The purpose of this paper is to produce a high-quality measure of the nature of healthcare resources available in China’s Township Health Centers (THCs), paying particular…
The purpose of this paper is to produce a high-quality measure of the nature of healthcare resources available in China’s Township Health Centers (THCs), paying particular attention to equity between high- and low-income areas.
This study makes use of data from a nearly nationally representative survey in rural China conducted by the Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2011. The samples of towns were selected randomly from 25 counties located in five provinces from different regions of China. Data were collected through questionnaires and direct observation.
The THCs located in rich areas have higher levels of human resources than poor areas. THCs in rich areas also have more fixed assets than those in poor areas. In fact, even though the Chinese Ministry of Health mandates that all THCs have certain basic levels of medical equipment and facilities, many THCs in poor areas do not have them. The allocation of mandated equipment is unequal.
These findings suggest that China’s government should pay more attention to THCs located in poor areas, especially in light of new initiatives to improve health care in poor rural areas.
This is the first nationally representative study to employ rigorous empirics to investigate the extent of inequality in allocation of resources within THCs across China.
Six Sigma has been one of main quality improvement approaches since Motorola first invented Six Sigma in 1987. Many scholars and consult experts have discussed the…
Six Sigma has been one of main quality improvement approaches since Motorola first invented Six Sigma in 1987. Many scholars and consult experts have discussed the critical success factors of implementing Six Sigma management, but most of them are based on related theories or qualitative analyses. In the paper, we first review critical success factor of Six Sigma status quo based on literature. Then we design the questionnaire and survey China manufacturing enterprises that have introduced Six Sigma management. And finally, we analyze the critical success factors of China manufacturing industry implementing Six Sigma management by using structural equation model and find that leadership and Six Sigma strategy, focus on market and customer, evaluation and motivation, selecting, managing and implementing Six Sigma projects are four critical success factors of China manufacturing enterprises implementing Six Sigma management. At the same time, the paper also presents the relationships between the critical success factors. The results are of important role in China manufacturing industry locating resources, eliminating waste and improving Six Sigma performance.
To modernize budgeting system is a challenge issue in many developing countries. To some scholars (Schick, 1998a, 1998b; Ma, 2009a), developing countries must first put…
To modernize budgeting system is a challenge issue in many developing countries. To some scholars (Schick, 1998a, 1998b; Ma, 2009a), developing countries must first put into place basic budgetary controls before moving to more advanced models of budgeting. This approach of “basic first,” however, is questioned by others (e.g., Andrew, 2006). Drawing on China's recent budget reforms, this essay reconfirms the validity of the “basics first” approach. In China, budget reform since 1999 has begun to install budgetary controls for state finance, leading to an enhancement of budgeting capacity and financial accountability. However, governments at the same time have begun to be plagued by the unexpected problem of delays in spending and the accumulation of significant underexpenditures. Contrary to what many people may believe, we contend that this somewhat odd problem arises not because the new budgeting system has exercised too much control but rather because the new system is not yet effective in exerting budgetary controls.
The Chinese criminal justice system has undergone significant changes in the past 20 years. An important aspect of the changes is the promulgation of a series of laws that…
The Chinese criminal justice system has undergone significant changes in the past 20 years. An important aspect of the changes is the promulgation of a series of laws that are essential to the criminal justice operation. In 1996, the National People’s Congress promulgated the amended Criminal Procedure Law (CPL). The amended law in many aspects has expanded the rights of defendants and suspects. But the preliminary research on the implementation of the amended CPL indicates that due to the lack of a culture of respect for the law on the part of the police and the deficiencies contained in the amended CPL, the protections afforded to suspects are far from being properly implemented by the police. Introduces to readers the legislative progress made in the amended CPL, examines various problems that arise in the implementation of the amended CPL, and offers suggestions as to what needs to be done further to assure better protections of suspects’ rights at the police investigatory stage.
Since the early 1980s, with the implementation of the policy of economic modernization, China has experienced a significant increase in crime. In order to meet the…
Since the early 1980s, with the implementation of the policy of economic modernization, China has experienced a significant increase in crime. In order to meet the challenge of the rising crime rate under the new social and economic conditions, China has implemented a series of police reforms. Based on the newly promulgated Police Law and other relevant laws and regulations, discusses the organization, functions, powers and accountability issues of the contemporary Chinese police system.
The case is suitable for students with diverse backgrounds – from different countries with different cultures, and from different programs (undergraduate or graduate). The case will be used for an all-English course “The research of Chinese stock markets” and has been used for the course “Portfolio theory and management” (junior student level) at Nankai University.
The case introduces Chinese stock markets' uniqueness that there exists a huge number of previously nontradable shares. The release of the shares radically changes the markets' balance and causes the absolute dominance of stock supply over stock demand. Based on the analysis for ICBC, the case demonstrates that the dominance can explain the drop of ICBC's stock price by supply-demand law but fundamental analysis cannot.
Expected learning outcomes
The case will help students to understand the uniqueness of Chinese stock markets and the applicability of supply-demand law in the markets and then be able to make investment decisions.
The case can help to educate not only students but also Chinese and foreign investors about the uniqueness of Chinese stock markets and arm the students and investors with the supply-demand methodology to analyse the markets and the reasoning of when and how to invest.
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The exclusionary rule remains one of the most controversial doctrines in America’s constitutionalized criminal procedure. Jurists and commentators criticize the American…
The exclusionary rule remains one of the most controversial doctrines in America’s constitutionalized criminal procedure. Jurists and commentators criticize the American exclusionary rule as a rule unique to American jurisprudence. Though American jurists and commentators’ criticism focuses on the Fourth Amendment exclusionary rule, the criticism of the American exclusionary rule with reference to practices in foreign countries serves to create and maintain the misconception that the United States is the only country that has the exclusionary rule. The belief that the exclusionary rule exists only in the United States is far from accurate. This article examines the historical development and the current status of exclusionary rules in the United States, England, France, Germany, and Italy. Attentions are especially devoted to analyzing the characteristics of the American exclusionary rule with reference to exclusionary rules in other countries.