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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Said Adekunle Mikail, Muhammad Ali Jinnah Ahmad and Salami Saheed Adekunle

This paper aims to investigate the utilisation of both zakāh and waqf fund as external resources to ensure micro-takāful services are delivered to underserved communities…

3719

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the utilisation of both zakāh and waqf fund as external resources to ensure micro-takāful services are delivered to underserved communities in an effective and sustainable manner. It also addresses Sharīʿah issues related to the zakāh- and waqf-based model.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a qualitative-based research. It uses both focus group and content analysis approach to gather primary data and identify and interpret relevant secondary data and Sharīʿah concepts in developing the zakāh- and waqf-based micro-takāful model.

Findings

It is discovered throughout the investigation of attributes of beneficiaries of zakāh and waqf institutions as well as micro-takāful scheme that all share commonalities in terms of social securities and socio-economic support to low-income households in societies. The study also finds that the disintegration of zakāh and waqf which form part of the Islamic ecosystem from the micro-takāful model makes it less effective and sustainable.

Originality/value

This study appears as a primitive attempt to discuss and develop a zakāh and waqf-based micro-takāful model with reference to Malaysian jurisdiction.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Nazamul Hoque

This study aims to look into the scope of exploring and promoting business zakah for the enhancement of the well-being of the underprivileged in society.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to look into the scope of exploring and promoting business zakah for the enhancement of the well-being of the underprivileged in society.

Design/methodology/approach

This is mainly a qualitative research conducted using both primary and secondary data. Primary data have been collected from 34 business entrepreneurs in Bangladesh through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The secondary data have been collected from annual reports with a view to calculating business zakah of five business enterprises for providing an indicative picture of prospective volume of business zakah in Bangladesh. Finally, collected qualitative data have been analyzed thematically following the due procedures with a view to addressing the research questions.

Findings

The findings reveal that around thirty five percent of sample entrepreneurs have used business zakah fund for fully and partially financing their social projects. It also reveals that on average annual business zakah fund amounts to nearly 144m BDT (around US$1.7m) per business enterprise. These findings bear clear witness that business zakah has extensive scope and promising prospect to be an instrument of financing social projects aimed at ensuring social well-being of the disadvantaged.

Practical implications

The findings of this research can be used as a guide to promote business zakah to finance social programs aimed at ensuring the well-being of the underprivileged of all societies particularly of Muslim countries representing one-fourth of the world population.

Originality/value

Exploring and promoting business zakah as an initiative of broadening the base of zakah is an innovative move and net addition to the literature of Islamic finance. It contributes greatly to the poverty alleviation movement in the sense that Muslim business entrepreneurs will now find their business zakah fund readily available to finance their social projects aimed at ensuring well-being of the impoverished.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Shifa Mohd Nor, Mariani Abdul-Majid and Siti Nabihah Esrati

This study aims to explore the perceptions of zakah institutions and the intention of society towards the application of blockchain technology in zakah management.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the perceptions of zakah institutions and the intention of society towards the application of blockchain technology in zakah management.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature of this study is qualitative, attempting to indulge into the contribution of Fintech in Islamic social finance. This study uses a mixed-method to gauge the perception of stakeholders. For the quantitative approach, a survey was carried out focussing on zakah receiver and zakah payer. The data then was analysed based on the technology acceptance model. While interview survey with multiple stakeholders (zakah institutions, JAWHAR and university) was conducted to gauge the perception of zakah institutions in using blockchain technology.

Findings

The findings of this study provide a positive view for zakah institutions to embrace the usage of blockchain in its management, however, there are several concern that needs to be addressed.

Practical implications

This study provides new insights to the body of knowledge especially in the zakah management system and Fintech. Besides, from a managerial aspect, this study contributes to the new practices that could be implemented in zakah institutions.

Social implications

Many people lose jobs and income due to the economic turmoil and COVID-19 pandemic, which makes zakah an important Islamic social finance tool to assist in socio-economic development. It is high time for zakah institutions to implement blockchain especially during this pandemic crisis that requires a more contactless approach to ensure health and safety.

Originality/value

This study is important to encourage Islamic social finance institutions to embrace blockchain technology in providing an efficient service to the development of social and economic.

Details

foresight, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Fahmi Ali Hudaefi, Rezzy Eko Caraka and Hairunnizam Wahid

Zakat during the COVID-19 outbreak has played a vital role and has been significantly discussed in the virtual environment. Such information about zakat in the virtual…

Abstract

Purpose

Zakat during the COVID-19 outbreak has played a vital role and has been significantly discussed in the virtual environment. Such information about zakat in the virtual world creates unstructured data, which contains important information and knowledge. This paper aims to discover knowledge related to zakat administration during the pandemic from the information in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the discussion is contextualised to the socio-economic debates.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative study operated via text mining to discover knowledge of zakat administration during the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Board of Zakat Republic of Indonesia (BAZNAS RI) is selected for a single case study. This paper samples BAZNAS RI’s situation report on COVID-19 from its virtual website. The data consists of 40 digital pages containing 19,812 characters, 3,004 words and 3,003 white spaces. The text mining analytical steps are performed via RStudio. The following R packages, networkD3, igraph, ggraph and ggplot2 are used to run the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for topic modelling.

Findings

The machine learning analysis via RStudio results in the 16 topics associated with the 3 primary topics (i.e. Education, Sadaqah and Health Services). The topic modelling discovers knowledge about BAZNAS RI’s assistance for COVID-19 relief, which may help the readers understand zakat administration in times of the pandemic from BAZNAS RI’s virtual website. This finding may draw the theory of socio-economic zakat, which explains that zakat as a religious obligation plays a critical role in shaping a Muslim community's social and economic processes, notably during the unprecedented times of COVID-19.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses data from a single zakat institution. Thus, the generalisation of the finding is limited to the sampled institution.

Practical implications

This research is both theoretically and practically important for academics and industry professionals. This paper contributes to the novelty in performing text mining via R in gaining knowledge about the recent zakat administration from a virtual website. The finding of this study (i.e. the topic modelling) is practically essential for zakat stakeholders to understand the contribution of zakat in managing the COVID-19 impacts.

Social implications

This work derives a theory of “socio-economic zakat” that explains the importance of a zakat institution in activating zakat for managing socio-economic issues during the pandemic. Thus, paying zakat to an authorised institution may actualise more maslahah (public interest) compared to paying it directly to the asnaf (zakat beneficiaries) without any measurement

Originality/value

This study is among the pioneers in gaining knowledge from Indonesia’s zakat management during the COVID-19 outbreak via text mining. The authors’ way of analysing data from the virtual website using RStudio can advance Islamic economics literature.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Fahmi Ali Hudaefi and Irfan Syauqi Beik

Despite the COVID-19 recession, the collection of zakat (almsgiving) managed by the National Board of Zakat Republic of Indonesia (BAZNAS RI) has increased, especially…

1250

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the COVID-19 recession, the collection of zakat (almsgiving) managed by the National Board of Zakat Republic of Indonesia (BAZNAS RI) has increased, especially during Ramaḍān 1441 Hijra. Previous works show a positive relationship between digital zakat campaign and zakat collection. This paper aims to study the means of digital zakat campaign during COVID-19 outbreak. This topic is theoretically and practically important in the emerging debate of Islamic marketing, notably in Islamic social finance field.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a qualitative research approach. A case study is engaged in the selection of BAZNAS RI for a detailed discussion of a zakat organisation. Meanwhile, a netnographic approach is used to analyse the number of 549 posts from BAZNAS RI’s social media, which are Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube. Furthermore, a qualitative software analysis of NVivo 12 Plus is used in performing the analytical procedures.

Findings

This work explains the means of digital zakat campaign during COVID-19 outbreak with a case of BAZNAS RI. It is identified the number of 6 parent nodes and 64 child nodes from the analysis using NVivo 12 Plus. The authors’ parent nodes are “donation”, “infaq” (Islamic spending for charities), “Ramaḍān matters”, “ṣadaqah” (voluntary charity), “virtual events” and “zakat”. These nodes detail digital campaign of BAZNAS RI posted in its social media during COVID-19 period in Ramaḍān. A theoretical implication of inclusive marketing is derived from the analysis. It explains that the inclusiveness of digital contents is practically significant in campaigning zakat as a religious obligation that contributes to social and financial benefits.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not claim a positivist perspective on the relationship between digital zakat campaign and zakat collection. Instead, this paper explores in-depth the practice of digital zakat campaign, which the previous study confirms its association with a muzakki’s (Muslims who are obliged to pay zakat) decision to pay zakat.

Practical implications

This paper establishes the Islamic marketing theory that is derived from industrial practices. The inclusiveness of digital contents in zakat campaign is critical in activating zakat as a religious obligation that authentically shapes the social and economic processes of a Muslim community. This theory is practically important for 'amils (employees) of zakat institution who work in the marketing division, chiefly to create such contents to post in social media.

Social implications

The authors’ node of zakat distribution for COVID-19 relief indicates the importance of a formalised zakat institution to actualise zakat’s role in handling socioeconomic problems. Thus, paying zakat formally in an authorised organisation may contribute to a greater social contribution and maṣlaḥah (public interest) than paying it informally without any effective measurement.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the novelty in the Islamic marketing debate within two folds. First, this paper is among the pioneers in studying digital zakat campaign during COVID-19 outbreak by using a netnographic approach. Therefore, a theoretical implication derived from industrial practices is contributed. Second, this paper details the steps in using NVivo 12 Plus to analyse the unstructured data sampled from the internet. The future studies may thus refer to this work to understand the application of netnography and the procedures in analysing data from social media using this software.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan, Hijattulah Abdul-Jabbar, Saliza Abdul Aziz and Adel Sarea

Although Zakah is the cornerstone of the social protection system in Muslim societies, providing relief to those in need and collecting funds from those who have access to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although Zakah is the cornerstone of the social protection system in Muslim societies, providing relief to those in need and collecting funds from those who have access to money and property, many administrative and legal improvements need to be made to ensure that Zakah funds are managed effectively and efficiently in Muslim states. It is therefore important to recognize why some Muslims are not paying their Zakah through Zakah authorities. The purpose of this paper is to propose a viable and comprehensive research model, derived from an economic and socio-psychological perspective, to provide a richer understanding of Zakah payers’ compliance behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on extant literature, this study offers a conceptual framework for a better understanding of compliance behaviour by proposing an economic and socio-psychological model based on Fischer’s tax compliance model, which could be applied cautiously in an Islamic setting like Zakah.

Findings

The four main categories of the Fischer model are derived from socio-psychological and economic perspectives, namely, attitude and perception (system fairness, ethics and peer influence); Zakah system structure (Zakah law complexity and law enforcement); non-compliance opportunity (education level, wealth source and occupation); and demographic factors (age and gender). Each has much to offer in understanding Zakah payers’ compliance decisions. To suit the nature of Zakah, the influence of Islamic religiosity and the moderating effect of trust in the Zakah institution are incorporated into the model.

Practical implications

Those Muslim communities that strive to have functional Zakah systems to search for solutions to the perennial problem of low Zakah funding and its damning consequences, are offered a compliance model for systematically assessing Muslims’ compliance behaviour with Zakah provisions. This framework is anticipated to offer invaluable input to policymakers in streaming and strategizing the minimization of losses of Zakah revenue to Zakah authorities.

Originality/value

Although behavioural models such as the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behaviour have been extensively used in Zakah compliance studies, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is perhaps the first to apply a socio-psychological and economic framework, emerging from tax literature, in the Zakah environment to develop fully understanding of Zakah payers’ compliance decisions.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan, Hijattulah Abdul-Jabbar, Saliza Abdul Aziz and Alhassan Haladu

As one of the constituted main pillars of Islam, Zakah compliance (ZC) is mandated upon Muslims from all studies of life. Taking the disappointingly low compliance level…

Abstract

Purpose

As one of the constituted main pillars of Islam, Zakah compliance (ZC) is mandated upon Muslims from all studies of life. Taking the disappointingly low compliance level in developing countries, including Yemen, as its backdrop, the purpose of this study is to investigate ZC behavior among entrepreneurs, drawing on the economic approach perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a cross-sectional design based on a survey of entrepreneurs in Yemen. It used primary data collected via self-administered questionnaires, involving a sample of 500 participants. A variance-based structural modeling equation-partial least squares were used to measure the instruments and assess the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The findings affirmed the suitability of the economic factors approaches in the context of ZC in a developing country. Specifically, the study demonstrated that Zakah law complexity has a significant negative influence on ZC of entrepreneurs. It also found a significant positive relationship between religiosity and ZC among the study sample, whereas the study revealed that law enforcement has no influence on compliance behavior.

Practical implications

Policies and programs focused on Zakah laws and regulations could be formulated to make them less complex and simpler for acceptable levels of ZC. The result is further relevant to policymakers in Muslim communities to strengthen the religious faith of Zakah payers toward compliance with one of the fundamental religious obligations such as Zakah.

Originality/value

This study enriches the limited previous studies on actual ZC from the perspective of developing communities, especially Yemen. Most importantly, the value was added to the limited literature internationally from an economic aspect.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Shafiu Ibrahim Abdullahi

This paper explores the role of Zakah in social cause marketing. Academic literature on Islamic economics, finance and management mostly deals with the links that exists…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the role of Zakah in social cause marketing. Academic literature on Islamic economics, finance and management mostly deals with the links that exists between Zakah and consumption, neglecting important and strategic links with social cause marketing. This paper emanated from need to outline social cause and the charitable role of Zakah in promoting Halal businesses, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Most works in the field of Zakah did not foresee the role of marketing. This is a misjudgement, as this work showed that Zakah yields large and measurable social gains to help the society and a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary sources were used in writing this paper. Available literature in the form of journals, books, manuals and reports was referred to. As a conceptual work, the paper does not test hypothesis or pretends to provide empirical evidences. It uses mathematical economics in arriving at some of the conclusions. Findings were derived through deductions and critical discourses, not through crunching of primary data.

Findings

The paper shows how Zakah, Halal consumption and corporate social responsibility are connected and highlights the role of Zakah as a social marketing tool. It shows how Zakah affects consumption through marginal propensity of Zakah recipients who spend Zakah money on basic needs.

Research limitations/implications

The paper looks at the broad aspects of Zakah and social marketing. How to make Zakah a pillar of Islamic firms’ social cause programs shall be the focus of future academic works in this area.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in drawing attention of Islamic firms to the effectiveness of Zakah in building a corporate image. It draws the attention of firms, activists, academics and governments to functions of Zakah that have not been studied in depth.

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Abdus Samad and Lowell M. Glenn

The unity of Divine Law is reflected in monotheistic faiths having their origin with Prophet Abraham (pbuh), but later divided into three major religions: Judaism…

2135

Abstract

Purpose

The unity of Divine Law is reflected in monotheistic faiths having their origin with Prophet Abraham (pbuh), but later divided into three major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. There is a unity of Divine practice in a variety of areas among these monotheistic faiths. One such area is Zakah, in Islamic tradition, and often characterized as “the poor due” in Christianity and Judaism. By whatever name, Zakah or “the poor due,” is an important Divine institution in all three monotheistic faiths. The purpose of this paper is to trace and examine the development of the Zakah institution and Zakah type coverage in those faiths.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper provides a brief description of the meaning and objectives of Zakah (the poor due) and the group of people who have been described as worthy to receive Zakah. Additional sections trace the development of Zakat (the poor due) in Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Finally, some conclusions are presented for the consideration of the reader.

Findings

The administration and process for distribution of Zakah in contemporary Muslim states varies depending on the school of Islamic thought most prevalent in that society and the level of theocratic involvement of the government in those societies.

Originality/value

This paper usefully examines the development of the Zakah institution and Zakah type coverage in the three monotheistic faiths.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Saeed Awadh Bin-Nashwan, Hijattulah Abdul-Jabbar, Saliza Abdul Aziz and K. Kuperan Viswanathan

To provide a sound understanding of Zakah compliance behaviour, this paper aims to shed light on the relationships between Zakah system fairness, Zakah morale, peer…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a sound understanding of Zakah compliance behaviour, this paper aims to shed light on the relationships between Zakah system fairness, Zakah morale, peer influence and law enforcement with Zakah compliance behaviour among entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The underpinning model used in this paper is the socio-economic theory of regulatory compliance for assessing the probable determinants shaping Zakah payers' compliance behaviour. Based on a survey of active entrepreneurs in a typical Islamic situation like Yemen, a total of 500 self-administered instruments were distributed to the respondents. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to estimate the compliance model.

Findings

All the variables included in the compliance model are statistically significant, except for law enforcement. Zakah compliance of entrepreneurs is significantly influenced by Zakah system fairness, Zakah morale and peer influence.

Practical implications

Zakah institutions and agencies in Muslim-majority countries may use the results of this work to focus attention on appropriate proactive policies to formulate a fair Zakah system, inculcating moral responsibility among Zakah payers, embarking on sensitisation programmes in society as a whole, and being more proactive in educating Muslims in the importance of paying Zakah to the respective Zakah agencies.

Originality/value

This paper complements the limited literature on Zakah by examining both tangible and intangible motivations affecting Zakah payers' compliance decision.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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