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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Fatima Isiaka, Salihu Aish Abdulkarim, Kassim Mwitondi and Zainab Adamu

Detecting emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Web designers and developers find such approach quite useful in enhancing…

Abstract

Purpose

Detecting emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Web designers and developers find such approach quite useful in enhancing navigational features of webpages, and biomedical personnel regularly use computer simulations to monitor and control the behaviour of patients. On the other hand, law enforcement agents rely on human physiological functions to determine the likelihood of falsehood in interrogations. Quite often, online user experience is studied via tangible measures such as task completion time, surveys and comprehensive tests from which data attributes are generated. Prediction of users' emotion and behaviour in some of these cases depends mostly on task completion time and number of clicks per given time interval. However, such approaches are generally subjective and rely heavily on distributional assumptions making the results prone to recording errors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a novel method-a window dynamic control system that addresses the foregoing issues. Primary data were obtained from laboratory experiments during which forty-four volunteers had their synchronised physiological readings, skin conductance response (SCR), skin temperature (ST), eye movement behaviour and users’ activity attributes taken using biosensors. The window-based dynamic control system (PHYCOB I) is integrated to the biosensor which collects secondary data attributes from these synchronised physiological readings and uses them for two purposes. For both detection of optimal emotional responses and users' stress levels. The method's novelty derives from its ability to integrate physiological readings and eye movement records to identify hidden correlates on a webpage.

Findings

Results show that the control system detects basic emotions and outperforms other conventional models in terms of both accuracy and reliability, when subjected to model comparison that is, the average recoverable natural structures for the three models with respect to accuracy and reliability are more consistent within the window-based control system environment than with the conventional methods.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to using a window control system to detect emotions on webpages, while integrated to biosensors and eye-tracker.

Originality/value

The originality of the proposed model is its resistance to overfitting and its ability to automatically assess human emotion (stress levels) while dealing with specific web contents. The latter is particularly important in that it can be used to predict which contents of webpages cause stress-induced emotions to users when involved in online activities.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Fatima Isiaka and Zainab Adamu

One of the contributions of artificial intelligent (AI) in modern technology is emotion recognition which is mostly based on facial expression and modification of its inference…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the contributions of artificial intelligent (AI) in modern technology is emotion recognition which is mostly based on facial expression and modification of its inference engine. The facial recognition scheme is mostly built to understand user expression in an online business webpage on a marketing site but has limited abilities to recognise elusive expressions. The basic emotions are expressed when interrelating and socialising with other personnel online. At most times, studying how to understand user expression is often a most tedious task, especially the subtle expressions. An emotion recognition system can be used to optimise and reduce complexity in understanding users' subconscious thoughts and reasoning through their pupil changes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper demonstrates the use of personal computer (PC) webcam to read in eye movement data that includes pupil changes as part of distinct user attributes. A custom eye movement algorithm (CEMA) is used to capture users' activity and record the data which is served as an input model to an inference engine (artificial neural network (ANN)) that helps to predict user emotional response conveyed as emoticons on the webpage.

Findings

The result from the error in performance shows that ANN is most adaptable to user behaviour prediction and can be used for the system's modification paradigm.

Research limitations/implications

One of the drawbacks of the analytical tool is its inability in some cases to set some of the emoticons within the boundaries of the visual field, this is a limitation to be tackled within subsequent runs with standard techniques.

Originality/value

The originality of the proposed model is its ability to predict basic user emotional response based on changes in pupil size between average recorded baseline boundaries and convey the emoticons chronologically with the gaze points.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Fatima M. Isiaka, Awwal Adamu and Zainab Adamu

Basic capturing of emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Quite often, online user experience is studied via tangible measures such…

410

Abstract

Purpose

Basic capturing of emotion on user experience of web applications and browsing is important in many ways. Quite often, online user experience is studied via tangible measures such as task completion time, surveys and comprehensive tests from which data attributes are generated. Prediction of users’ emotion and behaviour in some of these cases depends mostly on task completion time and number of clicks per given time interval. However, such approaches are generally subjective and rely heavily on distributional assumptions making the results prone to recording errors. This paper aims to propose a novel method – a window dynamic control system – that addresses the foregoing issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were obtained from laboratory experiments during which 44 volunteers had their synchronized physiological readings – skin conductance response, skin temperature, eye movement behaviour and users activity attributes taken by biosensors. The window-based dynamic control system (PHYCOB I) is integrated to the biosensor which collects secondary data attributes from these synchronized physiological readings and uses them for two purposes: for detection of both optimal emotional responses and users’ stress levels. The method’s novelty derives from its ability to integrate physiological readings and eye movement records to identify hidden correlates on a webpage.

Findings

The results from the analyses show that the control system detects basic emotions and outperforms other conventional models in terms of both accuracy and reliability, when subjected to model comparison – that is, the average recoverable natural structures for the three models with respect to accuracy and reliability are more consistent within the window-based control system environment than with the conventional methods.

Research limitations/implications

Graphical simulation and an example scenario are only provided for the control’s system design.

Originality/value

The novelty of the proposed model is its strained resistance to overfitting and its ability to automatically assess user emotion while dealing with specific web contents. The procedure can be used to predict which contents of webpages cause stress-induced emotions to users.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2019

W. Y. Alice Chan and Bruce Collet

Discussion of religion and education continues to evoke conceptions of confessional teaching; however, research and educational practices in recent decades illustrate an expanded…

Abstract

Discussion of religion and education continues to evoke conceptions of confessional teaching; however, research and educational practices in recent decades illustrate an expanded understanding that relates to the teaching of, about, and from religion across formal and non-formal educational spaces in secular and religious spheres. An expanded understanding also illustrates various intersections between religion and education that extend beyond religious or non-sectarian instruction, to include everything from the recognition and accommodation of religious student identities in K-12 public school settings, to the internationalization of religious higher education. Drawing on the Comparative and International Education Society’s Religion & Education Special Interest Group’s programing and activities, this paper aims to present a brief summary of trends observed both in research and practice concerning religion and education among educators worldwide, and highlights the place of religion in our growing recognition of intersectionality, one that occurs between academics and the community.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2018
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-416-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2024

Anisah Ari

This paper takes a contemplative analysis of non-violent activism in a hyperlocal context that is historically marked by violent clashes. It emphasizes the importance of placing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper takes a contemplative analysis of non-violent activism in a hyperlocal context that is historically marked by violent clashes. It emphasizes the importance of placing nonviolent activities within leadership frameworks that prioritize collectivity, collaboration, adaptiveness, authenticity, and community interactions. It argues that non-violent activism can serve as a cornerstone of democratic practices, and plausible to a myriad of challenges in civic spaces. The assertion that violence is not a prerequisite for gaining the attention of authorities capable of enacting societal change is supported by several studies. This paper advocates for a reorientation of collaborative efforts between those in positions of authority and civil society leaders to foster progress. There is power in the decibel of voices of the people, to correct acts of omission and commission that is impacting negatively on the citizens. In context characterized by volatility and fragility, the paper suggests prioritizing the process of influencing, mobilizing and organizing responsive interventions rather than solely focusing on the ends or outcomes. Process-oriented approach creates containers for curiosity, relational, and experimental practices that interweave multi-dimensional perspectives. The social change actors navigated cultural and structural barriers to implement non-violent strategies, offering a compelling example of grassroots peace building. Overall, this paper findings underscores the significance of understanding both direct and structural violence in shaping citizen’s right within specific context. It highlights the efficacy of context-based leadership practices in promoting non-violent organizing for peace, particularly in hyperlocal settings. Moreover, it suggests that these findings could inform indigenous peace building that is inherently influenced by contextual factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a case study, I was able to elucidate a context-based leadership model advanced by local women that averted a probable political violence in Nigeria. A case study approach was adopted because it is a phenomenon that is bounded in time, context and advanced by a particular group of change agents. A case study with a constructivist approach was utilized to understand the context and sense making of the “why” and the “what”. In situatedness, the natural occurring data was cultivated, including one-on-one indepth interviews. Data was analyzed using a narrative analysis, which raised themes on resilience, collectivity, collaboration, risk and sustainability. The findings pivot a culturally based experience of leadership by women in a fragile context. First, I provided a contextual background, explaining the local context, including the socio-economic, cultural, political and historical factors that contributed to the emergence of the conflict. In addition, I explained the scope and nature of the conflict, describing the grievances and issues that led to the tensions within the community, and highlighting the key actors and stakeholders involved. Secondly, I analyzed the non-violent strategies and tactics employed by a group of social change actors to address the issue which involved non-violent protest, tactical community organizing, dialogic engagements and creative forms of interventions. Thirdly, I evaluated and explained the role of leadership in coordinating non-violent activities and actions, the effectiveness of their leadership style, relational and processual, that sustained the non -violent approach, and the challenges the group encountered. In addition, I explained the outcome from such leadership practice and lessons learned, with evidence of a dismantling of power dynamics, and shift in attitude to a non-violent disposition. Lastly, I explained how this approach may have broader implications for understanding nonviolent conflict resolution, social movements, and the promotion of peace and justice in local contexts and beyond.

Findings

A leadership practice that is relational and collective should have consideration for both the context where the leadership is exercised and deliberate on the processes necessary to hold containers for everyone to engage. This is gradually dismantling the hegemonic conceptualization of peace building, with a gradual shift of co-construction and sense making of peace building, with implication for more diversity and inclusion of persons and perspectives. It also underscores a system that deconstructs and departs form colonized thinking and contributes to conditions that enables and inspires alternative approaches to addressing oppressive power structures. (1) In unstable situations, leadership frequently arises from within communities, driven by individuals and groups intimately connected to their realities. The Nassarawan women embody this grassroots leadership, marked by wisdom, resilience, and a dedication to creating positive change despite significant obstacles. They embrace non-violent strategies, inspired by past successes, recognizing their potency in effecting change. (2) The leadership of these women illustrates the importance of mobilizing collective strength for justice and equality, showcasing how local leadership can catalyze transformative change for the better. (3) Indigenous styles of leadership possess the capacity to go beyond conventional concepts and embrace intricacy, flexibility, and inclusiveness. A multi-faceted leadership strategy becomes especially pertinent as it enables individuals to navigate complexity, confront challenges, and cultivate resilience within their communities, rather than depending solely on traditional methods.(4) The practice of peace leadership isn’t necessarily linked to official positions, titles, or authority. Rather, it appears as a continuous, intentional effort within community interactions, often arising from unexpected situations and sources.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the women engaged in this leadership activity are located in remote areas, and this research had access to only a few who storied their experiences in ways they understood how to.

Practical implications

With the rapid shift and call for more non-violent activism, we must be open to sample the different textures relevant for varied conditions. This holds a huge implication for understanding the psychology of communities expressing the full human agency in exercising leadership that is contextually driven. The connection between local struggles and global movements for social justice and human rights is profound and multifaceted. Firstly, there’s a shared value across movements for equity, equality, justice, dignity, and human rights, spanning issues like environmental protection, gender equality, racial justice, and indigenous rights. Local movements increasingly emphasize building solidarity across borders, collaborating with similar movements worldwide through actions like protests and social media campaigns. This amplifies local voices on a global stage and underscores the interconnectedness of struggles. The leadership of the women’s group holds significant implications for global movements, offering insights into grassroots perspectives on social issues. Their localized knowledge enriches global discourse on social change, providing tangible examples of challenges faced by marginalized groups and culturally relevant solutions. Additionally, their commitment to nonviolent methods establishes a platform for marginalized voices and fosters solidarity across diverse communities. The group’s innovative approaches, drawing upon local resources and grassroots networks, demonstrate the power of community-driven solutions to address social problems. Moreover, their grassroots empowerment shifts power dynamics within communities and influences broader systemic transformations, all while advocating for justice through peaceful means. These practices not only spark global solidarity but also shape public discourse and policy agendas at state and national levels, highlighting the human rights implications of local issues like political corruption. Overall, the women’s group exemplifies the transformative potential of grassroots activism in effecting lasting change on a global scale.

Social implications

The power for everyday peace leadership rests with the people and it is translated into meaningful outcomes when everyone has the opportunity to lead.

Originality/value

Research has been done on many women led movement in Nigeria, but this is unique, as it changed the narrative for an approach that was successful in shifting cultural boundaries in very fragile and uncertain context.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

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