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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Yu Leung Ng and Kara Chan

The purpose of this study is to examine how Chinese adolescent girls and boys interpret female images in gendered advertisements based on Tobin et al.’s (2010) gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how Chinese adolescent girls and boys interpret female images in gendered advertisements based on Tobin et al.’s (2010) gender self-socialization model (GSSM).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 48 Hong Kong adolescents studying in high schools or university year one participated in a focus group study. Four advertisements with different types of female images were presented. Interviewees were asked to discuss the appearance, the personality and the work and family life of the female characters in the advertisements. Interviewers then asked them to select the one most closely representing their ideal female image.

Findings

Most of the interviewees chose an urban sophisticate as the character closest to their ideal female image. Female interviewees identified with the urban sophisticate and aspired to the cultured nurturer image. However, they rejected the strong woman and the “flower vase” female images.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the findings was limited because of the small sample size and non-probability sampling.

Practical implications

When targeting adolescents, advertisers should consider using female images displaying a personality that is neither too strong nor too weak.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate how Hong Kong adolescents interpret female images from gendered advertisements. This study also clarifies the gender concepts to explain how adolescents perceive gendered advertisements.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Yu Leung Ng and Kara Chan

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Chinese adolescent girls and boys construct their own ideal female images in response to gendered advertisements based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate how Chinese adolescent girls and boys construct their own ideal female images in response to gendered advertisements based on Arnett’s (1995) theory of self-socialization and Hirschman and Thompson’s (1997) three interpretive strategies. A qualitative interview study was conducted for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

Altogether, 32 adolescents aged 15-19 living in 16 different provinces in China were recruited for a face-to-face interview. Three advertisements were shown depicting an elegant woman, an urban sophisticated female and a strong woman, and interviewees were asked to describe the appearance, the personality and the work and family life of the female character in each advertisement. They were asked to choose one of them as most closely representing their ideal female image.

Findings

The interviewees constructed their ideal female images from the advertisement that best suited their ideal appearance, personality and work and family life. Female interviewees aspired to be like the elegant woman, identified with the urban sophisticated female and rejected the strong woman in the ads. Male interviewees appreciated the urban sophisticated female but rejected the strong woman.

Research limitations/implications

With just 32 interviewees, the generalizability of the findings is limited.

Practical implications

Female central characters in advertisements should be pilot-tested among the target audience to maximize levels of aspiration and identification.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine ideal female images from gendered advertisements among adolescent boys and girls in China.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Kara Chan, Yu Leung Ng and Jianqiong Liu

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of advertisements with different female role portrayals in a second-tier city with “first-class opportunities.”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of advertisements with different female role portrayals in a second-tier city with “first-class opportunities.” Chinese girls and women represent a huge market for personal as well as household goods.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental study was conducted using a convenience sample of 216 male and female participants aged 17-21 years in Changchun, China. Participants were asked to respond to print advertisements using traditional and modern female images including housewife, cute female, female with classical beauty, sporty, career-minded and neutral (tomboy).

Findings

Results revealed that female participants responded more favorably toward advertisements using female images than male participants. There was no difference in the responses to the six different female images among both male and female participants.

Research limitations/implications

Young consumers in China are not sensitive to the different female images used in the print advertisements. Advertisers can, therefore, enjoy flexibility in the selection of female gender roles for advertisements.

Originality/value

Little is known about how marketers and advertisements can best communicate with young consumers in China using advertisements with different female images. This study fills this literature gap.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Kara Chan and Yu Leung Ng

The purpose of this study is to replicate a psychographic segmentation of adolescent girls in Hong Kong. It attempts to see if the segmentation of Hong Kong girls…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to replicate a psychographic segmentation of adolescent girls in Hong Kong. It attempts to see if the segmentation of Hong Kong girls according to the perceptions of gender roles and ideal female images can be generalized to girls in Mainland China.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of 331 Shanghai female secondary school students aged 12 to 20 were asked to answer questions about gender roles, ideal female images, and their liking of international and Chinese brands. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted.

Findings

Four segments of adolescent girls were identified and profiled. They were conformists, aggressive pursuers, image protectors, and single-handers.

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected from a non-probabilistic sample of girls from Shanghai, which may not be representative of girls in other Mainland Chinese cities or elsewhere in greater China.

Practical implications

Different marketing communication strategies can be adopted to make global and Chinese national brands more appealing to the different clusters.

Originality/value

This has been the first study to cluster adolescent girls in Mainland China based on gender role perceptions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Kara Chan, Yu Leung Ng and Russell B. Williams

A qualitative study by autovideography was conducted to examine adolescent girls' negotiation of their gender roles through the consumption of advertising images. This…

Abstract

Purpose

A qualitative study by autovideography was conducted to examine adolescent girls' negotiation of their gender roles through the consumption of advertising images. This paper aims to document the study.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 in Hong Kong were asked to take pictures from the media that could illustrate “what girls or women should or should not be and what girls or women should or should not do”. Advertising images captured by the interviewees and their interpretations of those images were analyzed.

Findings

Seven dominant themes were isolated from the interpretations: appearance; personality; skills and work; activities, interests and lifestyle; family; health and safety; and caring for people and the environment. The findings show that adolescent girls pay much attention to images about slimming, body image and physical appearance. They criticized female images in ads as unrealistic but identified with female images that were natural and conventional.

Research limitations/implications

The interviewees were recruited from two secondary schools that may not have been representative. The interviews were conducted in English, which may have caused some of the participants to be reticent about presenting their viewpoints. The implications represent a step forward in relation to how media influence young consumers and how teenagers perceive and intercept what they see in the media.

Originality/value

The paper shows that collecting and interpreting female visual images can illustrate vividly the process of gender socialization.

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Kara Chan and Yu Leung Ng

This study aims to investigate dimensions related to the gender role and identity perceptions of adolescent girls in Hong Kong. It also aims to develop a typology based on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate dimensions related to the gender role and identity perceptions of adolescent girls in Hong Kong. It also aims to develop a typology based on the dimensions and to examine its ability to predict brand relationship variables.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of 355 Hong Kong female secondary school students aged 12 to 19 were asked to answer questions about gender roles and identities, ideal female images, and liking of global brands. A segmentation approach was employed to classify the respondents.

Findings

Four distinct clusters of adolescent girls were identified and profiled. They were Middle of the roaders, Achievers, Conservatives, and Inactives.

Practical implications

Understanding the unique characteristics of the clusters and the similarities and differences among them can enhance the targeting of marketing communication to adolescent girls, including the selection of celebrity presenters and visual images.

Originality/value

This was the first study to segment Chinese adolescent girls using gender roles and ideal female images.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Kara Chan, Yu Leung Ng and Edwin K. Luk

Does celebrity endorsement work and how does it work among adolescents? This article aims to identity attributes of celebrity endorsers and attributes of celebrity…

Abstract

Purpose

Does celebrity endorsement work and how does it work among adolescents? This article aims to identity attributes of celebrity endorsers and attributes of celebrity endorsement advertisements that are most appealing to the adolescents. The article also seeks to examine adolescents' perceptions about how celebrity‐endorsement advertisements work.

Design/methodology/approach

A focus group study among 76 Chinese adolescents aged 13 to 19 was conducted. Interviewees were asked to identify the specific elements of advertisements using celebrity endorsement that were most appealing to them. They were asked to suggest how advertisements using celebrity endorsements work.

Findings

Results found that interviewees were best able to recall celebrity endorsers whom they considered attractive, funny and expressive. They identified popularity, a good image, and congruence between the celebrity's image and that of the brand as important factors for marketers to consider in selecting celebrity endorsers. A majority of the interviewees perceived that using a celebrity in an ad would increase brand awareness, attract the celebrity's fans, encourage trial, and enhance purchase confidence.

Research limitations/implications

A theoretical model on how advertisements using celebrity endorsements work from the point‐of‐view of adolescents was constructed.

Originality/value

Previous studies on celebrity endorsement have been mainly quantitative in nature. The present study adopts a qualitative methodology and fills a gap in the literature.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Brian Young

Abstract

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Abstract

Details

Global and Culturally Diverse Leaders and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-495-0

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Kerry J. Kennedy, Lijuan Joanna Li and Hoi Yu Ng

The recent mobilization of many Hong Kong youth to engage in what are regarded as radical political activities is not a new area of investigation. Much has been discussed…

Abstract

Purpose

The recent mobilization of many Hong Kong youth to engage in what are regarded as radical political activities is not a new area of investigation. Much has been discussed about this growing political activism and localism often giving an impression that Hong Kong youth are radical and disengaged from China as a nation. Yet little is known about the possible antecedents of such disengagement. The purpose of this paper is to identify whether there is empirical evidence of growth or decline in civic trust and national attitudes amongst Hong Kong young adolescents over the ten-year period from 1999 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study latent profile analyses were used to classify cohorts of Hong Kong secondary students according to the levels of their self-reported trust in civic institutions and attitudes toward the nation. The cohorts were separated by a ten-year gap. Comparisons were made across groups and across the ten-year time span, in order to trace changes in civic attitudes of young adolescents following the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997.

Findings

Three distinct groups were identified in both cohorts – Activists, who had negative attitudes to trust and toward the nation, Nationalists who had positive attitudes toward trust and the nation and Moderates who endorsed average responses to the, two variables. The gaps between the groups tended to be greater in the 2009 group compared to the 1999 groups suggesting greater polarization amongst adolescents on these measures.

Originality/value

Young adolescents cannot be assumed to be politically neutral or lacking social values. Citizenship education needs to take this into account so that values can be clarified and major issues can be discussed in a safe and supportive environment.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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