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Article

Meng Deng, Yunyi Wang and Peijing Li

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to research works in the distribution characteristics of the air gaps within firefighters’ clothing and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to research works in the distribution characteristics of the air gaps within firefighters’ clothing and research methods to evaluate the effect of air gaps on the thermal protective performance of firefighters’ clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the distribution of air gaps within firefighters’ clothing was first analyzed, and the air gaps characteristics were summarized as thickness, location, heterogeneity, orientation and dynamics. Then, the evaluation of the air gap on the thermal protective performance of fighters’ clothing was reviewed for both experimental and numerical studies.

Findings

The air gaps within clothing layers and between clothing and skin play an important role in determining the thermal protective performance of firefighters’ protective clothing. It is obvious that research works on the effects of actual air gaps entrapped in firefighters’ clothing on thermal protection are comparatively few in number, primarily focusing on static and uniform air gaps at the fabric level. Further studies should be conducted to define the characteristic of air gap, deepen the understand of mechanism of heat transfer and numerically simulate the 3D dynamic heat transfer in clothing to improve the evaluation of thermal protective performance provided by the firefighters’ clothing.

Practical implications

Air gaps within thermal protective clothing play a crucial role in the protective performance of clothing and provide an efficient way to provide fire-fighting occupational safety. To accurately characterize the distribution of air gaps in firefighters’ clothing under high heat exposure, the paper will provide guidelines for clothing engineers to design clothing for fighters and optimize the clothing performance.

Originality/value

This paper is offered as a concise reference for researchers’ further research in the area of the effect of air gaps within firefighters’ clothing under thermal exposure.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Meng Deng, Miao Tian, Yunyi Wang and Min Wang

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of flash fire exposure on the mechanical properties of single-layer thermal protective clothing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of flash fire exposure on the mechanical properties of single-layer thermal protective clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

The full-scale flame manikin tests were performed to simulate flash fire exposure. Two typical fire-resistant fabrics were investigated. The manikin was divided into seven body parts and the specimens meeting the requirements of tensile and tear strength standards were sampled. Fabric thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength and tear strength were measured and analyzed.

Findings

The results revealed the significant influence of heat flux on both of tensile and tear strength. However, the regression analysis indicated the low R2 of the liner models. When the tensile and tear strength retention were reorganized based on the body parts, both of the multiple linear regression models for tensile and tear strength showed higher R2 than the one-variable linear regressions. Furthermore, the R2 of the multiple linear regression model for tear strength retention was remarkably higher than that of the tensile strength.

Practical implications

The findings suggested that greater attention should be paid to the local part of human body and more factors such as the air gap should be considered in the future thermal aging of firefighters’ clothing studies.

Originality/value

The outcomes provided useful information to evaluate the mechanical properties of thermal protective clothing and predict its service life.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Shitan Wang, Xiuhua Wang and Yunyi Wang

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of clothing ease and body postures on the size and distribution of the air gap as well as the body coverage with the clothing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of clothing ease and body postures on the size and distribution of the air gap as well as the body coverage with the clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

Visual and quantitative analyses were conducted using a 3D body scanner and Geomagic Software. The air gap size and clothing area factor (fcl) in three test coverall and seven selected postures were calculated and compared.

Findings

The results indicated that both the clothing ease and body postures had a strong effect on the air gap and clothing coverage, especially the more complex the postures, the wider the range of influence. Nevertheless, these effects varied over body regions, being stronger at the lower body than the upper body. The air gap size at the left side of the body was generally larger than the right side. It was also found that the clothing coverage was linearly correlated with the air gap size and could be employed as an indicator to evaluate clothing protective capabilities.

Practical implications

The findings suggested that greater attention should be paid to the protection and flexibility at the lower body and asymmetrical distribution of the air gap should be considered in the future air gap modeling.

Originality/value

The outcomes provided useful information to improve the protective clothing and develop more realistic air gap models to simulate the heat and mass transfer.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Jingxian Xu, Huijuan Liu, Yunyi Wang and Jun Li

This study aims to investigate the heat transfer mechanism of the uniforms used by people working in hot, humid and windy environments. Furthermore, the effectiveness of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the heat transfer mechanism of the uniforms used by people working in hot, humid and windy environments. Furthermore, the effectiveness of an opening structure added to the armpit of the uniforms in improving thermal comfort was comparatively examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of uniforms was tested with the opening at the armpit alternatively zipped or unzipped. Thermal manikin and human tests were performed in a climatic chamber simulating the specific environmental conditions, including wind speeds at four levels (0.15, 0.5, 2, 4 m/s) and relative humidities at two levels (50 and 85%). Static and dynamic thermal insulations of clothing (IT) were examined by the thermal manikin tests. The human bodies' thermal responses, including heart rates (HR), eardrum temperatures (Te), skin temperatures (Tsk) and subjective perceptions, were given by the human tests.

Findings

Special mechanisms of heat transfer in the specific uniforms used in tropical monsoon climates were revealed. Reductions on IT were caused by the movement of the human body and the environmental wind, and the empirical equations would underestimate this reduction. The opening at the armpit was able to prompt more heat transfer under dynamic condition, with reducing the IT by 11.8%, lowering the mean Tsk by 0.92°C, and significantly improving the subjective perceptions (p < 0.05). The heat exhaustion was alleviated with lowering the Te by 0.32°C.

Originality/value

This study managed to improve the thermal performance of uniforms for workers under unforgiving conditions. The evaluation and design methods introduced by this study provided practical guidance for similar products with strict dress codes and cost control requirements based on the findings from thorough product tests and analysis.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Lina Zhai, Xue Lin, Jingxian Xu, Yunyi Wang and Jun Li

Personal protective assembles protect searchers and rescuers from potential hazards when they enter the earthquake disaster field. Since the earthquake rescue work is…

Abstract

Purpose

Personal protective assembles protect searchers and rescuers from potential hazards when they enter the earthquake disaster field. Since the earthquake rescue work is risky and complicated, the corresponding protective clothing should meet with the protective, functional and comfort performance demands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design principles of this kind of protective clothing and present a design model based on the principles.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the requirements of the protective clothing were investigated in terms of environment, human and clothing. Then the design principles were analyzed by the hierarchy method in four aspects: protection, comfort, ergonomics and compatibility. Design approaches were also investigated in accordance with the design principles in three hierarchies.

Findings

Key design points were summarized in the selection of the shell fabrics and linings, clothing styles, constructions and specifications. Also, the overall design methodology of the protective clothing for earthquake rescue members was established.

Originality/value

This paper provided a theoretical basis and design model for the development of earthquake search and rescuers’ clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Yun Su, Miao Tian, Yunyi Wang, Xianghui Zhang and Jun Li

The purpose of this paper is to study heat and steam transfer in a vertical air gap and improve thermal protective performance of protective clothing under thermal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study heat and steam transfer in a vertical air gap and improve thermal protective performance of protective clothing under thermal radiation and hot steam.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment-based model was introduced to analyze heat and moisture transfer in the vertical air gap between the protective clothing and human body. A developed test apparatus was used to simulate different air gap sizes (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 mm). The protective clothing with different air gap sizes was subjected to dry and wet heat exposures.

Findings

The increase of the air gap size reduced the heat and moisture transfer from the protective clothing to the skin surface under both heat exposures. The minimum air gap size for the initiation of natural convection in the dry heat exposure was between 6 and 9 mm, while the air gap size for the occurrence of natural convection was increased in the wet heat exposure. In addition, the steam mass flux presented a sharp decrease with the rising of the air gap size, followed by a stable state, mainly depending on the molecular diffusion and the convection mass transfer.

Originality/value

This research provides a better understanding of the optimum air gap under the protective clothing, which contributes to the design of optimum air gap size that provided higher thermal protection against dry and wet heat exposures.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Xue Lin, Lina Zhai, Mengying Zhang, Yunyi Wang and Jun Li

The ergonomic performance of protective clothing for earthquake disaster search and rescue team members is significant for its protective performance. The paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The ergonomic performance of protective clothing for earthquake disaster search and rescue team members is significant for its protective performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

By experimental simulations of the rescue tasks, an evaluation system for the protective clothing in both static and dynamic conditions was designed and established in this study. In static evaluation, motion capture system was used to measure the ranges of motions. The mobility was analyzed by the comprehensive evaluation method. In dynamic experiments, three types of rescue tasks were simulated for ergonomic evaluation. The results were analyzed based on the multi-levels joint evaluation method.

Findings

It was shown that the established evaluation system could meet well with the requirements of the ergonomic evaluation.

Originality/value

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is an effective tool in ergonomic evaluation of clothing. The newly designed coverall and suit are of better ergonomic performance compared with the in-service clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Jun Li, Yunyi Wang and Nancy L. Cassill

After China's accession to the WTO, different formats of retailing outlets have emerged and competition within China's apparel retail market has become keener. This paper…

Abstract

After China's accession to the WTO, different formats of retailing outlets have emerged and competition within China's apparel retail market has become keener. This paper presents a comparison research on four influential retailing outlets in the current Shanghai apparel retail market: upscale shopping centers, modern shopping malls, joint discount superstores (joint ventures with foreign retail giants), and manufacturers' wholly‐owned flagship stores (factory outlets). Corresponding to each retailing outlet, Plaza 66, Grand‐Gateway Mall, Carrefour Store in Quyang Road, and Youngor Flagship Store in Nanjing Road are studied, with an investigation of apparel brands covered by each. The results identify the four retailing outlets' characteristics, and future prospects in the Chinese apparel retail market are discussed.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article

Yun Su, Yunyi Wang and Jun Li

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to researchers in test apparatus and evaluation methods to rate the thermal protective performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to researchers in test apparatus and evaluation methods to rate the thermal protective performance (TPP) of firefighters’ clothing under high-temperature and high-humidity condition.

Design/methodology/approach

This review paper describes the influence laws of moisture on thermal protection and the moisture distribution in actual fire environment. Different evaluation methods used for assessing the effect of moisture on the TPP were investigated, with an emphasis on test devices, evaluation indexes as well as their relationship and limitations.

Findings

The moisture from the ambient, clothing and human perspiration plays an important role in determining the TPP of firefighter protective clothing. It is obvious that research on moisture-driven heat transfer in firefighter’s clothing system are comparatively little, primarily focussing on pre-wetted methods of multi-layer fabric. Further studies should be conducted to develop more standardized moistening systems and improve the current calculation methods for evaluating the performance of protective clothing. New explorations for heat and moisture transfer mechanism in protective clothing should be investigated.

Practical implications

Protective clothing is the efficient way to provide fire-fighting occupational safety. To accurately evaluate the TPP of protective clothing under high-temperature and high-humidity condition will help to optimize the clothing performance and choose the proper clothing for providing firefighters with the best protection under multiple thermal hazards.

Originality/value

This paper is offered as a concise reference for scientific community further research in the area of the TPP evaluation methods under high-temperature and high-humidity condition.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Shi yuan Wang, Yang Zhao and Liuying Wen

To enhance the detection efficiency of printed circuit board (PCB) soldered dot, this study aims to detect PCB soldered dot with image processing method.

Abstract

Purpose

To enhance the detection efficiency of printed circuit board (PCB) soldered dot, this study aims to detect PCB soldered dot with image processing method.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a series of image processing algorithms, threshold segmentation and feature extraction of the solder joint images were completed; then, sphericity was confirmed based on the area and perimeter, as well as the shape parameter and eccentricity ratio of the calculated region, paving the way for defect pattern recognition.

Findings

It proves that the method with high efficiency and precision can satisfy the requirements of PCB soldered dot detection.

Originality/value

This paper is original in presenting a method for PCB welding spot detection.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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