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Institutional factors play an important and complex role in Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) location choices that do not seem to be influenced by a host…
Institutional factors play an important and complex role in Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) location choices that do not seem to be influenced by a host country’s high political risks. Moreover, the location choice for OFDI is key to corporate strategic decision-making on internationalization. Therefore, this study aims to examine the direct investments of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Laos.
Combining the purposive sampling strategy and snowball sampling method, the authors interviewed nine market- and resource-seeking Chinese enterprises in Laos. Drawing from the mainstream eclectic paradigm and the theory of new institutional economics, the authors analyzed two key variables – enterprise investment motivation and enterprise heterogeneity.
Chinese MNEs are not insensitive to the regressive institutional quality of host countries; the relationship effect and institutional distance are the location decision pathways along with which institutional factors influence Chinese multinationals’ investments in Laos; political stability is necessary for Chinese-funded enterprises to invest in Laos and the degree of corruption is an overestimated institutional preference factor.
The relationship effect is introduced into the analysis framework as an intermediate variable that influences the decision of MNEs to invest in countries with underdeveloped institutions. It verifies the significant roles of bilateral political relations and network relations in the OFDI location decisions of state-owned and private enterprises, respectively.
Construction works, which contributed to the built environment of the primitive, slave and feudal societies in ancient China, constitute an important component of Chinese…
Construction works, which contributed to the built environment of the primitive, slave and feudal societies in ancient China, constitute an important component of Chinese history. This paper discusses the nest and cave dwellings as well as the tools used in the primitive society (before 2100 BC) of China. Construction works in the Slave Society (2100‐500 BC) encompassed the construction of city walls as well as wood and earth structures, covering roofs, wall and floor facing, and drainage facilities. The invention of new building materials and construction tools as well as standardization in working procedures and material consumption are discussed in “Feudal society” (221 BC‐AD 1840). The paper suggests that the more than 5,000 years of rich history of construction works in China should not be ignored.
In the big data era, image compression is of significant importance in today’s world. Importantly, compression of large sized images is required for everyday tasks;…
In the big data era, image compression is of significant importance in today’s world. Importantly, compression of large sized images is required for everyday tasks; including electronic data communications and internet transactions. However, two important measures should be considered for any compression algorithm: the compression factor and the quality of the decompressed image. In this paper, we use Frei-Chen bases technique and the Modified Run Length Encoding (RLE) to compress images. The Frei-Chen bases technique is applied at the first stage in which the average subspace is applied to each 3 × 3 block. Those blocks with the highest energy are replaced by a single value that represents the average value of the pixels in the corresponding block. Even though Frei-Chen bases technique provides lossy compression, it maintains the main characteristics of the image. Additionally, the Frei-Chen bases technique enhances the compression factor, making it advantageous to use. In the second stage, RLE is applied to further increase the compression factor. The goal of using RLE is to enhance the compression factor without adding any distortion to the resultant decompressed image. Integrating RLE with Frei-Chen bases technique, as described in the proposed algorithm, ensures high quality decompressed images and high compression rate. The results of the proposed algorithms are shown to be comparable in quality and performance with other existing methods.