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The quality of GeOx–Ge interface and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) are the main issues in fabricating high-k/Ge gate stack due to the low-k of GeOx interfacial…
The quality of GeOx–Ge interface and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) are the main issues in fabricating high-k/Ge gate stack due to the low-k of GeOx interfacial layer (IL). Therefore, a precise study of the formation of GeOx IL and its contribution to EOT is of utmost importance. In this study, the GeOx ILs were formed through post-oxidation annealing of sputtered Al2O3 on the Ge substrate. The purpose of this paper is to report on growth kinetics and composition of IL between Al2O3 and Ge for HCl- and HF-last Ge surface.
After wet chemical cleaning with HCl or HF, Al2O3 was grown onto the Ge surface by RF sputtering. Thickness and composition of IL formed after post-anneal deposition at 400°C in dry oxygen ambience were evaluated as a function of deposition time by FESEM and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively.
It was observed that the composition and thickness of IL were dependent on the starting surface and an aluminum germinate-like composition was formed during RF sputtering for both HF- and HCl-last starting surface.
The novelty of this work is to investigate the starting surface of Ge to IL growth between Al2O3/Ge that will lead to the improvement in Ge metal insulator field effect transistors (MISFETs) application.
This study aims to compare and contrast the financial affordability of Islamic home financing instruments such as bay’ bithaman ajil and musharakah mutanaqisah (MM…
This study aims to compare and contrast the financial affordability of Islamic home financing instruments such as bay’ bithaman ajil and musharakah mutanaqisah (MM) offered by various home financing institutions in Malaysia.
Mathematical simulations were carried out in examining the financial affordability (or lack thereof) of various Islamic home financing by both Islamic commercial banks (ICB) and financial cooperatives (FC).
This study has shown that MM by FC is a workable, more financially affordable option to potential homeowners. Unlike ICB, MM by FC uses rental rates as a benchmarking tool because of its inherent nature of flexibility.
MM by FC has the potential to reduce the cost of home acquisition (purchase affordability) and the amount of monthly installments (repayment affordability) of homeowners in Malaysia.
This study shows the financial implication of unaffordable Islamic home financing instruments may have on the Malaysian households, which were derived from using official data from various government agencies.