Search results

1 – 10 of 10
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Hock Jin Quah, Sha Shiong Ng, Way Foong Lim and Zainuriah Hassan

Abstract

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Mohd Ann Amirul Zulffiqal Md Sahar, Zainuriah Hassan, Sha Shiong Ng, Way Foong Lim, Khai Shenn Lau, Ezzah Azimah Alias, Mohd Anas Ahmad, Nur Atiqah Hamzah and Rahil Izzati Mohd Asri

The aims of this paper is to study the effects of the V/III ratio of indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum wells (QWs) on the structural, optical and electrical…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper is to study the effects of the V/III ratio of indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum wells (QWs) on the structural, optical and electrical properties of near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (NUV-LED).

Design/methodology/approach

InGaN-based NUV-LED is successfully grown on the c-plane patterned sapphire substrate at atmospheric pressure using metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

Findings

The indium composition and thickness of InGaN QWs increased as the V/III ratio increased from 20871 to 11824, according to high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The V/III ratio was also found to have an important effect on the surface morphology of the InGaN QWs and thus the surface morphology of the subsequent layers. Apart from that, the electroluminescence measurement revealed that the V/III ratio had a major impact on the light output power (LOP) and the emission peak wavelength of the NUV-LED. The LOP increased by up to 53% at 100 mA, and the emission peak wavelength of the NUV-LED changed to a longer wavelength as the V/III ratio decreased from 20871 to 11824.

Originality/value

This study discovered a relation between the V/III ratio and the properties of QWs, which resulted in the LOP enhancement of the NUV-LED. High TMIn flow rates, which produced a low V/III ratio, contribute to the increased LOP of NUV-LED.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Nur Atiqah Hamzah, Mohd Anas Ahmad, Rahil Izzati Mohd Asri, Ezzah Azimah Alias, Mohd Ann Amirul Zulffiqal Md Sahar, Ng Sha Shiong and Zainuriah Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the efficiency of the LED by introducing three-step magnesium (Mg) doping profile. Attention was paid to the effects of the Mg…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the efficiency of the LED by introducing three-step magnesium (Mg) doping profile. Attention was paid to the effects of the Mg doping concentration of the first p-GaN layer (i.e. layer close to the active region). Attention was paid to the effects of the Mg doping concentration of the first p-GaN layer (i.e. layer close to the active region).

Design/methodology/approach

Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)–based light-emitting diode (LED) was grown on a 4-inch c-plane patterned sapphire substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The Cp2Mg flow rates for the second and third p-GaN layers were set at 50 sccm and 325 sccm, respectively. For the first p-GaN layer, the Cp2Mg flow rate varied from 150 sccm to 300 sccm to achieve different Mg dopant concentrations.

Findings

The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the GaN (102) plane increases with increasing Cp2Mg flow rate. FWHM for the sample with 150, 250 and 300 sccm Cp2Mg flow rates was 233 arcsec, 236 arcsec and 245 arcsec, respectively. This result indicates that the edge and mixed dislocations in the p-GaN layer were increased with increasing Cp2Mg flow rate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results reveal that the sample grown with 300 sccm exhibits the highest surface roughness, followed by 150 sccm and 250 sccm. The surface roughness of these samples is 2.40 nm, 2.12 nm and 2.08 nm, respectively. Simultaneously, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the 250 sccm sample shows the highest band edge intensity over the yellow band ratio compared to that of other samples. The light output power measurements found that the sample with 250 sccm exhibits high output power because of sufficient hole injection toward the active region.

Originality/value

Through this study, the three steps of the Mg profile on the p-GaN layer were proposed to show high-efficiency InGaN-based LED. The optimal Mg concentration was studied on the first p-GaN layer (i.e. layer close to active region) to improve the LED performance by varying the Cp2Mg flow rate. This finding was in line with the result of PL and AFM results when the samples with 250 sccm have the highest Mg acceptor and good surface quality of the p-GaN layer. It can be deduced that the first p-GaN layer doping has a significant effect on the crystalline quality, surface roughness and light emission properties of the LED epi structure.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Chee Yong Fong, Sha Shiong Ng, NurFahana Mohd Amin, Fong Kwong Yam and Zainuriah Hassan

This study aims to explore the applicability of the sol-gel-derived GaN thin films for UV photodetection.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the applicability of the sol-gel-derived GaN thin films for UV photodetection.

Design/methodology/approach

GaN-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector with Pt Schottky contacts was fabricated and its applicability was investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the GaN-based UV photodetector under the dark current and photocurrent were measured.

Findings

The ideality factors of GaN-based UV photodetector under dark current and photocurrent were 6.93 and 5.62, respectively. While the Schottky barrier heights (SBH) for GaN-based UV photodetector under dark current and photocurrent were 0.35 eV and 0.34 eV, respectively. The contrast ratio and responsivity of this UV photodetector measured at 5 V were found to be 1.36 and 1.68 μA/W, respectively. The photoresponse as a function of time was measured by switching the UV light on and off continuously at different forward biases of 1, 3 and 6 V. The results showed that the fabricated UV photodetector has reasonable stability and repeatability.

Originality/value

This work demonstrated that GaN-based UV photodetector can be fabricated by using the GaN thin film grown by low-cost and simple sol-gel spin coating method.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Ahmad Sauffi Yusof, Zainuriah Hassan, Sidi Ould Saad Hamady, Sha Shiong Ng, Mohd Anas Ahmad, Way Foong Lim, Muhd Azi Che Seliman, Christyves Chevallier and Nicolas Fressengeas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of growth temperature on the evolution of indium incorporation and the growth process of InGaN/GaN heterostructures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of growth temperature on the evolution of indium incorporation and the growth process of InGaN/GaN heterostructures.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine this effect, the InGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown using Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) SR4000-HT system. The InGaN/GaN heterostructures were epitaxially grown on 3.4 µm undoped-GaN (ud-GaN) and GaN nucleation layer, respectively, over a commercial 2” c-plane flat sapphire substrate. The InGaN layers were grown at different temperature settings ranging from 860°C to 820°C in a step of 20°C. The details of structural, surface morphology and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, respectively.

Findings

InGaN/GaN heterostructure with indium composition up to 10.9% has been successfully grown using the MOCVD technique without any phase separation detected within the sensitivity of the instrument. Indium compositions were estimated through simulation fitting of the XRD curve and calculation of Vegard’s law from UV-Vis measurement. The thickness of the structures was determined using the Swanepoel method and the FE-SEM cross-section image.

Originality/value

This paper report on the effect of MOCVD growth temperature on the growth process of InGaN/GaN heterostructure, which is of interest in solid-state lighting technology, especially in light-emitting diodes and solar cell application.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2022

Shireen Mohammed Abed, Sabah M. Mohammad, Zainuriah Hassan, Aminu Muhammad and Suvindraj Rajamanickam

The purpose of this study is to fabricate an ultraviolet (UV) metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown on seeded silicon…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to fabricate an ultraviolet (UV) metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown on seeded silicon (Si) substrate that was prepared by a low-cost method (drop-casting technique).

Design/methodology/approach

The drop-casting method was used for the seed layer deposition, the hydrothermal method was used for the growth of ZnO NRs and subsequent fabrication of UV MSM photodetector was done using the direct current sputtering technique. The performance of the fabricated MSM devices was investigated by current–voltage (I–V) measurements. The photodetection mechanism of the fabricated device was discussed.

Findings

Semi-vertically high-density ZnO (NRs) were effectively produced with a preferential orientation along the (002) direction, and increased crystallinity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Photoluminescence results show a high UV region. The fabricated MSM UV photodetector showed that the ZnO (NRs) MSM device has great stability over time, high photocurrent, good sensitivity and high responsivity under 365 nm wavelength illumination and 0 V, 1 V, 2 V and 3 V applied bias. The responsivity and sensitivity for the fabricated ZnO NRs UV photodetector are 0.015 A W-1, 0.383 A W-1, 1.290 A W-1 and 1.982 A W-1 and 15,030, 42.639, 100.173 and 334.029, respectively, under UV light (365 nm) illumination at (0 V, 1 V, 2 V and 3 V).

Originality/value

This paper uses the drop-casting technique and the hydrothermal method as simple and low-cost methods to fabricate and improve the ZnO NRs photodetector.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Aminu Muhammad, Sabah M. Mohammad, Zainuriah Hassan, Suvindraj Rajamanickam, Shireen Mohammed Abed and M.G.B. Ashiq

The purpose of this study is to dope silver (Ag) and fluorine (F) in zinc oxide (ZnO) for the enhancement of electrical and optical properties of ZnO, as previous studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to dope silver (Ag) and fluorine (F) in zinc oxide (ZnO) for the enhancement of electrical and optical properties of ZnO, as previous studies reported the improvement of these properties using individual doping of F and Ag. In this paper, F and Ag co-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrothermal method was modified and used for the synthesis of the doped ZnO nanostructures, where stainless autoclave and oven were replaced with the Duran laboratory bottle and water boiler system in the process. The ultraviolet metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector (PD) was fabricated using DC sputtering method.

Findings

Vertically aligned nanorods images were captured from field emission scanning electron microscopy. XPS analysis confirmed greater spin-orbital interaction in the F and Ag co-doped ZnO sample and revealed the presence of F, Ag, Zn and O in the samples, indicating a successful doping process. X-ray diffraction revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with enhanced crystal quality upon co-doping. The bandgap decreased from 3.19 to 3.14 eV upon co-doping because of reduced defects density in the sample. Finally, an ultra-violet PD was fabricated with enhanced sensitivity and response times upon co-doping.

Originality/value

The low-cost, less energy-consuming Duran laboratory bottle and water boiler system were used as the substitute of expensive, more energy-consuming stainless autoclave and oven in a hydrothermal method for synthesis of F and Ag co-doped ZnO and subsequent fabrication of PD.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Ng Sha Shiong, Ching Chin Guan, Zainuriah Hassan and Haslan Abu Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to report the structural properties of AlxGa1−xN (0≤x≤1) grown on sapphire substrate by means of X‐ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the structural properties of AlxGa1−xN (0≤x≤1) grown on sapphire substrate by means of X‐ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of Al(x) composition to the structural and microstructural properties of AlxGa1−xN ternary alloy such as the crystalline quality, crystalline structure and lattice constant c.

Design/methodology/approach

AlxGa1−xN thin films with wurtzite structure in the composition range of 0≤x≤1 are used in this study. The compositions of the samples are calculated using Vegard's law and verified by energy dispersive X‐ray analysis. The samples are then characterized by means of XRD rocking curve (RC) and phase analysis.

Findings

Investigation revealed that the full width half maximum (FWHM) of RC increase with the increase x value. This indicates that the crystalline quality of the samples deteriorate with the increase of Al compositions. The best fit of the non‐linear interpolation of the FWHM of the (002) diffraction RC data suggested that a maximum disorder should be expected in this mixed crystals system when the composition x≈45 percent.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable information on the effect of Al compositions to the structural characteristics of AlxGa1−xN alloy system. The availability of information about maximum disorder of Al composition in AlxGa1−xN (0≤x≤1) alloy system provides useful reference in device fabrications where researchers are able to choose correct alloy composition in order to fabricate good quality devices.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Ang Chai Im, Leonard Lu Tze Jian, Ooi Poh Kok, Suriani Yaakob, Ching Chin Guan, Ng Sha Shiong, Zainuriah Hassan, Haslan Abu Hassan and Mat Johar Abdullah

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize porous zinc oxide (ZnO) by means of strain etching/wet chemical etching method with the use of 0.5% of nitric acid (HNO3

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize porous zinc oxide (ZnO) by means of strain etching/wet chemical etching method with the use of 0.5% of nitric acid (HNO3) etchant. The structural and surface morphological properties of the samples are accessed by using X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnO samples used in this work were deposited on the p‐Si (111) substrates by using radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique. Wet chemical etching processes with the use of 0.5% HNO3 etchant was applied on these samples in order to obtain porous structure. The porous ZnO samples are characterized by means of XRD and SEM to access their structural and surface morphological properties.

Findings

The XRD and SEM cross‐sectional measurements revealed that the thickness of the etched ZnO thin films is proportional to the etching time. SEM micrographs show that the surface morphology of ZnO changes over etching time. On the other hand, XRD results indicate that the crystallite sizes of the ZnO(002) decreases when the etching time increases.

Originality/value

The paper shows how porous ZnO thin films have been successfully synthesized by using simple wet chemical etching. SEM images reveal that this method is reliable when producing porous structure ZnO surfaces.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Maryam Amirhoseiny, Zainuriah Hassan and Sha Shiong Ng

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the growth dependence of InN on Si substrate with different orientation through RF reactive magnetron sputtering in ambient…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the growth dependence of InN on Si substrate with different orientation through RF reactive magnetron sputtering in ambient temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors fabricated indium nitride (InN) thin films by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The InN thin films were deposited on Si (100), Si (110) and Si (111) substrates at room temperature. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of the InN films were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Findings

X‐ray diffraction results revealed that the wurtzite InN with preferential (101) orientation are deposited. Through the Scherrer structural analysis revealed nanocrystalline structure for InN films grown on Si (110), Si (100) and Si (111) orientation with crystallite size of 42.3, 33.8 and 24.1, respectively. The optical properties of InN layers were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro‐Raman reflectance spectroscopy at room temperature. The observation of the E1(TO), A1(LO), and E2(high) phonon modes of the InN from the IR and Raman results confirmed that the deposited InN thin film has hexagonal structure.

Originality/value

Si (110) surface is not isotropic and it may offer a unique orientation plane for the nitride films which could reduce the defect density and the resulting tensile stress responsible for film cracking. Therefore, it is absolutely worth exploring the growth of InN on Si (110) by using relatively simple and cheap reactive sputtering technique.

1 – 10 of 10