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Nearly a century ago, Max Weber studied Chinese lineage system and argued that the power of the patriarchal sib impeded the emergence of industrial capitalism in China…
Nearly a century ago, Max Weber studied Chinese lineage system and argued that the power of the patriarchal sib impeded the emergence of industrial capitalism in China. Recently, Martin Whyte re-evaluated Weber's thesis on the basis of development studies and argued that, rather than an obstacle, Chinese family pattern and lineage ties may have facilitated the economic growth in China since the 1980s. This paper empirically tests the competing hypotheses by focusing on the relationship between lineage networks and the development of rural enterprises. Analyses of village-level data show that lineage networks, measured by proportion of most common surnames, have large positive effects on the count of entrepreneurs and total workforce size of private enterprises in rural China.
Using the 1995 Third Industrial Census data in China, I explore the impact of inward FDI on the productivity performance of domestic SOEs. Multilevel analyses of city- and…
Using the 1995 Third Industrial Census data in China, I explore the impact of inward FDI on the productivity performance of domestic SOEs. Multilevel analyses of city- and firm-level data show that presence of FDI-related firms (sanzi qiye) in a city significantly improves the total factor productivity of SOEs that are located in the same city but not affiliated with FDI. I interpret the effects as not only technology spillovers but also as FDI-induced institutional innovations and reforms.
This study aims at providing exploratory insights into the initiative and capabilities of Chinese SMEs to develop and utilize diverse networks to support…
This study aims at providing exploratory insights into the initiative and capabilities of Chinese SMEs to develop and utilize diverse networks to support internationalization. Such network development and utilization efforts are fundamental to the analysis and explanation of Chinese firms’ internationalization patterns and outcomes. Extending from the existing network studies in the Chinese context that generally put emphasis on strong‐tie and ethnic‐oriented networks, this paper investigates and explains explicitly the use and effects of both strong‐ and weak‐tie networks in the international development of Chinese SMEs. Indepth case studies on four rapidly internationalized Chinese SMEs are conducted. The case findings demonstrate that weak‐tie networks are essential to the firms’ business development in foreign markets; and were proactively developed and utilized in the course of the firms’ development. The cases also provide alternative perspectives to the beliefs and values underpinning strong‐tie networks presumed in existing literature. The findings draw attention to the changing business values and approaches of the Chinese firms aiming at developing internationally. Managerial implications concerning the significant influence of effective networking on internationalization are pinpointed.
Thirty years of rapid development and economic change have created organizations and work relations in China that would have been unthinkable at the start of transition. In December of 1978, the Chinese Communist Party agreed with Deng Xiaoping to allow agricultural privatization, a stark contrast to the communes of Mao Zedong's era. This change established the financial foundation that would lead to development in eastern, coastal cities and that would ultimately fuel an extraordinary transformation of China's economy and its global position. As a result, organizational structures have changed, and new organizational forms have emerged. There have also been dramatic changes in the way work organizations behave and in the nature and implications of work. This volume provides a glimpse into the state of organizations and work at the 30-year mark. The contributors are top scholars in the field, including many who have observed and studied China's transition for decades, who are drawing on some of the most up-to-date and innovative data sources available. The chapters are samples of the current work of these researchers that, taken together, provide a snapshot of the state of research on China's organizations and work behaviors as transition enters its fourth decade.
The chapters in Part I highlight some of the central reasons for studying entrepreneurship at the aggregate, family, and individual levels. Lippmann, Davis, and Aldrich develop society level propositions about the relationship between inequality and entrepreneurship. They define entrepreneurship for both individuals and societies, and they argue that factors such as development, state policies, sector shifts, and changing labor market conditions affect levels of inequality and also increase incentives for entrepreneurship. The authors distinguish entrepreneurship undertaken out of necessity and entrepreneurship that takes advantage of market opportunities, and they propose that changing social and economic conditions affect entry into each type of entrepreneurship. The arguments presented in this chapter are well-grounded in previous theoretical and empirical research, but they ask about the relationship between entrepreneurship and inequality in a fresh, new way. Not only does this chapter clarify the factors that lead to entrepreneurship, but it also identifies new relationships between business start-ups and stratification that have not been explored previously.
As retailers have increasingly embraced an omnichannel retailing strategy, explaining and predicting the helpfulness of online review should consider both online-based and…
As retailers have increasingly embraced an omnichannel retailing strategy, explaining and predicting the helpfulness of online review should consider both online-based and offline-based reviews. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
Based on the signaling theory, this study intends to examine the impacts of review-related and reviewer-related signals on review helpfulness in the context of omnichannel retailing. The proposed research model and corresponding hypotheses were tested by using negative binomial regression.
The results shown that both review-related (review rating and review sentiment strength) and reviewer-related (reviewer real name and reviewer expertise) signals positively affect review helpfulness. Contrary to the authors’ expectations, review length negatively affects review helpfulness. Specifically, when the review submitted from an omnichannel retailer’s offline channel, the positive impacts of reviewer real name on review helpfulness will be stronger, and the positive impacts of reviewer expertise on review helpfulness will be weaker.
Unlike many previous studies tend to explore the antecedents of review helpfulness in a single-channel setting, the study examined the factors that affect review helpfulness in an omnichannel retailing context.
The main cause of aseptic inflammation after an in vivo implantation is that Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and Poly(D-lactide) have a slower degradation and absorption rate…
The main cause of aseptic inflammation after an in vivo implantation is that Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and Poly(D-lactide) have a slower degradation and absorption rate, while Poly(D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) has a much faster degradation rate than PLLA because of its amorphous structure. Also, the hydrolyzate of Hydroxyapatite (HA) is alkaline, which can neutralize local tissue peracid caused by hydrolysis of Polylactic acid.
In this study, the selective laser sintering (SLS) technique was chosen to prepare bone scaffolds using nano-HA/PDLLA composite microspheres, which were prepared by the solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) method. First, the SLS parameters range of bulk was determined by the result of a single-layer experiment and the optimized parameters were then obtained by the orthogonal experiment. The tensile property, hydrophobicity, biocompatibility, biological toxicity and in vitro degradation of the samples with optimized SLS parameters were characterized.
As a result, the samples showed a lower tensile strength because of the many holes in their interior, which was conducive to better cell adhesion and nutrient transport. In addition, the samples retained their inherent properties after SLS and the hydrophobicity was improved after adding nano-HA because of the OH group. Furthermore, the samples showed good biocompatibility with the large number of cells adhering to the material through pseudopods and there was no significant difference between the pure PDLLA and 10% HA/PDLLA in terms of biological toxicity. Finally, the degradation rate of the composites could be tailored by the amount of nano-HA.
This study combined the S/O/W and SLS technique and provides a theoretical future basis for the preparation of drug-loaded microsphere scaffolds through SLS using HA/PDLLA composites.