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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Cecilia Dalborg and Yvonne von Friedrichs

In many regions, the potential of social entrepreneurship and social innovation are not fully used. The purpose of this study is to explore issues and challenges in the…

Abstract

Purpose

In many regions, the potential of social entrepreneurship and social innovation are not fully used. The purpose of this study is to explore issues and challenges in the business advisory support offered to social entrepreneurs and, from this background, give suggestions on how the advisory process to social entrepreneurs could be modified to better gain society.

Design/methodology/approach

Representatives from 15 business advisory organisations in Sweden were interviewed to examine how their support to social enterprises meets the needs of the companies, and to discover possible problems encountered regarding the business advice available to social enterprises. Using thematic analysis, six different overarching themes were identified that characterise issues and challenges in the business advisory support offered to social enterprises.

Findings

The results show that many advisers lack experience in social entrepreneurship, yet they consider that social enterprises are not “genuine” entrepreneurs, and that they, therefore, refer them to advisers focussing on co-operative enterprises. Furthermore, the absence of sustainable business models, the lack of financial resources and the existence of municipal monopoly are identified by the advisers as challenges.

Practical implications

This paper reveals an Achilles’ heel in the business advisory support offered to social enterprises, namely, the lack of experience and knowledge of social entrepreneurship amongst current business advisers, as well as a prioritisation of advice to more “commercial” entrepreneurs because of policy instruments and the expectations from the public funders of increased profitability and growth in the companies that receive advice. The mainstream business advisory service could play a key role by bringing together the various stakeholders in this shared value process. This would, however, require increased knowledge and new government policies and directives that ensure that social entrepreneurs are prioritised in the business advisory situation.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that the current advisory system is not adapted to fit the needs of social enterprises. It also proposes the need to include participation and proximity in the business model design.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

Abstract

Subject area

Social entrepreneurship/innovation.

Study level/applicability

Basic to advanced level.

Case overview

This case introduces students to the context of social innovation and social entrepreneurship. Societies are facing new challenges that will require innovative solutions. In our society, social needs are addressed in a variety of different ways. Some of these needs are addressed mainly through public organizations, some in private spheres through associations or businesses, and others in informal organizations or maybe not at all. As changes occur in our society, the current practices we use to meet our needs will not necessarily be the same practices we use to meet our needs in the future. In response, a number of initiatives are emerging. This case describes the process of such a new initiative.

Expected learning outcomes

Students need to understand what social innovation is; in how many ways it manifests; and why it is a multi-disciplinary field. Students need to understand the difference between for-profit and not-for-profit organizations and which challenges they are effective in addressing (context dependency). Students need to understand, describe and discuss the process and methods of developing social entrepreneurship and social innovations using the House of Plenty Social Innovation Model as a case. Students need to understand and discuss the main challenges that not-for-profit social innovations face in securing financial sustainability and in scaling up using the House of Plenty Social Innovation Model as a case.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Yvonne von Friedrichs Grängsjö and Evert Gummesson

The paper provides insights into destination marketing and the conditions and outcome of competitor co‐operation in a local, horizontal hotel network. The specific purpose…

7021

Abstract

Purpose

The paper provides insights into destination marketing and the conditions and outcome of competitor co‐operation in a local, horizontal hotel network. The specific purpose is to uncover the mechanics of such a network and offer a theory together with recommendations for practice and future research.

Design/methodology/approach

In contrast with manufactured goods, which are distributed to the market, destination marketing distributes customers to a service production site. This basic prerequisite has effects on marketing strategies and the networking of competitors, and so has the fact that the services are in part delivered in interaction with customers and between customers at a physical place. The paper is based on inductive case study research, and the observations and conclusions from the empirical case data are given precedence over extant theory. The case, the Hotel Group, is a hotel network in the town of Östersund, Sweden. The case is directed towards certain strategic business‐to‐business elements of destination marketing.

Findings

The study shows that the Hotel Group has found a success formula. Among the results are that a drive for action, both planned and improvised, is more decisive for success than plans and expressed intentions; that networking is facilitated when local competitors build social capital through trust and commitment in action; and that competitors have to adhere to certain basic principles, strike a balance between seemingly contradictory strategies, and live by an agreed code of conduct.

Research limitations/implications

The case study lays bare the need to rethink certain mainstream vantage points used in research. These include departure from the notion of small‐ and medium‐sized businesses as autonomous economic entities and consider them part of networks; recognition of the social context and synergy of a network organization and its code of conduct; and learning to manage a social network by balancing seeming paradoxes and opposites. The study is temporally limited and does not forecast the sustainability and robustness of the network and its success formula over time and under changing conditions.

Practical implications

The study offers normative and actionable insights about the success of a horizontal tourism network. The network members should adhere to three basic principles: show enthusiasm, give time, and contribute to financing; they have to perform balancing acts between the collective and individual, co‐operation and competition, and planning/intention and action; and they have to follow a seven‐point code of conduct.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a theory of co‐operation in marketing networks. It empirically examines network mechanics when local competitors take action to improve their individual situation by improving the collective competitive position on the market, provides insights into destination marketing and the conditions and outcome of competitor co‐operation in a local, horizontal hotel network.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Maria Bogren and Yvonne von Friedrichs

Social capital is perceived as an important driver for entrepreneurship. To support development of social capital in women’s entrepreneurship, the Swedish government…

Abstract

Purpose

Social capital is perceived as an important driver for entrepreneurship. To support development of social capital in women’s entrepreneurship, the Swedish government supports development projects with the aim of stimulating business growth. Recent studies show that trust is an essential ingredient when designing such projects. The purpose of this paper is to further develop a theoretical model of trust-building processes by developing and trying out questions regarding trust elements and to study how projects have addressed these various trust-building elements.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory approach was used, and a survey was conducted. A questionnaire about trust was sent to the project leaders of all 165 development projects in a Swedish government-funded programme with a response rate of 73 per cent. The data were analysed in SPSS.

Findings

The results show that contextual and relational aspects should be taken into account in the trust model, and that some of the questions regarding trust elements need to be elaborated more.

Originality/value

This paper further develops the construction of a proposed theoretical model of trust-building processes.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Yvonne von Friedrichs Grängsjö

Owing to the complexity of the tourist product most firms in a tourist destination are interdependent on one another. As well as being competitors they also have to work…

4065

Abstract

Owing to the complexity of the tourist product most firms in a tourist destination are interdependent on one another. As well as being competitors they also have to work together on creating the overall quality of the total tourist product. It is difficult to separate co‐operation from competition. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a co‐opetitive theory of business derived from the results given by a networking study of marketing a tourist destination dominated by micro businesses and independent entrepreneurs. The results of the study show that there are two different sets of values in the destination and these determine and distinguish the way firms are involved in networking.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Cecilia Dalborg, Yvonne von Friedrichs and Joakim Wincent

This paper aims to explore whether nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and to determine how higher risk perceptions might limit start-up decisions by…

2947

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore whether nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and to determine how higher risk perceptions might limit start-up decisions by mediating the potential influence of passion and self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 103 participants in Sweden – both women and men – who, in the period 2008 through 2011, intended to start a business. ANOVA tests and binominal logistic regression models were conducted to test hypothesized framework.

Findings

The authors found that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risk than nascent male entrepreneurs, that risk perceptions influence start-up decisions and that risk preferences partial out the otherwise identified influence of passion on start-up decisions.

Research limitations/implications

The authors reveal a consequence of gender socialization and how it impacts the start-up decisions of nascent women entrepreneurs. Support systems should consider developing activities that change the public’s perception of who is an entrepreneur and seek ways to balance risk perceptions between men and women.

Originality/value

The authors argue here that risk perceptions play a prominent role in start-up decisions. Specifically, they consider that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and that their view of risk partials out any potential influence of their perceived passion and self-efficacy on their start-up decision.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Cecilia Dalborg, Yvonne von Friedrichs and Joakim Wincent

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the growth of women's businesses from a qualitative perspective. The paper identifies strategic building blocks for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the growth of women's businesses from a qualitative perspective. The paper identifies strategic building blocks for defining a set of different growth platforms. Moreover, the paper investigates growth ambitions for women inside each identified “type” of growth platform and identifies critical motivation variables that can influence the decision to move from growing one business platform to growing another platform.

Design/methodology/approach

The results are based on 191 women entrepreneurs. Data were analyzed by coding narrative statements from the survey into overarching themes for business platforms, descriptive frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis techniques.

Findings

The paper discerned five different growth platforms and noticed intrinsic or extrinsic growth ambitions for platform growth. The extrinsic platforms are the most common, but all platforms can be characterized by equally high growth aspirations. Each of the identified platforms is associated with distinct and unique blocks that the women entrepreneurs try to put together and resolve in order to grow their companies. Women entrepreneurs move between the different platforms when the building blocks of previous platforms have been established and secured. Variables such as profits and ownership may explain such transfers of growth ambitions.

Research limitations/implications

While acknowledging the qualitative growth of business platforms, the paper takes an approach that goes against the traditional view of quantitative growth.

Originality/value

This study is a response to the lack of research on qualitative growth and women's entrepreneurship and suggests that the manifested qualitative growth can be in order to secure blocks on different business platforms.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Maria Bogren, Yvonne von Friedrichs, Øystein Rennemo and Øystein Widding

The purpose of this paper is to explore the kinds of contacts and networks women find supportive in their role as business leaders, and which also support their…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the kinds of contacts and networks women find supportive in their role as business leaders, and which also support their willingness to grow their business. The approach is to investigate the context of women entrepreneurs and the kinds of supporting social networks of which they are part. This is seen in relation to their willingness to grow.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were sent to women entrepreneurs in mid‐Sweden and mid‐Norway, relating to supportive assets and willingness for growth.

Findings

The results show: that personal networks are seen as a more supportive asset than business networks; that personal contacts with other entrepreneurs are regarded as valuable; and that women entrepreneurs who are positive towards new networks already have a more heterogenic network than those who do not express this willingness.

Practical implications

Without a relational attitude and a willingness to put oneself into a relational interplay, women entrepreneurs will have a hard time succeeding in growing their businesses.

Originality/value

This study is unique in three ways: first, it combines different theoretical perspectives, above all a variety of network perspectives seen in an entrepreneurial context. Second, from a huge set of data containing women entrepreneurs, the paper presents valid findings about social network configurations among this group. Third, it introduces the term “willingness”, and discusses the effects related to this and to network expansion and business growth. These dimensions help us to increase the understanding of networking and growth in women‐owned enterprises.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Elisabet Ljunggren and Elisabeth Sundin

This paper introduces the special issue’s six articles with different approaches to investigating gender perspectives on enterprising communities. The papers’ approaches…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper introduces the special issue’s six articles with different approaches to investigating gender perspectives on enterprising communities. The papers’ approaches are presented and discussed, and the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how they relate to the two main concepts of gender and enterprising communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is conceptual.

Findings

Through the discussion of the articles, the concept of enterprising communities is found to be fuzzy and to contain a multitude of meanings. This paper elaborates on the community concept and its spatial and “of practice” dimensions.

Originality/value

First, the paper contributes by suggesting how the enterprising community concept could be delimited. Second, the research article contributes to gender perspectives on enterprising communities. It elaborates on what gendered enterprising communities are and how gender might influence enterprising communities.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Leona Achtenhagen and Malin Tillmar

The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to recent research on women's entrepreneurship, focusing on Nordic countries.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to direct attention to recent research on women's entrepreneurship, focusing on Nordic countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper encourages research that investigates how context, at the micro, meso and macro level, is related to women's entrepreneurship, and acknowledges that gender is socially constructed.

Findings

This paper finds evidence that recent calls for new directions in women's entrepreneurship research are being followed, specifically with regard to how gender is done and how context is related to women's entrepreneurial activities.

Originality/value

This paper assesses trends in research on women's entrepreneurship, mainly from the Nordic countries.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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