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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Khurram Parvez Raja

The Sharīʿah Standard No. (35) issued by the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) aims to identify the zakāt base for…

Abstract

Purpose

The Sharīʿah Standard No. (35) issued by the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) aims to identify the zakāt base for institutions (including Islamic insurance companies) as well as the subsidiary and the mother company of the institution (the company). By zakāt base, the standard means the items of financial statements that should or should not be included in the calculation of the zakāt base, and the liabilities or allocations that should or should not be deducted from zakatable assets. The standard also covers payable zakāt rates, disbursement of zakāt funds on the eight categories of zakāt recipients and the rulings pertaining to disbursement. The focus then is on companies or corporations. There is no indication in the aims as to who owns the wealth of the corporation, that is, whether it is the company itself or it is the shareholders and whether it is treated as a joint wealth of the shareholders or of a single individual in the form of the company. The author will rely on this issue as one factor on the basis of which the standard is to be judged.

Design/methodology/approach

Quran and hadith. Works of earlier jurists.

Findings

In this study, the author has summarized the provisions of zakāt according to the traditional law, but only those that are relevant for the financial institutions and the standard issued by the AAOIFI. After that, the author mentioned the major points that have been addressed by the standard. In the last section, the author has shown that the rulings of the Islamic Fiqh Academy and the AAOIFI on zakāt are totally confusing and merely a reproduction of the rulings of traditional law. The main reason for this confusion is that the nature and entity of a corporation have not been addressed and have been treated like a partnership, thus, jumbling up the entire issue of zakāt through banks.

Originality/value

The main purpose in undertaking this original work is to examine the AAOIFI Sharīʿah Standards from the perspective of traditional Islamic law, that is, the law of the senior schools as laid down in their authentic manuals. If there is an extensive deviation from this law, then this must be pointed out in the hope that it will be corrected by the concerned institution and the banks that adopt these standards. Neglecting such a corrective action for long will result in damage not only to these institutions in the long run but also to the law of Islam that has been so carefully crafted over centuries. The purpose is to show how far this standard deviates from traditional Islamic law and claims to be called the authentic view on a particular subject. Nevertheless, it is not the purpose of this work to explain and elaborate on the meaning and utility of these standards.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Muhammad Akhyar Adnan and Nur Barizah Abu Bakar

The purpose of this paper is to review the accounting treatments for corporate zakat, as advocated by accounting standards and guidelines, as well as those been practised…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the accounting treatments for corporate zakat, as advocated by accounting standards and guidelines, as well as those been practised by relevant corporations. The aim is to determine their appropriateness and adherence to both the Islamic as well as the accounting theoretical perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Accounting standards and guidelines related to zakat, including the Financial Accounting Standard No. 9 and the Technical Release i‐1, are examined. Additionally, analyses are made on the practices of Islamic financial institutions to determine their compliance with both standards and ontological aspects of zakat.

Findings

The study reveals that there is a general misconception of zakat, as indicated in several standards and guidelines, which has consequently resulted in inappropriateness in their proposed corporate zakat recognition and measurement and hence presentations. These inaccuracies, in one way or another, have not been in line with the true spirit of zakat in Islam. More worryingly, some unfavorable consequences may and in fact have already been implicated on the larger Muslim community as a result.

Research limitations/implications

An alternative view on the accounting treatment of corporate zakat is offered in this paper with the aim to provide a fair and proper assessment of zakat on corporate wealth, which is more parallel to the true spirit of zakat.

Originality/value

The paper integrates both the revealed and the contemporary accounting knowledge in scrutinizing the standards and practices as well as in recommending an improved and meaningful alternative.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Habib Ahmed and Ak Md Hasnol Alwee Pg Md Salleh

This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework of inclusive Islamic financial planning (IFP) by combining the traditional Islamic institutions of zakat and awqaf with…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework of inclusive Islamic financial planning (IFP) by combining the traditional Islamic institutions of zakat and awqaf with contemporary notions of financial planning, financial inclusion and financial literacy that caters to the short-term and long-term financial goals of the poor.

Design/methodology/approach

Being a conceptual article, an inclusive IFP framework is described, analyzed and developed by integrating modern notions of financial inclusion, financial planning and financial literacy with the concepts of zakat and awqaf.

Findings

Using the notion of a hierarchy of needs and a financial planning model, an inclusive IFP framework that can be used by the poor is outlined. The complementary role of the non-poor households who provide funds for zakat and awqaf is also identified.

Research limitations/implications

The applicability of an inclusive IFP would require Islamic financial instruments and products, institutional development and existence of a social planner who can integrate zakat, awqaf and financial planning to serve the financial needs of the poor.

Social implications

Application of an inclusive IFP that can mitigate poverty would necessitate integrating financial planning skills and knowledge with traditional institutions of zakat and awqaf to provide holistic financial advice and services to the poor households.

Originality/value

Discussion of financial planning in financial inclusion literature is scant. The paper explores and offers a novel approach of poverty mitigation by utilizing the full spectrum of IFP that considers the financial needs and allows for the creation of a personalized financial plan for low-income households.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2019

Rahman Saleh Rahmat and Mohamad Soleh Nurzaman

This study aims to assess the feasibility of zakat distribution conducted by zakat community development program, one of the BAZNAS programs in Bringinsari village…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the feasibility of zakat distribution conducted by zakat community development program, one of the BAZNAS programs in Bringinsari village, Sukorejo subdistrict, Kendal Regency, Central Java using the zakat village index (IDZ).

Design/methodology/approach

IDZ has five components in measuring the effectiveness of charity for the welfare of the community is the economic dimension, the dimension of education, dimension of health, social dimension of humanity and dimensions of da’wah. The economic dimension consists of four variables, namely, the presence of productive economic activities, trade centers and access to transportation and logistics services and the presence of access to financial institutions.

Findings

Based on IDZ measurement in Bringinsari village, it is found that IDZ of this village is 0.47. It showed that the condition of the village is good enough. As the result of this calculation, Bringinsari village is under consideration to receive zakat funding.

Research limitations/implications

This research will be done in Bringinsari village Sukorejo district, Kendal regency from April 1, 2018 until July 2, 2018.

Practical implications

Based on the result of IDZ result done in Bringinsari Sukorejo district, Kendal regency, it is gained index calculation result for about 0.47. Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the village deserves to get zakat funding. Economic dimension is still low, 0.32. Therefore, in this case, a motivation to help villagers is needed. The exact program in improving the people in Bringinsari based on priority is economic, health, education program in accordance with IDZ calculation.

Social implications

The welfare measurement of zakat receiver or mustahiq adopts welfare index (CIBEST). CIBEST model combines material and spiritual fulfillment of human needs quadrants. This index is split into four categories, namely, welfare, material poverty, spiritual poverty and absolute poverty (Puskas BAZNAS, 2016).

Originality/value

Based on measurement result that has been obtained, the authors can recommend some program activities to help improving their welfare. There are three dimensions, which IDZ prioritized or considered to be assisted, such as economic dimension, activity program for housewives. If Bringinsari has got an indicator as a good village and the impact is good as well, therefore, it can try to move zakat fund distribution to other villages.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Pg Mohd Faezul Fikri Ag Omar, Haneffa Muchlis Gazali, Mohd. Nasir Samsulbahri, Nurul Izzati Abd Razak and Norhamiza Ishak

The purpose of this paper is to deliberate on the establishment of zakat (Islamic alms) on oil and gas in Malaysia. Being one of the five Islamic pillars, zakat

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deliberate on the establishment of zakat (Islamic alms) on oil and gas in Malaysia. Being one of the five Islamic pillars, zakat contributes significantly to the country’s socio-economic development and prosperity. However, in Malaysia and other Islamic countries, there is not yet a proper mechanism for calculating zakat on extracted minerals. Similar to gold and silver, oil and gas are valuable minerals, which, upon extraction, are subject to zakat payment. In Malaysia, however, this is not the case.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative method. It presents a thorough review on the stipulation for paying zakat on minerals, specifically oil and gas. The deliberation is based on secondary data entailing a comprehensive content analysis of prominent books on the subject, current zakat rulings and legal acts on oil and gas.

Findings

Oil and gas are subject to zakat payment, as indicated in several Qurʾānic verses and based on the academic reasoning of Muslim scholars. The zakat calculation for oil and gas entails the nisāb (minimum threshold value of the assets) but not the ḥawl (the requirement for one full Islamic year of ownership for the assets), by analogy with zakat on agricultural produce. Despite the obligation to pay zakat on minerals under the zakāt al-māl (alms due on wealth) category, oil and gas is yet to be fully subject to this practice in Malaysia, although the country is known as an oil-producing Muslim country. Several legislative acts covering the managerial and business side of oil and gas operations have long been established, but the provision on zakat remains unclear. Hence, comprehensive legislation is needed to fine-tune the Malaysian oil and gas system, particularly with regard to zakat.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies mainly on secondary data and literature without performing any empirical investigations.

Practical implications

In terms of academic implication, this study enriches the existing body of knowledge on zakat. Practical implications would include enhanced decision-making concerning zakat on oil and gas on the part of zakat institutions, policymakers and the government of Malaysia.

Originality/value

This study provides practical and academic contributions to the deep understanding of zakat on oil and gas, which has received very little attention in the existing body of literature. Despite being limited in literature, this is a breakthrough study that sheds light on zakat on oil and gas.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2022

Md. Karimul Islam, Shayyada Tunnesha Mitu, Riaz Munshi and Rabeya Khanam

A nationwide common malpractice in Zakat distribution has been prevailing in Bangladesh for the past few decades. The paper is a groundbreaking effort to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

A nationwide common malpractice in Zakat distribution has been prevailing in Bangladesh for the past few decades. The paper is a groundbreaking effort to investigate the perceptions of the Zakat payers about the common malpractices and to highlight whether any change in the conventional distribution of Zakat has occurred during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study also aims to extract the common perception of the Zakat payers regarding the validity of the changed practices during the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the qualitative research approach allowing an in-depth interview technique based on an unstructured questionnaire schedule to obtain information from the Zakat payers, complemented by the key informant interview with the Islamic Scholars. The study obtained data from Zakat payers administering a purposive sampling technique based on two specified criteria. After coding the information on three main themes, content analysis is used to examine the results.

Findings

The results reveal that although the Zakat payers dislike the common practices because of some antithetical issues, they still practice the same customs. Moreover, they apportion most of the value of Zakat in purchasing low-quality festive-motive clothes for the recipients. They are ignorant about Islamic law and the validity of such practices. According to scholars, these activities are not a pure system of Zakat provision and unable to alleviate poverty. Amid the Covid-19 pandemic, this practice shifted heavily to buying food items for the poor due to the financial hurdles they confronted during the pandemic. Although no solid argument is deduced from the participants about the exactitude of such distributional change, scholars regard the transformation as beneficial to the afflicted and the impoverished who have been hit by the pandemic, as well as not conflicting with the Zakat legislation.

Practical implications

The study is a novel contribution to addressing the malpractice in Zakat distribution through receiving practical information from the Zakat payers, which will help produce more in-depth research in Islamic finance. Furthermore, this research will help the government and people raise awareness about the authentic practices of Zakat distribution according to the codes of Shari’ah.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering investigation since a scarcity of scholarly works attempted to identify the impact of Covid-19 on the practice of Zakat distribution and the associated perception regarding its Islamic jurisprudence. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the investigation of common malpractices of Zakat is still unearthed by no former rigorous studies in the context of Bangladesh. The present study bridges this gap and paves a pragmatic research dimension in the Islamic finance.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Tuan Azma Fatiema Tuan Ibrahim, Hafiza Aishah Hashim and Akmalia Mohamad Ariff

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ethical values and performance in the context of the banking sector in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ethical values and performance in the context of the banking sector in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the philanthropic model, this study posits that firms undertaking zakat and charity are ethical firms. Zakat disclosure index (ZDI) and charity disclosure index (CDI) were constructed to measure ethical values. This study hypothesises that ethical values are positively associated with bank performance. Ethical values (i.e. CDI and ZDI) and financial performance data (i.e. return on assets) were collected from the disclosures made in the annual reports of 50 banks for a period of five years (2010-2014).

Findings

A positive association was found between zakat disclosure and bank performance. The results indicate that higher zakat disclosure is associated with greater bank performance. However, no relationship was found between charity disclosure and bank performance.

Research limitations/implications

Considering the limitation of the index used in this study, other dimensions such as corporate governance, sustainability, products and environment can be considered in the development of index to measure ethical values in future studies.

Originality/value

This study offers additional explanation on the relationship between ethical values and performance by examining the role of zakat disclosures that characterize the unique aspects of Malaysian companies.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2022

Aishath Muneeza, Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan, Magda Ismail Abdel Moshin, Ismail Mohamed and Abdelrahman Al-Saadi

This paper aims to examine the existing practice of accepting zakat payments using cryptocurrencies and crypto assets by discussing its Shariah issues.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the existing practice of accepting zakat payments using cryptocurrencies and crypto assets by discussing its Shariah issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This is qualitative research in nature, as unstructured interviews with experts in the field were conducted to understand the existing practice regarding zakat on cryptocurrencies/crypto assets while literature on the topic was reviewed to derive conclusions.

Findings

It is found that there are divergent views among contemporary Shariah scholars on the Shariah permissibility of cryptocurrency and crypto assets. As such, by evaluating the existing practices of some companies, this study has concluded that there is room to pay zakat using cryptocurrencies and from investments made on crypto assets. As long as they have been screened and classified as Shariah-compliant, they can be qualified to be part of one’s wealth from which zakat shall be paid. However, the findings of this research shall be subject to the fatwa and rules adopted in the specific jurisdiction in which the zakat payer resides. Laws made by the ruler to benefit the public ought to be considered in upholding the masalih (public interests) of all, which is in line with the legal maxim of “tasarruf al imam manut bi al-maslahah” (the ruler’s decision is dictated in favor of the people).

Originality/value

It is anticipated that the findings of this research will benefit zakat organizations and zakat payers in understanding how they should deal with cryptocurrencies and crypto assets in the collection and payment of zakat.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Wan Amalina Wan Abdullah, Majella Percy and Jenny Stewart

The paper aims to contribute to the discussion on Shari'ah governance systems by examining the extent of disclosure on the Shari'ah Supervisory Board (SSB) as well as the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to contribute to the discussion on Shari'ah governance systems by examining the extent of disclosure on the Shari'ah Supervisory Board (SSB) as well as the content of the Board's report in the annual reports of 23 Islamic banks in Malaysia and Indonesia. The paper also investigates the disclosures about zakat (Islamic levy).

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a cross-sectional analysis of annual report disclosures in the year 2009. The paper uses both disclosure indices and content analysis to measure the extent of disclosures about SSB and zakat. The paper also tests hypotheses examining the relationship between SSB characteristics and the extent of the SSB-related and zakat disclosures.

Findings

The results indicate that SSB-related and zakat disclosures are still limited, with only four banks disclosing more than half of the SSB Index. What is noticeable is the low level of disclosure on sensitive matters. Among the factors associated with SSB-related disclosures are cross-membership with other SSBs and the expertise of SSB members in accounting, banking, economics or finance

.

Originality/value

Originality/value

The study is the first to provide an in-depth analysis of Shari'ah disclosures in Malaysian and Indonesian Islamic banks. As such, this study makes an important contribution to the debate on Shari'ah governance systems and has implications for regulators and standard setters. The Malaysian and Indonesian standard setters could play an important role in ascertaining appropriate disclosure requirements relating to the SSB as the study suggests that the level of disclosure is less than expected. The evidence also suggests the need for mandatory enforcement of standards on these types of disclosures.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Mutamimah Mutamimah, Suryani Alifah, Gunawan Gunawan and Made Dwi Adnjani

This paper aims to propose a framework for information and communication technology (ICT)-based collaborative zakat management to improve zakat management in Indonesia…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a framework for information and communication technology (ICT)-based collaborative zakat management to improve zakat management in Indonesia, especially in collection, distribution and empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used a constructive method that used the 3 C (communication, coordination and cooperation) model to develop a framework. This included initial assessment of the current usage of ICT in zakat management and the expectation of collaborative zakat management through in-depth interviews and questionnaires. A focus group discussion was conducted to validate the model.

Findings

ICT is currently used for the administration of zakat management, providing zakat online services and reporting zakat to the public; ICT is not used for collaboration. The proposed collaboration using the 3 C model consists of communication, coordination and cooperation. The focus group discussion validates the proposed ICT-based collaboration framework as an effective strategy for increasing zakat management.

Practical implications

The results highlight strengthening institutional capacity and decreasing overlaps in zakat collection, distribution and empowerment. Zakat institutions need to restructure and reconstruct business processes based on ICT collaboration, and government must provide regulations and ICT infrastructure.

Social implications

The results increase equity and capacity in zakat distribution and empowerment, therefore it can improve poverty alleviation.

Originality/value

The potential and usage of ICT for collaboration among zakat management organisations have not been thoroughly explored. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for collaboration among zakat institutions using ICT to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of zakat management.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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