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Article

Febi Trihermanto and Yunieta Anny Nainggolan

This paper aims to examine the association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate life cycle as well as dividend policy in Indonesia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate life cycle as well as dividend policy in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops two hypotheses that are tested empirically through multivariate settings. The tests are conducted using a sample of 527 Indonesian listed firms and 923 Indonesian firm-year observations between 2008 and 2015.

Findings

The findings support the hypothesis that CSR expenses increase when firms enter the maturity stage of their life cycle. On the triple bottom line components of CSR, firms which invest on CSR economic are in their maturity stage of their life cycle. The evidence also suggests that firms’ social donation and charitable giving increase as firms become mature. Furthermore, the strong evidence supports the hypothesis that firms’ CSR expenses positively affect dividend policy. This finding is robust to the alternative measurement of dividend payout, additional firms’ characteristics and instrumental variable to address endogeneity.

Practical implications

For investors in Indonesian listed firms, it is more profitable to invest in socially responsible firms than socially irresponsible firms. For firms, the results imply that spending in CSR does not reduce performance, thus becoming attractive for investors.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is thin literature investigating the relation between corporate life cycle, CSR, and dividend policy in emerging markets while it is important as it could encourage companies to integrate CSR into their business strategy and transparently disclose their CSR activities. Further, as previous research on these topics mainly conducted using the US data (Rakotomavo, 2012; Benlemlih, 2014; Hasan and Habib, 2017), which most of CSR disclosures are voluntary, this paper contributes to the existing literature by examining these topics in a country where CSR is mandatory by the law.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article

En Te Chen and Yunieta Anny Nainggolan

Despite the benefits of international diversification, the home equity bias phenomenon is well documented in the portfolio choice literature. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the benefits of international diversification, the home equity bias phenomenon is well documented in the portfolio choice literature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the same investment behavior applies to domestic socially responsible investments (SRIs) where ethical screenings should be the selection criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply the model by Coval and Moskowitz (1999), Grinblatt and Keloharju (2001) and Agarwal and Hauswald (2010) to uncover the effect of distance relative to screenings on SRI domestic portfolio choice. For the first time, the authors test the robustness of distance effect by using time bias, which is the travel time between the fund manager and the company’s headquarter.

Findings

The authors find that SRIs exhibit a strong preference for locally headquartered firms. After controlling for screening activity and other fund characteristics, the authors still find a strong distance bias in SRI fund portfolio decision-making. The authors find that this bias is mostly observed in SRI fund with social screening and that fund holding characteristics determine the propensity of fund managers to invest locally. The results suggest that the local bias puzzle exists in SRI.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides avenue for future research to examine whether the same local bias is found in SRI investment in other countries where they have different characteristics and behavior. Also, the evidence that local bias exists in SRI investment may need further analysis as to whether this is conflicting with the objectives of SRI, which focus more on ethical beliefs.

Practical implications

The results suggest that many local firms in the same city currently held by an SRI fund will not be held by this fund if it is in another city. The implications of the findings are that geographic proximity, along with ethical screenings, is an important dimension to how SRI fund invests.

Originality/value

This study is the first that examines local bias in SRI funds by using portfolio holding data.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article

Sita deliyana Firmialy and Yunieta Anny Nainggolan

This study aims to focus on developing the sustainability reporting index (SRI) with combined perspectives from varied social rating agencies, along with integrated…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on developing the sustainability reporting index (SRI) with combined perspectives from varied social rating agencies, along with integrated combined perspectives from academics experts and Indonesian companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The first section discusses the theoretical framework along with the sustainability challenges faced by companies in Indonesia. The second section develops the methodology of the study to measure the SRI by considering practical and theoretical perspectives, starting from the identification of initial disclosure, selecting the final disclosure and developing the hierarchical framework. Lastly, the third section confirms the validity of the study’s framework by the exploratory factor analysis method and its comparability by comparing the content analysis result of the study with the Kinder–Lydenberg–Domini (KLD) method. The content analysis was used to analyze annual reports, sustainability reports and companies’ websites based on indicators found in the resulted model.

Findings

The main finding is the SRI framework (SRIF) of the study, which is built on the basis of the stakeholder relationship theory and is focused on three main dimensions (social, economic and environmental). Specifically, the framework consists of 17 indicators and 93 sub-indicators. On the basis of factor analysis method, it can be safely said that the study’s SRIF is quite valid. The high score of correlations between the SRIF and KLD results at the composite and dimension levels, along with the statistically significant results show that the study’s SRIF results and KLD results are fairly similar.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has its limitation as it only gathers data from publicly available reports issued by the firms (secondary data). Owing to time limitation, primary data are not collected. However, this is also the strength of this research as it will allow investors to replicate the study’s methodology to measure companies’ sustainability.

Practical implications

The study is useful to organizations and statutory bodies toward finding a replicable method to measure the Indonesian companies’ social performance. In addition, the study also introduced the usefulness of the qualitative program Atlas TI to perform content analysis, the exploratory factor analysis method to ensure validity and comparability by comparing it to the KLD methodology, which is known globally as the most widely accepted methodology to measures social performance. Lastly, this study will provide implications to the Government to ascertain the level of SRI reporting among the Indonesian public-listed companies.

Originality/value

The resulted framework in this study simultaneously considers social, environmental and economic factors in the context of companies in Indonesia, while previous researchers have constructed reporting index separately (i.e. Sumiani et al., 2007; Zhao et al., 2012). Especially in the context of Indonesia, there is no such index simultaneously focused on the three main dimensions, namely, social, environmental and economics. The current study tries to fill the gap by using the constructed SRI index based on three perspectives combined, namely, social rating agencies, academic theorist and Indonesian companies.

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