The application of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) can mitigate inadequate access to clean, stable and sustainable energy among households in sub-Saharan Africa…
The application of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) can mitigate inadequate access to clean, stable and sustainable energy among households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Available studies on HRES seem to concentrate only on its techno-economic and environmental viability. In so doing, these studies do not seem to underline the likely challenges that follow the acquisition of HRES by especially low-income households. The ensuing reality is, of course, a limitation in the use of HRES in homes with low incomes. It is therefore imperative to analyze how a household with low income can afford this kind of energy system. The purpose of this study, therefore, lies in presenting a techno-economic, environmental and affordability analysis of how HRES is acquired.
To arrive at a grounded analysis, a typical household in SSA is used as an example. The analysis focused on the pattern of energy use, and this is obtained by visiting an active site to evaluate the comprehensive load profile. In the course of analysis, an optimal techno-economic design and sizing of a hybrid PV, wind and battery were undertaken. Additionally, an acquisition analysis was done based on loan amortization.
The interesting result is that a combination of the photovoltaic-gasoline-battery system is the most cost-effective energy system with a net present cost of $2,682. The system combination can lead to an emission reduction of approximately 98.3 per cent, compared to the use of gasoline generating sets, common mostly in SSA. If an amortized loan is used to purchase the energy system, and the payment plan is varied such that the frequency of payments is made quarterly, annually, semi-annually, bi-monthly, semi-monthly and bi-weekly, it will be observed that low-income household can conveniently acquire a HRES.
The result presented a framework by which a low-income household can purchase and install HRES. To facilitate this, it is recommended that low-income households should be given interest-friendly loans, so as to enhance the acquisition of HRES.
This paper aims to survey the need for full capacity utilisation of transmission lines in power systems network operations. It proposes a review of the N-1 security…
This paper aims to survey the need for full capacity utilisation of transmission lines in power systems network operations. It proposes a review of the N-1 security criterion that does not ensure reliable dispatch of optimum power flow during outage contingency. The survey aims to enlarge the network capacity utilisation to rely on the entire transmission lines network operation.
The paper suggests transmission line switching (TLS) approach as a viable corrective mechanism for power dispatch. The TLS process is incorporated into a constraint programming language extension optimisation solver that selects the switchable line candidates as integer variables in the mixed integer programming problem.
The paper provides a practical awareness of reserve capacity in the lines that provide network security in outage contingency. At optimum power flow dispatch, the TLS is extended to optimal transmission line switching (OTLS) that indicates optimal capacity utilisation (OCU) of the available reserve capacity (ARC) in the network lines.
Computational efficiency influenced the extension of the OTLS to optimal transmission switching of power flow (OTSPF). The application of OTSPF helps reduce the use of flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) and construction of new transmission lines..
The paper surveys TLS efforts in network capacity utilisation. The suggested ARC fulfils the need for an index with which the dispatchable lines may be identified for the optimal capacity utilisation of transmission lines network.
The purpose of this study is to address the efficiency of power losses representation while still reducing the computational burden of an optimal power flow (OPF) model in…
The purpose of this study is to address the efficiency of power losses representation while still reducing the computational burden of an optimal power flow (OPF) model in transmission expansion planning (TEP) studies.
A modified TEP model is formulated with inclusions of linearized approximation of power losses for a large-scale power system with renewable energy sources. The multi-objectives function determines the effect of transmission line losses on the optimal power generation dispatch in the power system with and without inclusion of renewable energy sources with emphasis on minimizing the investment and operation costs, emission and the power losses.
This study investigates the impact of renewable energy sources on system operating characteristics such as transmission power losses and voltage profile. Sensitivity analysis of the performance for the developed deterministic quadratic programming models was analyzed based on optimal generated power and losses on the system.
In the future, a comparison of the alternating current OPF and direct current (DC) OPF models based on the proposed mathematical formulations can be carried out to determine the efficiency and reduction of computation process of the two models.
This paper proposed an accurate way of computing transmission losses in DC OPF for a TEP context with a view of achieving a minimal computation time.
This paper addresses the following objectives: develop a modified DC OPF with a linearized approximation of power losses in TEP problem with large integration of RES. Investigate the impact of RES on system operating characteristics such as transmission power losses and voltage profile.