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Wonders whether, owing to severely restricted access, China’s government policy towards digital communications will remain in a constant state of flux – or will it gain…
Wonders whether, owing to severely restricted access, China’s government policy towards digital communications will remain in a constant state of flux – or will it gain economic benefits without a social penalty? Concludes that China has to link the forces of change to channel and deflect domestic resistance.
Analyses the evolution of China’s telephone and cable systems, in terms of the public interest, discussing current bureaucratic conflicts and policy debates over…
Analyses the evolution of China’s telephone and cable systems, in terms of the public interest, discussing current bureaucratic conflicts and policy debates over convergence, and construction of an independent broadband cable network. Looks in depth at China’s problems and the different problems for its citizens with regard to poverty levels and access to the Web.
To examine “universal service” as a policy objective in post‐WTO accession Chinese telecommunications and analyze the challenges of the Chinese telecommunications system…
To examine “universal service” as a policy objective in post‐WTO accession Chinese telecommunications and analyze the challenges of the Chinese telecommunications system in defining and promoting public service ethos in a country that is marked by staggering disparities.
A range of media, academic, industry, and policy discourses on “universal service” and a broader notion of “public service,” together with recent government efforts in promoting “universal service,” are examined and assessed to develop an analysis of the uneven nature of China's telecommunications development and reveal the dynamics of “universal service” policy formation, as well as the impetuses and impediments in developing any notion of public service telecommunications in China.
Public service issues in China need to be situated within a continuing process of uneven development which comprises dimensions other than residential telephone access. Although the ultimate policy goal appears to develop a nationally accessible telecommunications infrastructure as the basis of a unified national economy, this overall objective is beset by conflicts and contingent on the dynamics of elite and popular struggles over and beyond telecommunications development. Despite the spectacular expansion in telephone access, pragmatic concessions to dominant power groups, rather than a principled commitment to “universal service,” let alone efforts to define the social functions of telecommunications in more democratic ways, have shaped the development of China's telecommunications.
The development of China's telecommunications infrastructure offers lessons both as to the likelihood of successfully establishing an integrated national economy, and the role of public service in that context. However, the Chinese telecommunications policy field remains extremely fluid.
This paper aims to propose and establish a set of new benchmark models to investigate and confidently validate the modeling and prediction of total stray-field loss inside…
This paper aims to propose and establish a set of new benchmark models to investigate and confidently validate the modeling and prediction of total stray-field loss inside magnetic and non-magnetic components under harmonics-direct current (HDC) hybrid excitations. As a new member-set (P21e) of the testing electromagnetic analysis methods Problem 21 Family, the focus is on efficient analysis methods and accurate material property modeling under complex excitations.
This P21e-based benchmarking covers the design of new benchmark models with magnetic flux compensation, the establishment of a new benchmark measurement system with HDC hybrid excitation, the formulation of the testing program (such as defined Cases I–V) and the measurement and prediction of material properties under HDC hybrid excitations, to test electromagnetic analysis methods and finite element (FE) computation models and investigate the electromagnetic behavior of typical magnetic and electromagnetic shields in electrical equipment.
The updated Problem 21 Family (V.2021) can now be used to investigate and validate the total power loss and the different shielding performance of magnetic and electromagnetic shields under various HDC hybrid excitations, including the different spatial distributions of the same excitation parameters. The new member-set (P21e) with magnetic flux compensation can experimentally determine the total power loss inside the load-component, which helps to validate the numerical modeling and simulation with confidence. The additional iron loss inside the laminated sheets caused by the magnetic flux normal to the laminations must be correctly modeled and predicted during the design and analysis. It is also observed that the magnetic properties (B27R090) measured in the rolling and transverse directions with different direct current (DC) biasing magnetic field are quite different from each other.
The future benchmarking target is to study the effects of stronger HDC hybrid excitations on the internal loss behavior and the microstructure of magnetic load components.
This paper proposes a new extension of Problem 21 Family (1993–2021) with the upgraded excitation, involving multi-harmonics and DC bias. The alternating current (AC) and DC excitation can be applied at the two sides of the model’s load-component to avoid the adverse impact on the AC and DC power supply and investigate the effect of different AC and DC hybrid patterns on the total loss inside the load-component. The overall effectiveness of numerical modeling and simulation is highlighted and achieved via combining the efficient electromagnetic analysis methods and solvers, the reliable material property modeling and prediction under complex excitations and the precise FE computation model using partition processing. The outcome of this project will be beneficial to large-scale and high-performance numerical modeling.
- New member-set
- TEAM Problem 21 Family
- Overall effectiveness
- Harmonics-DC hybrid excitation
- Magnetic flux compensation
- Stray-field loss
- Additional loss
- Material property under complex excitations
- Electromagnetic fields
- Numerical analysis
- Power losses
- Transient analysis
- Material modeling
- Computational electromagnetics
This study aims to identify senior citizens’ requirements related to “embedded retirement facilities (ERFs)”, which are small-scale, multi-functional and community-based…
This study aims to identify senior citizens’ requirements related to “embedded retirement facilities (ERFs)”, which are small-scale, multi-functional and community-based care facilities for senior citizens in mainland China, and to discuss whether senior citizens’ perceptions are influenced by their backgrounds.
A questionnaire type of research was administrated to gain senior citizens’ rankings of services that should be provided by ERFs. Non-parametric statistical models were applied to analyse the collected data.
Results reveal that health care services for senior citizens are considered the most important. Requirements regarding rehabilitation and entertainment and daily life assistance are ranked second and third, respectively. Culture-related activities are the least important. Differences in the senior citizens’ background also influence their choices.
This research is based on a questionnaire survey completed in northeast China. Opinions from other areas of mainland China will be collected in the future study. Furthermore, the key items identified in this research, which was completed by participants from the built environment discipline, can be further elaborated by combining interdisciplinary feedback.
This study explores services that are supposedly provided by ERFs. Findings will provide useful perceptions from senior citizens and will enable decision makers to prioritise services for senior citizens.
Although senior citizens are the end users of ERFs, their needs are easily overlooked. This study calls attention to their needs from ERFs, and the results are likely to serve as references for stakeholders in building improved facilities.
ERFs have been provided in mainland China to cater to senior citizens’ needs since 2014. However, few studies have identified senior citizens’ requirements for provided services. The survey-based results of this work will serve as references for various stakeholders in making enhanced decisions.