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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Yvonne McNulty and Charles M. Vance

Most studies of expatriates have explored global careers as unfolding within assigned or self-initiated expatriation contexts in a predominantly linear fashion. The…

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2375

Abstract

Purpose

Most studies of expatriates have explored global careers as unfolding within assigned or self-initiated expatriation contexts in a predominantly linear fashion. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize that expatriates’ career progression is facilitated by frequent moves between domains, with an increasing overlap among assigned-expatriate (AE) and self-initiated expatriate (SIE) contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Underpinned by findings from extant literature, the authors review and integrate studies of expatriation and careers to conceptualize an AE-SIE career continuum.

Findings

The authors debunk the idea that AEs and SIEs are a type of expatriate per se, but instead is indicative only of their career orientation in terms of where they choose to sit on the AE-SIE career continuum at any point in time. Specifically, individuals pursuing global careers in international labor markets include up to eight types of expatriate who retain varying degrees of AE vs SIE characteristics dependent on the point they choose along the continuum.

Practical implications

The tension that dynamic global careers cause for multinational enterprises (MNEs) is not necessarily “bad”, and that by accepting and accommodating changes in career orientation MNEs will be able to make clearer and more consistent global staffing decisions.

Originality/value

The authors provide a new, improved conceptualization of linear and non-linear global careers and of the challenges global career actors face throughout their career development both at home and abroad. They further show that while career orientation explains why expatriates engage in various types of international work experiences, their typology adds explication of the various types of expatriate who pursue global careers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Yvonne McNulty, Jakob Lauring, Charlotte Jonasson and Jan Selmer

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework of severe expatriate crises focusing on the occurrence of “fit-dependent” crisis events, which is when the…

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1968

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework of severe expatriate crises focusing on the occurrence of “fit-dependent” crisis events, which is when the crisis is “man made” and triggered by expatriates’ maladjustment or acculturation stress in the host country. The authors focus on the causes, prevention and management of fit-dependent expatriate crises.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a conceptual framework of fit-dependent expatriate crises that involves different levels of analysis.

Findings

The conceptual framework shows that crises can be triggered at micro, meso and macro levels ranging from the personal and family domains (micro), to the network and organisational domains (meso) as well as the host country domain (macro). The authors conceptualise these “domains of causes” as triggering maladjustment and acculturation stress that ultimately leads to a severe crisis event with correspondingly serious and potentially life-changing consequences. Furthermore, using a process perspective, the authors outline strategies for preventing and managing crises before, during and after the crisis occurs, discussing the support roles of various internal (organisational) and external (specialist) stakeholders.

Originality/value

Studying the link between expatriation and crises is a highly relevant research endeavour because severe crisis events will impact on HRM policies, processes and procedures for dealing with employees living abroad, and will create additional challenges for HRM beyond what could normally be expected. Using attribution theory to explain why organisational support and intervention to assist expatriates during a crisis is not always forthcoming, and theories of social networks to elucidate the “first responder” roles of various support actors, the authors contribute to the expatriate literature by opening up the field to a better understanding of the dark side of expatriation that includes crisis definition, prevention, management and solutions.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Yvonne Kallane (McNulty) and Anthony Fee

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Jakob Lauring, David S. A. Guttormsen and Yvonne Maria McNulty

The purpose of this paper is to explore how interaction adjustment influences personal development for expatriates and to examine whether the effect differs between adults…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how interaction adjustment influences personal development for expatriates and to examine whether the effect differs between adults that have, and have not, lived abroad during their adolescence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use survey responses from 424 business expatriates in Asia distinguishing between adult third culture kids (ATCKs) that have lived abroad during their adolescence and adult mono-culture kids (AMCKs) who have not.

Findings

The results show that while interaction adjustment generally improves the experience of personal development, this effect is stronger for ATCKs. AMCKs will experience personal development almost independently of their interaction adjustment with host nationals solely due to the novelty of the international experience. For ATCKs, just being in the new country is not enough for them to feel they have developed personally; they need to engage more deeply with the local population to achieve this.

Originality/value

The authors still know very little about ATCKs and about how expatriation during their adulthood develops them personally, given they have already had international experiences at a young age.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2016

Yvonne McNulty

I build on a strong foundation of prior studies about expatriate compensation in general to provide an overview of changes in expatriate compensation, from home- to…

Abstract

Purpose

I build on a strong foundation of prior studies about expatriate compensation in general to provide an overview of changes in expatriate compensation, from home- to host-based approaches, during the past 10 years.

Methodology/approach

Underpinned by findings from academic and practitioner literature, I review and integrate studies of expatriate compensation and global talent management to outline the challenges and opportunities home- and host-based compensation approaches present to MNEs.

Findings

Home-based compensation is becoming an outdated and overly expensive model that is often ineffective in moving MNEs’ global competitive advantage to where it needs to be, leaving host-based approaches as the only alternative. But the use of host-based “cheaper” compensation approaches can also lead to unintended outcomes for MNEs in terms of unforeseen opportunity costs (such as the loss of critical talent) arising from shortsighted compensation decisions.

Practical implications

I argue that expatriate compensation works best when it is not based on an employees’ home-country status but instead on the role that he or she performs locally. I suggest a host-based compensation approach — global compensation — that is based on the worth of the position rather than where the individual has come from. Such an approach is more equitable because it is performance-based thereby eliminating overpaying and perceived unfairness. It is much simpler to administer than home-based compensation because it represents an extension of most MNEs already existing domestic (home country) pay-for-performance model.

Originality/value

Despite more than 10 years of new compensation practices being implemented and reported by global mobility practitioners, very little has been studied or written by scholars about some of the recent changes in expatriate compensation over the past decade. The chapter addresses this gap in academic literature.

Details

Global Talent Management and Staffing in MNEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-353-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Yvonne McNulty and Helen De Cieri

Little is known about the attraction, development, and attrition factors that impact on expatriates’ decision making in relation to international assignment opportunities…

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Abstract

Purpose

Little is known about the attraction, development, and attrition factors that impact on expatriates’ decision making in relation to international assignment opportunities, nor is there clear understanding as to how global mobility outcomes impact on global talent management (GTM). The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the attraction, development, and attrition of expatriates as a process that is focussed on two core elements of expatriate ROI (eROI) – corporate ROI (cROI) and individual ROI (iROI). Further, the authors adopt an innovative approach by conceptualizing how global mobility is linked to GTM.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying psychological contract theory, the authors draw on empirical data from two large studies to compare the perspectives of mobility managers (the cROI inputs) with those of long-term assignees (expatriates; the iROI inputs) to identify how global mobility outcomes can impact on GTM.

Findings

By comparing and contrasting corporate and individual perspectives, the findings show a more complete picture of expatriation in practice than has been offered in prior research. Doing so highlights synergies and conflicts in the desired support provided for, and outcomes expected from, global mobility and GTM programs.

Originality/value

The research adds to the literature by demonstrating how cROI and iROI combine to influence overall global mobility outcomes for multinational corporations, and how these, in turn, impact on GTM initiatives and overall GTM success. It extends previous research to specifically link global mobility to GTM, and adds to the limited empirical literature on eROI. The research also advances understanding of the employment relationship during expatriation by identifying new factors and consequences pertaining to psychological contract fulfillment. Implications for future research are presented.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Yvonne McNulty

International relocation is undoubtedly a source of stress for families, and in particular for married couples. Yet, despite familial challenges and the fact that “family…

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2291

Abstract

Purpose

International relocation is undoubtedly a source of stress for families, and in particular for married couples. Yet, despite familial challenges and the fact that “family concerns” remain a top reason for assignment refusal and assignment failure, including a growing body of anecdotal evidence suggesting that many expatriate marriages fail often at huge cost to organizations, there is not one academic study yet published on expatriate divorce. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the causes and consequences of expatriate divorce.

Design/methodology/approach

In this exploratory case-based study, the author uses respondent data from 13 face-to-face interviews and 25 online survey participants.

Findings

Findings demonstrate that expatriate marriages end in divorce for two main reasons: first, a core issue in the marriage that exists before going abroad (e.g. alcoholism, mental health problems) and which continues while abroad; and second, when one or both spouses is negatively influenced by an expatriate culture to such an extent that a form of “group think” results in polarizing behavior that is counter to how they might behave “back home” (e.g. infidelity, sexual misconduct). The consequences of divorce for expatriates are immense and include bankruptcy, destitution, homelessness, depression, psychophysiological illness, alienation from children, and suicide.

Research limitations/implications

Data are cross-sectional and findings are limited by single-response bias. Future studies would do well to research matched samples of couples engaging in global work experiences over different points in time in order to track longitudinal changes in marital quality, including why some go on to divorce while others recover from marital breakdown and stay married.

Practical implications

One of the strongest pieces of advice offered by most of the respondents is for spouses, and trailing spouses in particular, to know their legal rights and entitlements in each country where they are living in the event of divorce.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically explore the lived experience of expatriate divorce.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Charles M. Vance, Yvonne McNulty, Yongsun Paik and Jason D'Mello

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the emerging international career phenomenon of the “expat-preneur,” an individual temporarily living abroad who initiates an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the emerging international career phenomenon of the “expat-preneur,” an individual temporarily living abroad who initiates an international new venture (self-employment) opportunity in a host country.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis is based on the authors’ observance of developing trends that also are showcased in the international management and IHRM literatures.

Findings

Two general types of expat-preneurs are proposed: first, pre-departure expat-preneurs who move abroad with a preconceived entrepreneurial purpose; and second, transitioned expat-preneurs who, only while abroad, recognize and pursue a new venture opportunity, either from the status of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) looking for local employment or while serving as organization-assigned expatriates and leaving the organization at the end of the assignment or midstream.

Research limitations/implications

Distinctions between expat-preneurs and typical business SIEs are explored, and important contributions that expat-preneurs may provide in strengthening local host country economies are considered. Directions for further systematic and empirical research on the expat-preneur international career phenomenon are discussed.

Practical implications

Important mutually beneficial implications are noted for multinationals in supporting expat-preneurs’ long-term success in host country environments.

Originality/value

This conceptual study provides a valuable recognition and analysis of an important and growing international career category that has received scant attention in the literature. This research has important implications for the understanding of new international career dynamics associated with the growing trend of international entrepreneurship, especially valuable for emerging markets and of interest to multinational firms interested in the movement of their human capital.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Sari Silvanto, Jason Ryan and Yvonne McNulty

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess the importance for nations of key institutional, economic, and societal factors for attracting skilled professionals…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess the importance for nations of key institutional, economic, and societal factors for attracting skilled professionals from abroad. It examines the existing literature on international talent mobility and empirically tests the validity of nation branding as a strategy for attracting internationally mobile skilled professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use secondary data from the World Economic Forum, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Martin Prosperity Institute to test six hypotheses concerning factors that attract internationally mobile skilled professionals to a foreign country to live and work.

Findings

The study finds that conditions of employment, quality of life, good governance, and tolerance towards people of diverse backgrounds are key issues that need to be holistically emphasized in successful nation branding campaigns aimed at attracting highly skilled professionals from abroad.

Originality/value

The authors use strong secondary data to reduce common method bias in the results which show that “macro” factors sway internationally mobile skilled professionals to favor some countries over others. The authors contribute to the literature on international talent flows by conceptualizing nation branding as a framework through which a variety of push and pull factors can be examined to entice and attract internationally mobile skilled professionals to a particular host-country. The findings will apply to several different types of skilled professionals including self-initiated expatriates, self-initiated corporate expatriates, and third country nationals and local foreign hires.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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