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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2000

Adam Karp

Discrimination law has evolved from litigating or prosecuting overt, individual cases of egregious behavior solely by means of anecdotal evidence and eyewitness testimony…

Abstract

Discrimination law has evolved from litigating or prosecuting overt, individual cases of egregious behavior solely by means of anecdotal evidence and eyewitness testimony. Statistical evidence came to bear the imprimatur of the United States Supreme Court in the Seventies as a probative means of discerning guilt or liability, and has been used to shore up patterns of prejudice at a systemic level since. Courtrooms of the Twenty-First Century have struggled to define discrimination through a quantitative lens, nonetheless relying on qualitative evidence to assist the factfinder in rendering a verdict. Some definitions carry more precision and accuracy than others. Consider the inflammatory National Law Journal's indictment of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (‘EPA’) as an example of the latter. In 1992, the National Law Journal ran a Special Investigation of the EPA, claiming that the federal government had fostered a racist imbalance in hazardous site cleanup and its pursuit of polluters. Kudos to the columnists for bringing environmental equity into the spotlight of public debate and for forewarning and encouraging the EPA to conduct its enforcements reflectively, in order to avoid being on the receiving end of a Title VI lawsuit. Nonetheless, the methodology used by the National Law Journal belies a total understanding of the bureaucratic structure that pursued these actions and of the notion of statistical significance. This Article confines itself to Region X's actions between 1995 and 1999, applying linear regression and other statistical tests to determine whether biases, found using the National Law Journal's naive methodology, stand after due consideration of chance. The NLJ approach finds evidence of bias, but the author also conducts more complicated and appropriate analyses, such as those contemplated by the National Guidance. After issuing some provisos, the author dismisses charges of racism or classism. While the National Guidance represents a positive first step in identifying environmental justice communities, those with an above-average proportion of lower-class or non-Caucasian inhabitants, it lacks statistical sophistication and econometric depth. This Article concludes by recommending the use of normalized racial distributions, Gini coefficients, and Social Welfare Functions to the EPA and to other organizations conducting environmental justice analysis.

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Research in Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-022-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2018

Sai Charan Das, Rajesh Ranganathan and Murugan N.

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of build orientation on the tensile properties of PolyJet 3D printed parts. Effects on manufacturing time…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of build orientation on the tensile properties of PolyJet 3D printed parts. Effects on manufacturing time and total cost per part are the secondary objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Solid tensile specimens were prepared as per the American Society for Testing and Materials D638 standards and were manufactured in six different orientations by using the Objet260 Connex 3D printer. VeroWhitePlus RGD835 was used as the build material, with FullCure 705 as the support material. The specimens were tested for their tensile strength and elongation. The side surface and the fracture surface were analyzed using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope-SIGMA HV-Carl Zeiss with Bruker Quantax 200-Z10 EDS detector. Scanning electron microscope images of each surface were obtained at various magnifications.

Findings

From the study, it can be concluded that build orientation has an influence on the tensile strength and the manufacturing cost of the parts. The microstructural analysis revealed that the orientation of surface cracks/voids may be the reason for the strength.

Originality/value

From literature survey, it is inferred that this study is sure to be among the first few under this topic. These results will help engineers to decide upon the right build orientations with respect to print head so that parts with better mechanical properties can be manufactured.

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, Hojat Karami, Saeed Farzin and Ehsan Teymouri

This study aims to use porous concrete and mineral adsorbents (additives) for reducing the quantity and improving the quality of urban runoff.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use porous concrete and mineral adsorbents (additives) for reducing the quantity and improving the quality of urban runoff.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of adding mineral adsorbents and fine grains to porous concrete is tested for increasing its performance in improving the quality of urban runoff. Two levels of sand (10 and 20 per cent) and 5, 10 and 15 per cent of zeolite, perlite, LECA and pumice were added to the porous concrete. Unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity (permeability) and porosity of the porous concrete specimens were measured. Some of the best specimens were selected for testing the improvement of runoff quality. A rainfall simulator was designed and the quality of the runoff was investigated for changes in electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

Findings

The results of this study showed that compressive strength of the porous concrete was increased by adding fine grains to the concrete mixture. Fine grains decreased the permeability and porosity of the samples. Zeolite had the highest compressive strength. Samples having pumice own maximum permeability. Samples which had perlite, had the least compressive strength and permeability. Because of the fast flow of runoff water in the porous slab and its low thickness, sufficient time was not provided for effective functioning of the additives, and the removal percentage of the pollution parameters was low.

Originality/value

Porous concrete can ameliorate both quantity and quality of the urban runoff.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1973

Davis and L Timmins

The total life and reliability of a fastened joint does not depend entirely upon the initial strength of the components involved but also upon the compatibility of the…

Abstract

The total life and reliability of a fastened joint does not depend entirely upon the initial strength of the components involved but also upon the compatibility of the materials concerned with the service environment.

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Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Aleksei Moskvin, Mariia Moskvina and Victor Kuzmichev

Digital technologies are widely used for digitization of museum and archival heritage and creation of digital, multimedia and online exhibitions, especially in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital technologies are widely used for digitization of museum and archival heritage and creation of digital, multimedia and online exhibitions, especially in terms of costume history. Digital exhibitions require historical dress forms which were used in the past for costume presentation. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for parametric modeling of the nineteenth century dress forms in accordance with fashionable body shape.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to limited number of body measurements in historical sizing tables, it is impossible to redesign the morphology of old fashionable body with high accuracy by means of contemporary CAD. The developed method is based on two sources of information: first, historical sizing tables with body measurements; second, historical corsets. By combining both resources and applying virtual try-on technology, the full anthropometric database about the nineteenth century fashionable body shape has been organized and the parametric model of historical dress form has been generated.

Findings

The digital replica of deformable parametric dress form was created automatically in accordance with the historical sizing systems and the corsets construction. The process of reproduction of a historical dress form has been done with high accuracy due to substantial advantages of contemporary software.

Originality/value

This study shows new way of anthropometric data generating from the construction of close-fitting and compression undergarments. The developed method and the new database can be applied for each type of dress forms which were used in the second part of the nineteenth century to generate its digital replica in virtual reality. The new approach is joining the digital technologies and the professional knowledge as an important part of cultural heritage for studying, recreating and presenting historical costume.

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International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2011

Irena Bojanova and Les Pang

An innovative approach for enhancing college courses using virtual worlds was developed to raise the students' level of engagement, promote critical thinking, and meet…

Abstract

An innovative approach for enhancing college courses using virtual worlds was developed to raise the students' level of engagement, promote critical thinking, and meet pedagogical objectives. Reaching to a new level of teaching delivery, this approach involves conducting tours of rich and exciting virtual world venues and assigning students' reflective assignments during and after the tour. In this chapter, the procedures for conducting virtual educational tours are presented, descriptions of explored virtual demonstrations and simulations are provided, findings from the learning experiences are discussed, and students' reactions to the technologies based on comprehensive surveys are shared. Furthermore, key lessons learned and recommended teaching strategies are provided and future plans for application of cutting-edge technologies to education are described.

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Transforming Virtual World Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-053-7

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Peter T. Leeson and Paola A. Suarez

This paper investigates the relationship between superstition and self-governance. We argue that at least some superstitions, and perhaps many, support self-governing…

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between superstition and self-governance. We argue that at least some superstitions, and perhaps many, support self-governing arrangements. The relationship between such scientifically false beliefs and private institutions is symbiotic and socially productive. This simple but overlooked observation may help explain the emergence and otherwise puzzling persistence of both superstitions and “spontaneous” orders that seem perverse or dysfunctional, as well as why these two phenomena are often found together.

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New Thinking in Austrian Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-137-8

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Jayme S. Lemke

Recognizing heterogeneity of legal/social status, historical experience, and the resulting variation in the constraints faced by different groups can be a valuable…

Abstract

Recognizing heterogeneity of legal/social status, historical experience, and the resulting variation in the constraints faced by different groups can be a valuable complement to forms of heterogeneity already recognized by Austrian economists. This is particularly true for empirical analyses of caste-based societies, women’s history, and the experiences of other currently or historically persecuted minority populations. When (1) political institutions and/or other emergent social structures establish rules that apply to some individuals but not others, (2) these non-general rules are constructed in such a way that individuals cannot easily move in and out of established groups, and (3) some of the groups created by this process hold authority over others, class structures are created that can be understood without violating methodological individualism and other key tenets of Austrian economics. Like other heterogeneities that have now become incorporated into mainstream economic thought, the development of an Austrian theory of class could advance both the Austrian tradition and economic science in general.

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New Thinking in Austrian Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-137-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1998

Pender O. Gbenedio, Eric D. Benson and Eddy Omolehinwa

Traces the history of efforts to harmonize global accounting and presents a study analysing obstacles to it, using multidimensional scaling. Illustrates the environmental…

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2084

Abstract

Traces the history of efforts to harmonize global accounting and presents a study analysing obstacles to it, using multidimensional scaling. Illustrates the environmental influences on global accounting, groups 37 factors obstructing harmonization into economic, social, political/legal and cultural groups; and assesses their impact in both developing and industrially developed countries (IDCs). Finds that political, economic and social variables create more difficulties for IDCs, but that cultural factors affect both groups equally. Displays the results graphically, discusses them further and calls for extended research to explore this “great challenge to the accounting profession”.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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