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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Rajib Shaw, Yukiko Takeuchi and Koichi Shiwaku

Among the above arguments, one of the most important issues is the rights-based approach. Disasters are often seen as humanitarian affairs, and DRR is usually not linked…

Abstract

Among the above arguments, one of the most important issues is the rights-based approach. Disasters are often seen as humanitarian affairs, and DRR is usually not linked to the “rights” issues in a proactive way. However, linking the child-centered DRR to a rights-based approach is new thinking, which needs further strengthening in its implementation through appropriate governance support. The “rights” referred to are the right for life, right to education, right to health, and right to participation. Built on varied legal systems and cultural traditions, the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is a universally-agreed set of non-negotiable standards and obligations. These basic standards – also called human rights – set minimum entitlements and freedoms that should be respected by governments. With these rights comes the obligation of both governments and individuals not to infringe on the parallel rights of others. These standards are both interdependent and indivisible; we cannot ensure some rights without – or at the expense of – other rights. Therefore, it is important and necessary to link DRR to children's rights.

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Farah Mulyasari, Yukiko Takeuchi and Rajib Shaw

Following the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action, various disaster educational materials (UN/ISDR, 2006) that are described as “tools,” taken in various forms such…

Abstract

Following the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action, various disaster educational materials (UN/ISDR, 2006) that are described as “tools,” taken in various forms such as in printed materials (booklets, leaflets, textbooks, handbooks/guidebooks, and posters) and nonprinted materials (activities, games, and practices) were developed. These tools have an important function in communicating the disaster education to the public via formal, non-formal, and informal education, which may take place at school, at home, and/or within the community. In addition, media may also serve as a communication tool. Talero (2004) proposed that the modern communications nowadays have provided information for the growing public demand for related information, which can be used as educational aids to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and civic awareness.

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Rajib Shaw, Yukiko Takeuchi, Qi Ru Gwee and Koichi Shiwaku

It has been widely acknowledged that education takes on a pivotal role in reducing disasters and achieving human security in the attempt to achieve sustainable…

Abstract

It has been widely acknowledged that education takes on a pivotal role in reducing disasters and achieving human security in the attempt to achieve sustainable development. Previous experiences have shown positive effects of education in disaster risk management. Children who have been taught about the phenomenon of disasters and how to react to those situations have proved to be able to respond promptly and appropriately, thereby warning others and protecting themselves during times of emergencies. One of the classic examples illustrating the power of knowledge and education is the story of the 10-year-old British schoolgirl, Tilly Smith, who warned the tourists to flee to safety moments before the Indian Ocean tsunami engulfed the coast, saving over 100 tourists' lives in 2004. She had recognized the signs of an approaching tsunami after learning about the phenomenon in her geography lessons at school, just weeks before visiting Thailand (UN/ISDR, 2006a). Although the United Kingdom is not a tsunami-prone country and the schoolgirl did not have any previous experiences, with the knowledge acquired at school, she was able to save the lives of many.

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Yukiko Takeuchi, Farah Mulyasari and Rajib Shaw

Generally, family and community have a great deal of local experience and local knowledge of disaster. Disaster education for family and community is aimed at recognizing…

Abstract

Generally, family and community have a great deal of local experience and local knowledge of disaster. Disaster education for family and community is aimed at recognizing the characteristics of a disaster and the existing social situation for the purpose of acquiring general knowledge of disasters, usually at school. Community and family structures and roles differ according to character and location such as urban, rural, coastal, near rivers, and near mountains, among others. In recent times, people's participation in the community has been affected by social changes. Earlier, historical local disaster prevention methods were passed on to other family/community members through daily activity. Recently, however, the characteristics of disasters have changed such that people now need to prepare for disasters of which they have no experience and about which they have difficulty obtaining information. It is thus necessary for communities and families to know different scenarios of disaster. “Community-Based Disaster Risk Management” is difficult to establish without linking community and household. For instance, many types of associations can be found in the community, but some do not play a direct role in disaster prevention and management. However, these associations have strong human relationships and much local knowledge. As an example, family members traditionally take care of children and old and handicapped people. Presently, lifestyles and social systems have changed such as long-distance commuting, both husband and wife working, weak family relationships, fewer children, aging, and unstable economies, among others. It is therefore necessary to carry out disaster prevention education aimed at building local capacity for disaster prevention, after determining the situation in the community and family and the roles people in the community play.

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Rajib Shaw, Fuad Mallick and Yukiko Takeuchi

When discussing disaster education, the usual focus in more on the school or family or community education. Very little focus has been given so far to higher education…

Abstract

When discussing disaster education, the usual focus in more on the school or family or community education. Very little focus has been given so far to higher education. However, higher education (college and university) is the key to professional development in the subject. Higher education in disasters is still lacking in most countries and regions. In this context, the lessons of environment or the field of sustainable development can provide useful tips. Of equal importance to higher education is not only the curriculum, but the approach or mode of delivery. To develop an appropriate higher education, a system of educational governance is important (COE, 2005). Given the role education has for overall societal and economic development, it is necessary to ensure the responsiveness of higher education to the changing needs and expectations of society. In this respect, it is important to ensure participation of external actors in the governance of higher education and to allow the flexibility to accommodate the continually change needs and requirements over time. COE (2005) made several recommendations for higher education that can be considered as the base of disaster education in colleges and universities. These include: serving the needs and expectations of the society, having appropriate academic freedom, having a process of setting up long-terms goals and developing appropriate strategies for achieving them, providing reasonable scope of innovation and flexibility in research, promoting good educational governance through regional and international networks, and ensuring quality control of teachers and students.

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Qi Ru Gwee, Rajib Shaw and Yukiko Takeuchi

The importance of education in disaster risk reduction has been emphasized in several international agendas, frameworks, conferences, as well as UN programs. Chapter 36 of…

Abstract

The importance of education in disaster risk reduction has been emphasized in several international agendas, frameworks, conferences, as well as UN programs. Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, on “Promoting Education, Public Awareness and Training” stated, “Education, including formal education, public awareness and training, should be recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential” (UNEP, 1992). Furthermore, the UN/ISDR System Thematic Cluster/Platform on Knowledge and Education argued that “Education for disaster risk reduction is an interactive process of mutual learning among people and institutions. It encompasses far more than formal education at schools and universities, and involves the recognition and use of traditional wisdom and local knowledge for protection from natural hazard” (UN/ISDR, 2005). In the 2006 Review of the Role of Education and Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction, Professor Ben Wisner commented, “Education, knowledge and awareness are critical to building the ability to reduce losses from natural hazards, as well as the capacity to respond to and recover effectively from extreme natural events when they do, inevitably, occur” (Wisner, 2006). The Second Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (2007, India) urged governments to make school safety and the integration of disaster risk reduction into school curricula a priority on the national agenda (UN/ISDR, 2007a). The Third Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (2008, Malaysia) recognized education as an essential contribution to effective implementation of disaster risk reduction and concrete impact in terms of shifts in behaviors at the local level, where communities are most vulnerable to disasters (UN/ISDR, 2008). Last but not least, the UNESCO Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) program emphasized that “Education is the primary agent of transformation toward sustainable development, increasing people's capacities to transform their visions for society into reality” (UNESCO, 2005a).

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

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