results increase equity and capacity in zakat distribution and empowerment, therefore it can improve poverty alleviation.

Originality/value

The potential and usage of ICT for collaboration among zakat management organisations have not been thoroughly explored. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for collaboration among zakat institutions using ICT to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of zakat management.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan, Hijattulah Abdul-Jabbar and Saliza Abdul Aziz

Although zakat is a principal way to redistribute wealth, a unique practice designed to achieve a sustainable Islamic economic and social system, zakat institutions and…

Abstract

Purpose

Although zakat is a principal way to redistribute wealth, a unique practice designed to achieve a sustainable Islamic economic and social system, zakat institutions and agencies in most Muslim countries still suffer from the perplexing issue of low zakat collections, ascribing this to the level of compliance among zakat payers. To provide more insight into this lacuna, this study aims to examine the role of trust in zakat institution through the relationship between socio-economic determinants (i.e. religiosity, moral reasoning, peer influence and system fairness) and zakat compliance decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

From a typical Islamic country, Yemen, a random sample of 274 entrepreneurs was drawn for a self-administered survey. To estimate and analyze the compliance model, SmartPLS structural equation modeling was used.

Findings

The results show that all hypothesized direct relationships are supported. Importantly, the trust-moderated interactions of religiosity, moral reasoning and peer influence on zakat compliance are significant, although its interaction with zakat system fairness is not.

Practical implications

The results should be helpful for policymakers and responsible institutions in Muslim communities to understand how different levels of trust can play an important role in Zakat payers’ compliance to boost or erode zakat funds. This research also contributes important inferences for managers about the necessity of inculcating religious and moral values among zakat payers, formulating a fair system and embarking on sensitization programs in society.

Originality/value

The research enriches the scanty literature by validating a viable compliance model drawing on the socio-economic theory of regulatory compliance. Moreover, the model integrates the moderating role of trust in socio-economic perspectives of zakat compliance.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Aziz Ur Rehman, Ejaz Aslam and Anam Iqbal

This study aims to apply the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB) to investigate the factors influencing the intention to give zakāt on employment income.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB) to investigate the factors influencing the intention to give zakāt on employment income.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws the required data through a survey in three main cities Makkah, Medina and Jeddah in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The final data sample is consisting of 650 useable questionnaires to analyse the objective of this study.

Findings

The study finds that moral norm, injunctive norm, descriptive norm and past behaviour have a significant influence on the intention to pay zakāt on employment income. The perceived behavioural control and attitude have a negative and weak impact on the intention to give zakāt on income.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study can be useful for the policymakers and regulators to enhance peoples' awareness to give zakāt to eradicate poverty and inequality in Muslim societies. zakāt is for the deprived people, so the consequences of this study might help to improve their liveability.

Originality/value

This study is unique because it identified the behavioural factors that affect the peoples' intention to give zakāt in KSA have yet to be profoundly explored in the literature. This study has gathered primary data and applied the ETPB to identify the factors influencing the zakāt compliance behaviour in KSA.

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Muneer M. Alshater, Ram Al Jaffri Saad, Norazlina Abd. Wahab and Irum Saba

This paper aims to develop a meaningful single-source reference for Islamic economics and finance scholars concerning zakat intellectual structure published in journals…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a meaningful single-source reference for Islamic economics and finance scholars concerning zakat intellectual structure published in journals indexed by the Scopus database.

Design/methodology/approach

The bibliometric method is used to describe and analyze the evolution of publication structure and its various co-relations such as co-citation, co-authorship and bibliographical coupling.

Findings

The authors discuss the influential and conceptual aspects of the published literature on zakat. An interesting finding is that few papers have received more than 50 citations. The analysis revealed that the Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research is the most cited source. Nevertheless, the list of the eight most cited papers reflects that research in this field is still dearth. Further, the authors find that zakat is discussed within the context of religion, its institutional framework, its role to eradicate poverty and distribution management of zakat. The authors also identify and present 14 research directions that will further stimulate scholarly work in the zakat field.

Research limitations/implications

The study confines on English papers and reviews published in journals indexed by the Scopus database only; hence, the study is representative of the moderate and high-quality papers published in this area of knowledge.

Practical implications

Researchers envision that this bibliometric study will complement meta-analysis and qualitative structured literature reviews as a method of reviewing and evaluating the scientific literature of this study area; thus, this may help researchers for futuristic research directions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to tackle the zakat area from a bibliometric aspect. The authors believe that this will help scholars and researchers to stand on firm bases regarding the scientific development of this area of study.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Jessie P.H. Poon, Yew Wah Chow, Michael Ewers and Trina Hamilton

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of Shariah board members and managerial networking on zakat observance among executives of Islamic financial firms…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of Shariah board members and managerial networking on zakat observance among executives of Islamic financial firms (IFFs) in Bahrain and Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on surveys administered to 106 respondents and personal interviews conducted with individuals holding management positions in IFFs.

Findings

The paper finds that: networking among IFF executives in Bahrain positively influences their observance and perception of zakat in their firms; and higher representation of Shariah on the board of directors increases executives’ favorable perception and observance of zakat in Malaysia. Differences in findings may be explained by Bahrain’s global Shariah institutions where networking offers opportunities for socialization of zakat ethics. In Malaysia, on the other hand, Shariah directorship sets the pace and direction of zakat ethics.

Originality/value

The seminal work of DiMaggio and Powell (1991) on neo-institutional theory has drawn attention to executives’ agency in creating cognitive frameworks that help promote the development of firm standards and norms. However, application of the theory to Islamic finance is largely absent. This paper contributes to an empirical understanding of the theory by highlighting sources of IFFs’ social agency in the development of zakat norm and its observance, namely, managerial networking and Shariah directors as change agents.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Fahmi Ali Hudaefi, Rezzy Eko Caraka and Hairunnizam Wahid

Zakat during the COVID-19 outbreak has played a vital role and has been significantly discussed in the virtual environment. Such information about zakat in the virtual…

Abstract

Purpose

Zakat during the COVID-19 outbreak has played a vital role and has been significantly discussed in the virtual environment. Such information about zakat in the virtual world creates unstructured data, which contains important information and knowledge. This paper aims to discover knowledge related to zakat administration during the pandemic from the information in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the discussion is contextualised to the socio-economic debates.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative study operated via text mining to discover knowledge of zakat administration during the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Board of Zakat Republic of Indonesia (BAZNAS RI) is selected for a single case study. This paper samples BAZNAS RI’s situation report on COVID-19 from its virtual website. The data consists of 40 digital pages containing 19,812 characters, 3,004 words and 3,003 white spaces. The text mining analytical steps are performed via RStudio. The following R packages, networkD3, igraph, ggraph and ggplot2 are used to run the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for topic modelling.

Findings

The machine learning analysis via RStudio results in the 16 topics associated with the 3 primary topics (i.e. Education, Sadaqah and Health Services). The topic modelling discovers knowledge about BAZNAS RI’s assistance for COVID-19 relief, which may help the readers understand zakat administration in times of the pandemic from BAZNAS RI’s virtual website. This finding may draw the theory of socio-economic zakat, which explains that zakat as a religious obligation plays a critical role in shaping a Muslim community's social and economic processes, notably during the unprecedented times of COVID-19.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses data from a single zakat institution. Thus, the generalisation of the finding is limited to the sampled institution.

Practical implications

This research is both theoretically and practically important for academics and industry professionals. This paper contributes to the novelty in performing text mining via R in gaining knowledge about the recent zakat administration from a virtual website. The finding of this study (i.e. the topic modelling) is practically essential for zakat stakeholders to understand the contribution of zakat in managing the COVID-19 impacts.

Social implications

This work derives a theory of “socio-economic zakat” that explains the importance of a zakat institution in activating zakat for managing socio-economic issues during the pandemic. Thus, paying zakat to an authorised institution may actualise more maslahah (public interest) compared to paying it directly to the asnaf (zakat beneficiaries) without any measurement

Originality/value

This study is among the pioneers in gaining knowledge from Indonesia’s zakat management during the COVID-19 outbreak via text mining. The authors’ way of analysing data from the virtual website using RStudio can advance Islamic economics literature.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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