Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2022

Alex McCord, Philip Birch and Lewis A. Bizo

Global evidence suggests that youth offending has reduced; however, this study aims to suggest a more complex picture, with youth crime potentially being displaced to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Global evidence suggests that youth offending has reduced; however, this study aims to suggest a more complex picture, with youth crime potentially being displaced to the digital space. Historically, young people and crime have been synonymous with public spaces and being visible. A shift or expansion to online offending requires revision of how the justice and educational systems respond to youth offending.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review explored keywords related to age, digital offence or harm and criminal or harmful nature, using a search, appraisal, synthesis and analysis framework.

Findings

Three emergent areas of digital youth crime are discussed: digitally assisted crime, digitally dependent crime and digital harm.

Practical implications

The shift in youth offending requires response adjustment from prevention to detection. Opportunities may exist to disrupt or redirect youth before they offend. Further data specific to digital offending is needed. These findings seek to provide a possible direction for future research.

Originality/value

The concept of digital displacement of youth offending is progressively emerging. This paper examines types of offending categorised into three areas of interest.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Alex McCord, Philip Birch and Lewis A. Bizo

Global evidence suggests a potential displacement of youth offending from the physical to the digital landscape, requiring revision of existing detection and intervention…

Abstract

Purpose

Global evidence suggests a potential displacement of youth offending from the physical to the digital landscape, requiring revision of existing detection and intervention methods. This study aims to explore pathways from harmful to illegal online activity perpetrated by young people, legislation and police perspectives, current detection methods and interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

This perspective paper examines issues observed within a larger systematic literature review on digital youth offending.

Findings

A trajectory from acceptable to harmful and subsequently illegal behaviour was identified, with a particular pathway from unethical video game activity to digitally dependent offending. Legislation and police perspectives vary by jurisdiction, with a common theme that increased officer education is key to the level of preparedness to investigate cases. Machine learning and automatic prevention show promise as detection and disruption processes, with education recommended for young people as a deterrent and redirection of skills to positive outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Recommendations for further research include a broad survey of school students to include all identified areas of digital offending, which could drive the development of targeted education by law enforcement and partner agencies for young people.

Practical implications

The shift in youth offending requires the justice and educational systems to adjust how they respond to youth crime. Policy and practise shifts can include further exploration of investigative hacking, education for law enforcement and educational prevention and redirection programmes aimed at youth.

Originality/value

The digital displacement of youth offending is a progressively emerging concept. This paper examines the current state of response from educational and law enforcement agencies and discusses the next steps based on what is currently known.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Sue Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of the problems young people face in respect of their living arrangements and how these difficulties can impact on them…

1181

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of the problems young people face in respect of their living arrangements and how these difficulties can impact on them and the decisions that are made when they are involved in the criminal justice system. It discusses some of the problems that have to be overcome, the role of youth offending teams and some of the initiatives that have been developed to address young people's needs.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a literature review based on research the author has undertaken over the last decade that incorporates the findings of other research, obtained from research reports, project evaluations, thematic inspections and contributions from the voluntary sector. It also refers to findings from analysis of Asset data. Asset is a standardised assessment tool used by youth justice practitioners in youth offending teams to identify risk factors that will be addressed in supervision of young people subject to statutory orders.

Findings

The paper summarizes information from a range of sources about the problems young people in the criminal justice system face when there are difficulties with their living arrangements. There can be additional difficulties (when compared to other vulnerable young people) because of criminal justice involvement. The paper analyses what some of these difficulties can be by describing the implications at some of the key decision‐making points of the system and explores the role of youth offending teams which do not have statutory responsibilities for providing accommodation for young people and advises that this remains a responsibility of statutory agencies, although one that is not always properly fulfilled by children's services or local authority housing departments. Legislative responsibility is clarified with reference to recent case law. The paper concludes with mention of some of some relatively recent initiatives that have been taken in relation to resettlement in particular and their findings. The article concludes that addressing housing need requires a co‐ordinated approach from youth offending teams (as brokers and advocates) and that statutory services need to fulfil their obligations or prevent offending and assist young people to lead settled lifestyles.Research limitations/implications – The paper has largely reviewed existing materials, however it adds to existing material by providing an update on more recent developments and provided a discussion of the issues as they affect young people. Some of the information obtained from examination of Assets (by the author in the conduct of research) has not previously been published and the author attributes this to Asset review. Also whilst many young people in the justice system are experiencing problems which are not within the scope of youth offending teams’ responsibilities to fully resolve – there are therefore limitations to how far discussion around this particular aspect of the analysis can be taken.

Practical implications

The paper is important as it reinforces the need for statutory services to fulfil their obligation to young people in housing need. It is important for those engaging with young people who have housing difficulties to be aware of their problems and vulnerabilities – which can often be forgotten as statutory agencies can have a tendency to see view them primarily as offenders and not young people in need.

Social implications

The social implications of not addressing this problem are that young people with housing difficulty grow up into adults who also have housing needs and there is a greater risk of homelessness. Criminal activity contributes to homelessness and can occur as a result of homelessness. Also those with housing difficulty can potentially face more punitive sanctions from the criminal justice system because of their problems and not their actions, the biggest one being that they can lose their liberty. It is in the best interests of young people to ensure that they are living settled and law‐abiding lifestyles. Addressing housing need is an important social function in the prevention of offending.

Originality/value

The paper re‐visits a long‐standing problem that continues to require resolution. The paper provides a summary of the problem, indicates how it can impact on criminal justice decision making, the role of youth offending teams and some recent initiatives. It presents this information in one paper and discusses housing difficulties from the youth justice specifically, which discussion of young people and their housing difficulties may touch on but not go into in the level of depth that this article does.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Jo Staines

The purpose of this paper is to provide a response to a recent government-commissioned review of residential care (Narey, 2016), and the subsequent government response…

1133

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a response to a recent government-commissioned review of residential care (Narey, 2016), and the subsequent government response (Department of Education (DfE), 2016), which minimises the correlation between the experience of being looked after and becoming involved in the youth justice system. The Narey review emphasises on the role of early adversity in looked after children’s offending behaviour but minimises the significance of experiences during and after care, and downplays the effect of policies and practices that may exacerbate looked after children’s involvement in the youth justice system.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds upon a systematic literature review conducted for the Prison Reform Trust (Staines, 2016) to demonstrate the extent of current knowledge about how risk factors, adverse experiences during and after care and the criminalisation of looked after children combine to increase the likelihood of involvement in criminal proceedings. The paper also highlights gaps in the research evidence, particularly in relation to gender and ethnicity.

Findings

The findings suggest that the Narey review (2016) and the government response (DfE, 2016), are misguided in their attempts to minimise the role of care in looked after children’s disproportionate representation within the youth justice system. The paper cautions against the over-simplification of a complex relationship and emphasises on the importance of recognising the intersection between different factors.

Originality/value

The paper uses secondary sources to develop an original argument to rebut claims within a recently published review.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Judy Renshaw

Resettlement programmes provide support for young offenders during their custodial sentence and for approximately nine months after release. This article describes how the…

200

Abstract

Resettlement programmes provide support for young offenders during their custodial sentence and for approximately nine months after release. This article describes how the costs and benefits of providing an effective service of this kind were estimated based on the ‘RESET’ programme, published evidence on the costs of crime and the likely reduction in offending due to an intensive support programme. The cost of crime has been estimated at £46,459 per year (after allowing for a reduction due to the time spent in custody), plus prison custody at an average of £30,475 and emergency accommodation at an average of £1,106, making a total of £78,040 for each offender. Using a fairly modest assumption that good support in resettlement could lead to approximately a 35% reduction in frequency and a 10% reduction in seriousness of offending, a saving of £20,407 per offender per year could be achieved. These savings would more than offset the average cost of a good quality resettlement service of £8,074. The scheme would break even if the frequency of offending were reduced by only 20%.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Natalie Kroovand Hipple and Edmund F. McGarrell

The purpose of this paper is to compare family group conferences (FGCs) facilitated by police officers with those facilitated by a civilian along several dimensions…

1287

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare family group conferences (FGCs) facilitated by police officers with those facilitated by a civilian along several dimensions including process, reparation agreements, recidivism, and time until failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Using observational data and juvenile histories of offending from the Indianapolis Restorative Justice Project, the authors attempted to answer four research questions: Are family group conferences facilitated by police officers procedurally different from family group conferences facilitated by civilians?; Are reparation agreements resulting from police‐officer‐facilitated conferences different from reparation agreements resulting from civilian‐facilitated conferences?; Did youths who participated in police‐facilitated conferences recidivate at different rates compared with youths who participated in civilian‐facilitated conferences?; Did youths who participated in police‐facilitated conferences have a longer time to failure than youths who participated in civilian‐facilitated conferences?

Findings

Generally, there appeared to be no major differences between conferences facilitated by civilians as opposed to police officers. Observations indicated that police officers seemed to lecture offenders more during the FGC and made more suggestions as to what should be in the reparation agreement. Youths who attended police‐officer‐facilitated conferences “survived” somewhat longer before re‐offending than youths who attended civilian‐facilitated conferences, although these differences were not statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications

While subjects in the Indianapolis experiment were randomly assigned to family group conferences or a “control group” diversion program, subjects were not randomly assigned to conferences according to facilitator type. This limits the generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The study suggests tjat both police officers and civilians are capable of facilitating FGCs, consistent with restorative justice principles. For police departments interested in responding proactively to early juvenile offending and in strengthening ties with the community, FGCs provide an opportunity through police officer training and involvement as conference facilitators. In contrast, in communities where the police may be disinclined to commit officers to the role of facilitator, the findings suggest that civilian facilitators can also effectively coordinate FGCs.

Originality/value

The study adds to the restorative justice literature by further examining conference processes and outcomes. Additionally, it offers the first empirical examination of some of the concerns that have been raised about police‐ as opposed to civilian‐facilitated conferences. The finding that there were few differences between police‐ and civilian‐run conferences suggests that the police are at least as capable as civilians in facilitating FGCs. This suggests that FGCs could be implemented as part of a community policing initiative utilizing police officers as facilitators. Similarly, FGCs could be implemented as part of a community justice initiative utilizing civilians as facilitators. The key to successful outcomes is likely to be driven by fidelity to theoretical principles as opposed to the formal role of the facilitator.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2022

Stephen Case, Charlie E. Sutton, Joanne Greenhalgh, Mark Monaghan and Judy Wright

This study aims to examine the extent to which “What Works” reviews in youth justice enable understanding of the features of effectiveness (what works, for whom, in what…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the extent to which “What Works” reviews in youth justice enable understanding of the features of effectiveness (what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why?) specified in the Effects–Mechanisms–Moderators–Implementation–Economic cost (EMMIE) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The EMMIE framework examined findings within a sample of “What Works” style reviews of preventative youth justice intervention effectiveness.

Findings

“What Works” style reviews of evaluations of preventative youth justice interventions often omit the requisite details required to examine all of the necessary elements of effectiveness contained within the EMMIE framework. While effectiveness measures were typically provided, the dominant evaluation evidence-base struggles to consider moderators of effect, mechanisms of change, implementation differences and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, “What Works” samples cannot facilitate sufficient understanding of “what works for whom, in what circumstances and why?”. The authors argue that Realist Synthesis can fill this gap and shed light on the contexts that shape the mechanisms through which youth justice interventions work.

Originality/value

The authors extended the approach adopted by an earlier review of effectiveness reviews (Tompson et al., 2020), considering more recent reviews of the effectiveness of preventative interventions using the EMMIE framework. Unlike previous reviews, the authors prioritised the utility of the EMMIE framework for assessing the factors affecting the effectiveness of preventative interventions in youth justice.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2010

Tim Bateman

Figures published by the Ministry of Justice show significant progress against New Labour's targets to reduce reoffending by young people within the youth justice system…

Abstract

Figures published by the Ministry of Justice show significant progress against New Labour's targets to reduce reoffending by young people within the youth justice system. The outgoing government was, unsurprisingly, quick to infer that such findings constituted corroboration of the improved effectiveness of youth justice practice under their administration. This article considers whether such an inference is warranted and discusses other potential explanations of the data.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Prathiba Chitsabesan, Sue Bailey, Richard Williams, Leo Kroll, Cassandra Kenning and Louise Talbot

This article is based on a study that was commissioned by the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. We report on the learning profiles and education needs of a cohort…

Abstract

This article is based on a study that was commissioned by the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. We report on the learning profiles and education needs of a cohort of young offenders who were recruited for the study. The research was a national cross‐sectional survey of 301 young offenders who were resident in custodial settings or attending youth offending teams in the community. The young people were assessed using the WASI and the WORD measures to obtain psychometric information (IQ scores and reading/reading comprehension ages). One in five (20%) young people met the ICD‐10 criteria for mental retardation (IQ<70), while problems with reading (52%) and reading comprehension (61%) were common. Verbal IQ scores were found to be significantly lower than performance IQ scores, particularly in male offenders. It is clear from these results that a large proportion of juvenile offenders have a learning disability, as characterised by an IQ<70 and significantly low reading and reading comprehension ages. The underlying aetiology of this association is less clear and may be a consequence of both an increased prevalence of neurocognitive deficits and the impact of poor schooling. There is some evidence that developmental pathways may be different for boys compared with girls.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Sean Creaney

The purpose of this paper is to explore young people's experiences of youth justice supervision with particular reference to the efficacy of participatory practices. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore young people's experiences of youth justice supervision with particular reference to the efficacy of participatory practices. This paper is based on findings from a study concerning the extent and nature of children’s participation in decision-making in youth justice. The paper uses Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, as a heuristic/practical device, to investigate children’s ability to express agency and shape or influence the content and format of interventions and approaches in youth justice.

Design/methodology/approach

The researcher’s interest in understanding the perceptions and experiences of youth justice supervision led to the adoption of the qualitative approach and specifically in-depth interviews and participant observations. The researcher interviewed front-line professionals (n = 14), operational managers (n = 6) and children under youth justice supervision (n = 20). This study involved 15 months of fieldwork undertaken between 2016 and 2017 at a youth offending service in England.

Findings

Several young people were seeking to exert minimal energy to achieve a type of passive compliance with court order requirements, adopting a “ready-to-conform” mindset. Professionals were concerned that they were also participating in this type of “game playing”.

Practical implications

A relationship-based practice that is conducive to meaningful participation can help to facilitate positive changes to lifestyles and circumstances. This paper exposes its pivotal role in bolstering children’s involvement in supervision, reducing passive compliance and preventing inauthentic transactional arrangements from forming.

Originality/value

In spite of the significant interest in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, his “thinking tools” have seldom been used to investigate the experiences, attitudes and behaviours of youth justice professionals and those under youth offending team supervision at.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000