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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Matthew Xerri, Farr-Wharton Ben, Yvonne Brunetto, Frank Crossan and Rona Beattie

The purpose of this paper is to use conservation of resources (COR) theory as a lens for comparing the impact of line management on Bangladeshi public and private nurses 

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use conservation of resources (COR) theory as a lens for comparing the impact of line management on Bangladeshi public and private nurses’ perception of work harassment, well-being and turnover intentions where Anglo-American and European management models have been super-imposed on an existing different culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 317 Bangladeshi nurses’ (131 from the public sector and 186 from the private sector). Structural equation modelling was used for analysis.

Findings

High work harassment was associated with low-being, and together with management practices, it explained approximately a quarter of private sector nurses’ well-being. In total, management, work harassment and employee well-being explained approximately a third of the turnover intentions of public sector nurses, whereas only work harassment explained approximately a third of private sector nurses’ turnover intentions. The findings suggest a differential impact of management on work harassment across the public and private sector.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional data are susceptible to common method bias. A common latent factor was included, and several items that were explained by common method variance were controlled. Further, the findings are limited by the sample size from one sector and the use of only one developing country.

Practical implications

It is a waste of resources to transplant Anglo-American and European management models to developing countries without understanding the impact on nurses’ outcomes.

Originality/value

Anglo-American and European management models are not easily transferable to the Bangladesh context probably because of the impact of ties and corruption. Line management is a positive resource that builds employee well-being for public sector employees only.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Benjamin Farr-Wharton, Yvonne Brunetto, Paresh Wankhade, Chiara Saccon and Matthew Xerri

This paper compares the impact of leadership behaviours on the discretionary power, and well-being, and affective commitment of police officers from Italy and the United…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper compares the impact of leadership behaviours on the discretionary power, and well-being, and affective commitment of police officers from Italy and the United Kingdom (UK). In contrast to Italy, UK is an example of a core-New Public Management (NPM) country that has implemented reforms, in turn, changing the management and administration of public organizations. Consequently, it is expected that there will be significant differences in the behaviour of police officers. In particular, the paper examines the antecedents and outcomes of police officers' well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involves collecting and analysing survey data using Structural Equation Modelling from 220 Italian and 238 UK police officers.

Findings

There was a significant path from Leadership to Discretionary Power to Employee Well-being to Affective Commitment – at least for the Italian sample. The UK sample does not have a significant link between leadership and discretionary power. Discretionary power was similarly low for both groups as was affective commitment. Authentic leadership and discretionary power explained approximately a third of their well-being, particularly discretionary power. Together, directly and indirectly (mediated by well-being), they explained at least a third of police officers' commitment to their organization. Well-being appears to be the key to ensuring effective police officers.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this paper includes the use of cross-sectional data (Podsakoff et al., 2003). However, a common latent factor (CLF) was included, and several items that were explained by common method variance were controlled, as per George and Pandey's recommendations (2017). Additionally, a Harmon's single factor test was applied to the data.

Practical implications

The UK police officers have significantly lower commitment compared with the Italian police officers (non-commitment), and both Italian and UK police officers have less discretionary power and well-being compared with police from the United States of America (USA) police officers and other street-level bureaucrats (SLBs). The findings suggest that the present police leadership behaviours erode rather than supports police officers' discretionary power and well-being, leading to a low organizational commitment. Leadership training will better prepare managers to ensure the well-being of police officers working under conditions of work intensification.

Originality/value

The UK police officers have significantly lower commitment compared with the Italian police officers (non-commitment), and both Italian and UK police officers have less discretionary power and well-being compared with US police officers and other SLBs. The findings show that the police leadership erodes rather than supports police officers' discretionary power and well-being, leading to low organizational commitment. Leadership models that enhance employee well-being rather than efficiency targets must be a priority if police are to be prepared to cope effectively with emergencies and pandemics.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Yvonne Brunetto, Stephen T.T. Teo, Rodney Farr-Wharton, Kate Shacklock and Art Shriberg

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether management supports police officers adequately, or whether police have to rely on their individual attributes, specifically…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether management supports police officers adequately, or whether police have to rely on their individual attributes, specifically psychological capital (PsyCap), to cope with red tape and stress. Work outcomes/consequences examined were discretionary power, affective commitment and turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional design using a survey-based, self-report strategy was used to collect data from 588 police officers from USA, who are most engaged with the public. The data were analysed using AMOS and a structural model to undertake structural equation modelling.

Findings

Two significant paths were identified Path 1: management support to red tape to discretionary power to affective commitment and turnover intentions; and Path 2: supervisor relationships to PsyCap to stress to affective commitment and turnover intentions. Further, management support predicted PsyCap, red tape and police stressors. Red tape increased police stressors and turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The use of self-report surveys is a limitation, causing common methods bias. Using Harmon’s one-factor post hoc test, the authors were able to provide some assurance that common method bias was of no major concern.

Originality/value

As far as is known, this study is the first to examine, for police officers, how PsyCap impacts upon negative factors (stress and red tape) and enhances positive drivers for employees. Examining the impact of an individual attribute – PsyCap – provides an important piece of the organizational puzzle in explaining the commitment and turnover intentions of police officers. By examining the impact of both organizational and individual factors, there is now more knowledge about the antecedents of police outcomes.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Matthew J. Xerri, Ben Farr-Wharton and Yvonne Brunetto

This paper uses conservation of resources (COR) theory to examine antecedents of psychological capital (PsyCap). Past research shows that employees with high personal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses conservation of resources (COR) theory to examine antecedents of psychological capital (PsyCap). Past research shows that employees with high personal resources such as PsyCap also have high work performance. Hence, organizations need information about how to enhance PsyCap. This paper extends existing research by examining potential antecedents of PsyCap. A total of three potential antecedents are tested, including perceptions of individual-level cooperation between employees (i.e. teamwork), relationships between employees and their supervisors (i.e. supervisor–subordinate relationships) and a human resource (HR) practice (i.e. training opportunities).

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare the impact of organizational factors on US and Australian employees' PsyCap.

Findings

The results indicate a significant direct effect of leader–member exchange (LMX) onto PsyCap and a significant indirect effect between LMX and PsyCap through teamwork and through training opportunities for employees in Australia and the USA. Teamwork and training opportunities partially mediate the impact of LMX onto PsyCap for both Australian and US employees.

Practical implications

Australian employees are likely to reduce their performance because of a perceived loss of personal resources and/or may even experience burnout and/or become a stress-related workers compensation statistic.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that employees in Australia perceived significantly lower levels of supportive resources to draw upon, including from their managers and peers. On applying COR theory, when comparing employees, it was observed that those who perceive fewer resources will be less equipped to produce resource gains. Taking into consideration that employees require the use of resources to maintain personal resources, Australian employees have fewer resources at their disposal to maintain their personal resources (i.e. PsyCap).

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Matthew J. Xerri, Yvonne Brunetto, Benjamin Farr-Wharton and Ashley Cully

This research examines the extent to which emotional contagions are shaped by human resource practices (HRPs) and work harassment and the influence of this on employee…

Abstract

Purpose

This research examines the extent to which emotional contagions are shaped by human resource practices (HRPs) and work harassment and the influence of this on employee well-being and innovative behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined a structural equation model, including two waves of survey data from 240 healthcare professionals to explore the statistical associations between the tested variables.

Findings

The results do not show support for a significant relationship linking HRPs with work harassment. However, a significant positive effect linking HRPs, positive contagion, well-being and innovative behaviour was noted, in addition to a significant negative link from harassment on positive contagion, well-being and innovation behaviour.

Originality/value

The research highlights the limited role that HRPs (alone) play in mitigating harassment and their deleterious effects. Notwithstanding, HRPs can have a positive role in shaping the positive contagions and subsequent positive effects on employee and work outcomes.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Elisabetta Trinchero, Ben Farr-Wharton and Yvonne Brunetto

Using social exchange theory (SET) and Cooper’s (2000) model, the purpose of this paper is to operationalise a comprehensive model of safety culture and tests whether SET…

Abstract

Purpose

Using social exchange theory (SET) and Cooper’s (2000) model, the purpose of this paper is to operationalise a comprehensive model of safety culture and tests whether SET factors (supervisor-employee relationships and engagement) predict safety culture in a causal chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was tested using surveys from 648 healthcare staff in an Italian acute care hospital and analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

Safety behaviours of clinical staff can be explained by the quality of the supervisor-employee relationship, their engagement, their feelings about safety and the quality of organisational support.

Practical implications

The model provides a roadmap for strategically embedding effective safe behaviours. Management needs to improve healthcare staff’s workplace relationships to enhance engagement and to shape beliefs about safety practices.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is that it has empirically developed and tested a comprehensive model of safety culture that identifies a causal chain for healthcare managers to follow so as to embed an effective safety culture.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Matthew Xerri, Rod Farr-Wharton, Yvonne Brunetto and Dennis Lambries

The purpose of this paper is to compare the impact of management and colleagues on the perception of work harassment and outcomes of local government employees in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the impact of management and colleagues on the perception of work harassment and outcomes of local government employees in Australia and the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Completed surveys from local government employees (265 from the USA and 250 from Australia) were analysed using structural equation modelling and an ANOVA.

Findings

The results depict support for the overall measurement and structural models showing that workplace relationships impact on work harassment, and in turn employee outcomes (psychological wellbeing and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour-Individual (OCB-I)), although not all paths were accepted for each country. Statistically significant differences were found between the Australian and USA samples for both the measurement and structural models, with the sample from the USA showing much higher levels of satisfaction with workplace relationships, higher levels of psychological wellbeing, OCB-I, and lower perceptions of work harassment.

Practical implications

The findings provide implications that Australian and US local government employees, positioned closest to the public, experience work harassment probably as a result of chronic under-resourcing both in terms of manpower and other resources, and coupled with unrealistically high-performance targets. The results depict that such work harassment is resulting in lower psychological wellbeing (USA only) and lower extra-role behaviour associated with OCB-I (Australia and USA).

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that it benchmarks the impact of workplace relationships on work harassment for local government employees across two Anglo-American countries.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Matthew J. Xerri, Silvia A. Nelson, Yvonne Brunetto and Stuart R.M. Reid

Effective engineering asset management is essential in delivering public services safely whilst avoiding breakdowns and accidents. The purpose of this paper is to ensure…

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1816

Abstract

Purpose

Effective engineering asset management is essential in delivering public services safely whilst avoiding breakdowns and accidents. The purpose of this paper is to ensure asset safety and sustainability, public sector firms have to adopt new processes and practices. It is the role of supervisors to implement the changes, and as part of the new public management (NPM) public sector reforms, public sector asset managers have more discretionary power to implement further changes related to increased accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores the impact of management practices on supervisor-employee relationships and employees’ perception of autonomy, employees’ attitudes towards change and their perceptions of organisational culture within Australian public sector engineering asset management organisations, and in the context of NPM reforms and consequent changes in supervisory discretionary power. Social exchange theory provided the theoretical framework and a self-report survey was administered to 149 employees.

Findings

The findings from a structural equation model indicate positive and significant relationships between the variables in this study. A finding of significant interest was that public sector employees are on average slightly dissatisfied with their supervisors and feel they have a minimal amount of autonomy in the workplace. This may represent an unintended consequence of NPM reforms.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of the findings is that an effective relationship between supervisors and employees is a necessary ingredient for achieving change, and ensuring asset safety and sustainability. Social exchange theorists argue that the low level of satisfaction with the supervisors evident in this study is one factor compromising asset safety and sustainability.

Originality/value

The roadblocks to good supervisory relationships in the post NPM environment must be dismantled and the findings clearly indicate a need for targeted development of supervisors/management skills to ameliorate the negative effects of the NPM regime and enable effective change management.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Lars Tummers, Yvonne Brunetto and Stephen T.T. Teo

Public employees are often confronted with aggression from citizens, managers and colleagues. This is sometimes a function of having a monopoly position of many public…

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1523

Abstract

Purpose

Public employees are often confronted with aggression from citizens, managers and colleagues. This is sometimes a function of having a monopoly position of many public organizations. As a result, citizens cannot opt for alternative providers when not served well. This could give rise to aggression. Furthermore, increased budget cuts might give rise to higher stress, workload and consequential aggression at times. This paper analyzes articles on workplace aggression, both the three articles of this special issue and more broadly. The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers with methodological and theoretical future research suggestions for new studies on workplace aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review.

Findings

By taking new methodological and theoretical routes, scholars can contribute to the analysis and potential solutions concerning workplace aggression in the public sector. First, the authors advise researchers to move beyond cross-sectional surveys. Instead, diary studies, longitudinal studies and experimental methods (such as randomized control trials) should be increasingly used. Furthermore, scholars can focus more on theory development and testing. Future studies are advised to connect workplace aggression to theoretical models (such as the Job Demands-Resources model), to theories (for instance social learning theory) and to public administration concepts (such as public service motivation and trust in citizens).

Originality/value

This is one of the few articles within the public management literature which provides new methodological and theoretical directions for future research on workplace aggression.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Silvia Nelson, Yvonne Brunetto, Rodney Farr‐Wharton and Sheryl Ramsay

Small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) continue to make a major contribution to the Australian economy. However, research into organisational processes within SMEs has…

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3166

Abstract

Purpose

Small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) continue to make a major contribution to the Australian economy. However, research into organisational processes within SMEs has been limited to date. This study aims to examine the links between communication processes and organisational effectiveness in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study uses social capital theory as a framework to investigate whether employees' level of satisfaction with organisational communication processes affects organisational outcomes within three high growth manufacturing SMEs in one area of Australia.

Findings

Results indicate that organisational communication processes does affect employees' levels of ambiguity regarding customers, job satisfaction and commitment to their firms.

Research limitations/implications

While generalisability is limited because of the small number of SMEs participating in the study, the research indicates great potential for developing theoretical and practical insights into Australian SMEs that would assist industry and employees overall.

Practical implications

Implications for the growth strategies of SMEs, particularly in relation to the current skilled labour shortage, are discussed.

Originality/value

The paper contributes much needed theoretical development and research into SMEs.

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