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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Franklin Nantui Mabe, Gideon Danso-Abbeam, Shaibu Baanni Azumah, Nathaniel Amoh Boateng, Kwadwo B. Mensah and Ethel Boateng

Cocoa is regarded as a brown-golden crop, but its value chain activities are dominated by the elderly. Hence, focussing attention on the young generation of farmers is the…

Abstract

Purpose

Cocoa is regarded as a brown-golden crop, but its value chain activities are dominated by the elderly. Hence, focussing attention on the young generation of farmers is the surest way to reverse this trend and secure the future of the cocoa industry. This paper, therefore explores factors influencing youth participation in cocoa value chain activities in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected using a multistage sampling technique. The authors used a semi-structured questionnaire in collecting data via interviews. Through the theory of utility maximization, a multivariate probit (MVP) model was estimated to identify factors influencing youth participation in cocoa value chain activities in Ghana.

Findings

The author found that some of the value chain activities are complementary, while others are substitutes. Participation in cocoa value chain activities is influenced by access to land, participation in training programmes in cocoa production, membership of Next Generation Cocoa Youth Programme (MASO), access to agricultural credit and other demographic characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

Relevant information and youth-targeted projects enhance their participation in value chain activities.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few studies that empirically analyses drivers of youth participation in cocoa value chain activities in Africa.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Wasiu Olayinka Fawole and Burhan Ozkan

The purpose of this paper is to assess how profitable and technically efficient is cocoa enterprise in Ondo State of Nigeria especially amidst the ongoing diversification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess how profitable and technically efficient is cocoa enterprise in Ondo State of Nigeria especially amidst the ongoing diversification program of the current administration in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The study made use of primary data collected with the aid of structured questionnaires. The multistage random sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Data collected during the survey were analyzed by both descriptive and inferential techniques. A total of 140 respondents who were majorly cocoa farmers were selected for this study with data on their socioeconomic characteristics and input utilization taken and subsequently analyzed.

Findings

This study found that the cocoa enterprise in the study area was efficient and profitable with rooms for improvement, especially in the areas of labor and input used as identified by the outcome of the study. The average yield, total revenue, gross margin and efficiency ratio were 1.2 ton/ha, ₦1,344,000.00/ha, ₦1,071,717.00/ha and 0.36, respectively. The highest, average and least technical efficiencies among farmers in the study area were 98.86, 88.81 and 75.12 percent, respectively. It was also discovered that none of the farmers investigated operated at 100 percent, confirming that there are still rooms for improvement in the production processes in the study area by adopting modern methods of production and replacement of the old breeds with resistant and high yielding breeds.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study was that the study sample is quite smaller and could as well not be used to make a strong policy case for the topic under consideration. However, as it is found among the majority of cocoa farmers in Nigeria, they mostly operate under the same conditions of production which suggests that the outcome of this research is not meaningless, considering the similarities in the production environment and other factors of production among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It is therefore strongly recommended that future studies take into consideration this limitation and address it appropriately by widening the scope and sample for the study as this will go a long way in giving true representation as regarding the topic under consideration.

Social implications

The social implication of this study has to do with the employment opportunities that will be created for the teaming youths if the cocoa enterprise is made to attract them by creating enabling environment as recommended by the study. When quantity of production is improved, it will create additional income for the farmers and also provide foreign earnings to government.

Originality/value

This study is strictly original, considering its content and the contribution it is making to the body of knowledge. The study will be contributing to the knowledge by pointing out the potentials inherent in cocoa production as especially coming at a time when the price of crude oil that provides over 80 percent of Nigerian foreign earnings is down and the cocoa price is not only high but also stable at the international market.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Richard Kwasi Bannor, Helena Oppong-Kyeremeh, Samuel Atewene and Camillus Abawiera Wongnaa

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing the choice and the amount of cocoa beans sold to public and private licensed buying companies in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing the choice and the amount of cocoa beans sold to public and private licensed buying companies in the Western North of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in the Western North of Ghana. Cragg’s Double Hurdle model was used to examine the factors influencing the choice of licensed buying company (LBC) whereas Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was employed in analysis of the marketing challenges.

Findings

The results showed that non-price incentives determine the choice and the amount cocoa beans sold to an LBC. Specifically, education, years of experience in cocoa farming and timely payment of sold cocoa beans positively influence the choice of public LBC. However, off farm job participation, provision of credit facilities and extension services affect the choice of private LBC as marketing outlet. Perceived low price of cocoa beans, inadequate credit support, and adjustment of scales used in weighing of cocoa beans were identified as the most important challenges confronting farmers.

Research limitations/implications

The research provides important information on non-price incentives influencing cocoa marketing outlet decision as well as the marketing challenges faced by farmers which can contribute to improving internal marketing efficiency of the cocoa industry in Ghana. Besides, this study also extends the frontiers in terms of methodological approach by adopting Cragg’s Double Hurdle Model in addressing the research question.

Originality/value

The research provides important information on non-price incentives influencing cocoa marketing outlet decision as well as the marketing challenges faced by farmers which can contribute to improving internal marketing efficiency of the cocoa industry in Ghana. Besides, this study also extends the frontiers in terms of methodological approach by adopting Cragg’s Double Hurdle Model in addressing the research question.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Sumit Kishore Lalwani, Breno Nunes, Daniel Chicksand and Dev Kumar (Roshan) Boojihawon

The purpose of this paper is to examine the self-declared sustainability initiatives of the world’s four largest chocolate manufacturers (Ferrero, Mars, Mondelez and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the self-declared sustainability initiatives of the world’s four largest chocolate manufacturers (Ferrero, Mars, Mondelez and Nestlé) and the measures they take to tackle social problems within the context of establishing sustainable sourcing of cocoa in Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Global cocoa supply chains are under continuous media and public scrutiny. Recent incidents of malpractice in supply chain management have left global chocolatiers vulnerable in terms of how they deal with social issues across their global supply chain networks. Critics have argued that there is a lack of consistency and transparency between what companies say and do in upholding sustainable practices across their supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw from the sustainable supply chain literature to develop our theoretical parameters and undertake a case-based analysis of the existing sustainability practices of these chocolatiers. Using the insights from this analysis, the authors propose a conceptual framework for a rigorous comparative assessment of self-declared sustainable sourcing initiatives of global agricultural supply chains. The methodology is qualitative and the research method is a secondary-data case study.

Findings

Four main parameters were identified and used to compare self-declared initiatives, namely: social sustainability certification from respectable bodies; code of conduct for suppliers; partnerships with the primary supply chain stakeholders; and supplier collaboration programme and improvement initiatives. The case companies chosen have implemented several initiatives, but the most prominent seem to indicate the reliance on third-party certification. Not all companies adopted a supplier code of conduct. The partnerships and collaboration programmes with different associations are presented as efficient for companies as well as farmers. Improvements in the conditions of farmers are advocated as a key result.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is based on self-declared secondary data. Subsequently, it is possible that the case companies did not document some practices; or that companies do not do what they claim.

Practical implications

This paper provides a comprehensive framework for agricultural businesses to compare their sustainability efforts and improve the performance of their supply chains, particularly those who belong to the cocoa supply chains. The proposed framework allows an assessment of initiatives at policy, strategic, tactical and operational levels to improve social sustainability of supply chains.

Social implications

This paper may help companies to think more clearly about greater transparency and provide the impetus for dealing more effectively with serious social issues in agricultural supply chains such as: child labour, child trafficking, modern slavery, etc. It may also instruct consumers to better understand what companies do as part of their sustainability agenda, alongside the communication of other features of their products, such as quality.

Originality/value

The framework adds value by providing a novel way to systematically compile and analyse data around self-declared sustainable initiatives. Actors within agricultural supply chains can use the framework to assess and drive their sustainability efforts and practices, leading to ways to improve the social performance of their global supply chains.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2017

Martin Bosompem, Samuel K. N. Dadzie and Edwin Tandoh

Agriculture and related businesses in Ghana for the past decades have been the preserve for the smallholder, aged and illiterate farmers. Meanwhile, hundreds of students…

Abstract

Agriculture and related businesses in Ghana for the past decades have been the preserve for the smallholder, aged and illiterate farmers. Meanwhile, hundreds of students graduate in Agricultural Sciences from the universities over the years. This study seeks to investigate potential determinants of the entrepreneurial spirit of agricultural students to do self-employed businesses in the agricultural sector. A survey of 165 undergraduate students of agriculture in the University of Cape Coast, Ghana was undertaken to examine factors that influence their decision to enter into agribusiness as a self-employment venture after graduation. The results show that the majority of the students were males (87%) and approximately, 67% were willing to enter into agribusiness after school. The factors that students perceived to be hindrance to entering into agribusiness was the market competition of agro-products with imported products, unstable prices of agro-products, absence of insurance policy for agribusiness and unfavourable land tenure arrangement in Ghana. Correlation analysis showed negative and significant relationship between students’ willingness to enter agribusiness as a self-employment venture and the following personal characteristics: (1) level of education of mother, (2) level of education of guardian other than parents, (3) students who live in farming communities and (4) students who undertake farming activities at home. There were also positive and significant relationships between students’ willingness to enter agribusiness and the following: (1) availability of market for agro-products, (2) accessibility of market for agro-products and (3) accessibility of transportation facilities for agribusiness. Regression analysis showed that (1) level of education of mother, (2) students living in farming communities, (3) accessibility of transportation facilities for agribusiness and (4) accessibility of market for agro-product were the factors that best predict undergraduate agricultural students’ willingness to enter into agribusiness as a self-employment venture after graduation. To motivate students to take agribusiness as self-employment after graduation, the study suggests the development of comprehensive and sustainable long-term policy to inspire and attract the youth into agribusiness; creation of conducive environment to minimise risk and constraints associated with agribusiness in Ghana.

Details

Entrepreneurship Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-280-0

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Barbara Pamphilon, Veronica Bue and Fredah Wantum

Smallholder families in Papua New Guinea (PNG) feed the nation and produce income-generating cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. However, agricultural extension has not…

Abstract

Smallholder families in Papua New Guinea (PNG) feed the nation and produce income-generating cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. However, agricultural extension has not yet effectively reached many farming families in the country, and many families still work with semi-subsistence practices. As a result, the majority of farming families have insecure livelihoods, with many living below the poverty line. This chapter explores a collaborative research for development project that sought to address this issue.

Using data from two highlands sites in the Western Highlands and Jiwaka provinces, we outline the empowerment processes we developed in both our research and our learning activities. We illustrate how the experiential learning processes enabled women, especially those with low education, to confidently engage in this form of agricultural extension. Our work surfaced the knowledge of both women and men and supported families to determine how to work together in effective and equitable planned farming.

Details

Integrating Gender in Agricultural Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-056-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Bismark Amfo, James Osei Mensah and Robert Aidoo

Poor working conditions among migrant labourers on cocoa farms may be commonplace. This could affect labour productivity and cocoa industry performance. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Poor working conditions among migrant labourers on cocoa farms may be commonplace. This could affect labour productivity and cocoa industry performance. The paper investigates migrants' satisfaction with working conditions on cocoa farms in Ghana and the key drivers of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a five-point Likert scale to evaluate migrants' satisfaction with remuneration, working hours, welfare, health and safety, contract and freedom. Using primary data from 400 migrants and non-migrants in four cocoa districts, multivariate probit regression was employed to evaluate the determinants of satisfaction with working conditions.

Findings

Migrant labourers are generally satisfied with their working hours, nature of contract and freedom they enjoy. However, they are unsatisfied with their remuneration, welfare and health/safety conditions on cocoa farms. All things being equal, secondary occupation, nature of contract, number of farmers served by labourer, annual earnings, farm ownership, education and expectations before migration influence migrants' satisfaction with working conditions.

Practical implications

To improve satisfaction with working conditions and productivity, migrants on cocoa farms should be given protective working gear, long-term or renewable contracts and they should be encouraged to engage in secondary occupations.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies that focussed on working conditions in the formal sector, this study explores migrants' satisfaction with working conditions in the informal agricultural sector. Also, the study examines labourers' satisfaction with six subcomponents of working conditions compared to previous studies that employed a univariate analytical approach to examine working conditions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Precious Dapaah Opoku, Richard Kwasi Bannor and Helena Oppong-Kyeremeh

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the demographic, crop choice, institutional and environmental factors that will influence the vegetable growers in Bono and Ahafo…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to analyse the demographic, crop choice, institutional and environmental factors that will influence the vegetable growers in Bono and Ahafo regions of Ghana to produce organic vegetables. The study also assessed the knowledge level of vegetable growers on organic certification processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected with the help of a structured questionnaire from 120 vegetable growers via a multistage sampling technique. The Heckman selection model was used to analyse the factors that influence farmers' willingness to adopt organic production as well as the intensity of adoption.

Findings

In this study, pepper (Capsicum spp) production, residential status, knowledge of organic certification processes, perceived negative environmental effect of conventional farming on the soil, and climate change positively influenced willingness to produce organic vegetables. Likewise, pepper production perceived negative environmental effect of conventional farming on the soil positively influenced the intensity of adoption. Household headship status, garden egg (Solanum integrifolium) production, perceived knowledge on grading and standards of vegetables, as well as the perception that only pesticides can be used to control vegetable pests negatively influenced the willingness to produce organic vegetables however perceived expertise of the farmer on grades and standards influenced intensity of adoption negatively.

Originality/value

In Ghana, even though most vegetable farmers do not have the requisite knowledge in the safe handling of pesticides, usage is widespread. Subsequent to this, is a health risk to farmers, consumers and the environment. As a result, there is a growing awareness that organic agriculture has a role to play in addressing problems associated with agrochemical use and over usage. However, most studies are consumer oriented with limited empirical research on the willingness to produce organics by farmers.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-12-2019-0723

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Kenneth Ofori-Boateng and Baba Insah

– The study aimed at examining the current and future impact of climate change on cocoa production in West Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed at examining the current and future impact of climate change on cocoa production in West Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

A translog production function based on crop yield response framework was used. A panel model was estimated using data drawn from cocoa-producing countries in West Africa. An in-sample simulation was used to determine the predictive power of the model. In addition, an out-sample simulation revealed the effect of future trends of temperature and precipitation on cocoa output.

Findings

Temperature and precipitation play a considerable role in cocoa production in West Africa. It was established that extreme temperature adversely affected cocoa output in the sub-region. Furthermore, increasing temperature and declining precipitation trends will reduce cocoa output in the future.

Practical implications

An important implication of this study is the recognition that lagging effects are the determinants of cocoa output and not coincident effects. This finds support from the agronomic point of view considering the gestation period of the cocoa crop.

Originality/value

Although several studies have been carried out in this area, this study modeled and estimated the interacting effects of factors that influence cocoa production. This is closer to reality, as climatic factors and agricultural inputs combine to yield output.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Terence P. Curran, Linda L. Richardson and Andrea E. Smith-Hunter

This case presents an overview of the confectionary industry, a description of the Hershey Foods Corporation, and a look at the company's strategies and the impact of…

Abstract

This case presents an overview of the confectionary industry, a description of the Hershey Foods Corporation, and a look at the company's strategies and the impact of these strategies. The case focuses on the unintended consequences that result from the implementation of dramatic new strategies for a company and what occurs in a company town that displays a very strong paternalistic culture. Some analysts had previously thought that Hershey's profitability and its close relationship with the town, the trust and the school made the company untouchable, but events proved otherwise.

After reading this case, the reader will feel compelled to answer the following questions. What is the best strategy for future growth of Hershey? How important is organizational culture on a corporation's strategic direction? Should the company indeed be sold to a larger corporation?

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

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