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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Ikedinachi K. Ogamba

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge and theory building in youth empowerment and entrepreneurship development.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge and theory building in youth empowerment and entrepreneurship development.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper critically examines the Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria (YouWiN) programme and its relevance as a youth economic empowerment programme through the lens of the UNDP Youth Strategy entry points for promoting economic empowerment of youth and extant literature on critical youth empowerment using participatory development theories.

Findings

While YouWiN is a significant intervention towards entrepreneurship development, it presents some flaws and limitations in the design and implementation process, which may challenge sustainable economic development. Hence, there is a need to explore the millennials empowerment paradigm in light of three key complementary action-oriented approaches to youth entrepreneurship development.

Originality/value

This paper proposes three key complementary action-oriented approaches to youth entrepreneurship policy/programme design, implementation and evaluation for the multilateral agencies, private and voluntary sectors. These are in the form of facilitating participatory engagement and diversity, managing drivers (push/pull factors) of entrepreneurship, and ensuring access to enablers/support. There is the need for further debate and critical inputs to improve theory building towards a normative framework in youth empowerment and entrepreneurship. This contributes to ending poverty, and promoting intergenerational equity and sustainable development.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Obi Berko Obeng Damoah

The paper sought to make contribution to youth entrepreneurship research field. This is because whilst youth entrepreneurship presents enormous socio-economic benefits…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper sought to make contribution to youth entrepreneurship research field. This is because whilst youth entrepreneurship presents enormous socio-economic benefits, including economic growth, diversification, innovation and poverty elimination earlier research have paid more attention to adults' entrepreneurship with less attention been paid to youth entrepreneurship resulting in a compelling research gap following the present huge youth unemployment across the world. Consequently, the motivation of the paper is to guide public policy and practice on the promotion of youth entrepreneurship, especially in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs the survey research design based on logistic regression analysis as the key analytical technique to examine data. The choice of the logistic regression model is due to the fact that the main research question that informs the study is a dichotomous one. Hence it was found appropriate to select the logit regression model based on similar works in the field.

Findings

Over all, the results show that lack of financial support from one's family background, early entry into formal employment, as well as being born into entrepreneurial dominated families significantly predict the probability of a youth considering entrepreneurship as an attractive life venture.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on non-probability sampling method and so readers must bear that in mind when they are interpreting the results.

Practical implications

Following from the findings, one of the practical implications is that youth entrepreneurs must align the external influences to the internal capacity of the businesses to initiate and/or start sustainable entrepreneurial ventures.

Originality/value

The study sheds light from an under-explored and new geographical context to advance existing knowledge in the field.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Aryn Baxter, David W. Chapman, Joan DeJaeghere, Amy R. Pekol and Tamara Weiss

Entrepreneurship education and training are an increasingly widespread component of governmental and nongovernmental efforts to address the interrelated challenges of youth

Abstract

Entrepreneurship education and training are an increasingly widespread component of governmental and nongovernmental efforts to address the interrelated challenges of youth unemployment and poverty reduction. In the absence of consensus regarding how best to design learning opportunities that effectively prepare youth to improve their livelihoods, this chapter explores the central debates surrounding three components that are integrated into most entrepreneurship training initiatives: learning, earning, and saving. Drawing on existing literature and considering three entrepreneurship training programs underway in East Africa, the authors argue that the effectiveness of any particular youth entrepreneurship program is highly dependent on a variety of contextual considerations, many of which are beyond the control of individual youth and program managers. Implications of this are that (a) program managers need to be modest in their expectations of program effects and avoid overpromising, (b) training is needed to help prepare youth to recognize, understand, and cope with various contextual factors that impact their livelihoods, and (c) NGOs and other private organizations that implement such programs are in a position to address certain contextual factors. By highlighting key debates relevant to the design of entrepreneurship training programs, this chapter contributes to the development of entrepreneurship training initiatives that are responsive to contextual realities, thereby increasing the potential effectiveness of entrepreneurship training as a poverty alleviation strategy.

Details

International Educational Innovation and Public Sector Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-708-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Stephen Hunt

This chapter uses discourse analysis to explain why entrepreneurship has become a primary response to Africa’s youth employment challenge. It analyses almost 20 years of…

Abstract

This chapter uses discourse analysis to explain why entrepreneurship has become a primary response to Africa’s youth employment challenge. It analyses almost 20 years of academic literature and publications from one of the world’s foremost authorities on entrepreneurship: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The study found that youth were positioned within a discourse of entrepreneurial essentialism; where entrepreneurship was narrativised as the only option for youth employment; and youth were framed as entrepreneurship being the natural solution for them. Youth were concurrently framed within numerous contradictory entrepreneurial discourses which were used to elevate and legitimise entrepreneurship as the key pathway for addressing Africa’s youth employment challenge. An important finding in this study was that the dominant model of entrepreneurship being promoted by GEM to address the challenge is a mainly skills-based pathway to self-employment and low-growth microenterprise development. This is concerning for two reasons: firstly, global evidence does not demonstrate much support for such an approach, and secondly, it undermines other responses to youth unemployment, particularly those which seek to address more structural, demand-side barriers to employment.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2022

Fanny Adams Quagrainie, Alan Anis Mirhage Kabalan, Samuel Adams and Afia Dentaa Dankwa

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which entrepreneurial resourcefulness and competencies theories and practice can be applied in small youth

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which entrepreneurial resourcefulness and competencies theories and practice can be applied in small youth entrepreneurship in Ghana as well as develop an entrepreneurial resourcefulness model for youth entrepreneurs that incorporates their competencies.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative exploratory approach using semi-structured in-depth interviews amongst 32 youth entrepreneurs in Accra, Ghana was used.

Findings

Youth entrepreneurial resourcefulness embraces some relevant concepts of traditional entrepreneurial resourcefulness and competencies. It also emerged that there were other competencies including discipline, understanding business numbers and being empathic which are competencies associated with youth entrepreneurial resourcefulness.

Research limitations/implications

This paper was limited to a small sample of youth entrepreneurs in Ghana; thus, the generalisation of findings should be done with care.

Originality/value

A “3Ps” model for entrepreneurial resourcefulness in youth micro-entrepreneurship is proposed, which encompasses the attributes of personal, people and political competencies. This paper is one of the few attempts to study and explain the type of competencies and resources embedded in youth entrepreneurial resourcefulness.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Melati Nungsari, Kirjane Ngu, Jia Wei Chin and Sam Flanders

Youth entrepreneurship has been identified as a key driver in overcoming the economic crisis spurred by youth unemployment. However, the understanding of youth

Abstract

Purpose

Youth entrepreneurship has been identified as a key driver in overcoming the economic crisis spurred by youth unemployment. However, the understanding of youth entrepreneurship is largely based on research in high-income countries. Furthermore, entrepreneurship studies to date are largely limited to the independent effects of individual traits on entrepreneurial intention (EI). Hence, this study aims to model the cognitive and social conditions, mediating processes and interactions to understand how youth EI can be formed and strengthened in an emerging economy.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional sample of 295 Malaysian youths participating in an online entrepreneurship program were included to assess their family socioeconomic background, individual personality traits and EI using regression, mediation and moderation models. Within the sample, 29 youths who completed the program were examined for pre- and post-training intervention differences to identify whether entrepreneurial traits can be developed.

Findings

Results showed that a proactive personality or proactiveness was a key mediator in how an internal locus of control (ILOC) and self-esteem influence EI. Furthermore, ILOC and proactiveness were found to compensate for the lack of parental financial support in the formation of EI among low-income youth. Finally, there was a significant increase in proactive personality scores post-intervention, indicating that this trait can be strengthened through entrepreneurship programs.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on parental income as an indicator of family socioeconomic background, which may not accurately represent the diversity of the socio-ecological environment of an individual. Therefore, future research should assess the multi-dimensional indicators of socioeconomic status and their relations with psychological attributes in shaping EI. Furthermore, this study observed a small sample size for the pre- and post-intervention analysis. Hence, more studies with large sample sizes are needed to examine the impact of entrepreneurship education.

Practical implications

Considering that entrepreneurship is envisioned as an instrument to lift youths out of poverty, this study has important implications for entrepreneurship programs that target low-income youths. The findings suggest that such programs need to first emphasize developing ILOC and proactiveness among these youths, thus enabling them to overcome various structural barriers toward entrepreneurship, as opposed to a purely knowledge-based learning approach.

Social implications

To effectively lift youths out of poverty through entrepreneurship, policymakers and educational institutions need to first recognize that the EI of youth from varying socioeconomic backgrounds are formed differently. Hence, the approach of entrepreneurship programs catered toward youth from lower socioeconomic backgrounds will differ from programs catered to youths who are financially secure. Instead of a one-size-fits-all approach, entrepreneurship programs targeted at low-income youths must first emphasize building their mindsets of ILOC and proactivity to overcome financial challenges as opposed to focusing solely on building entrepreneurial skills and knowledge.

Originality/value

The findings offer a more holistic and nuanced view of the contingencies where the efforts of policymakers, educational institutions and practitioners are more likely to succeed in stimulating EI among youths in emerging economies. In addition, the study also bridges the gap between the theoretical understanding of EI and the practical implications of developing effective entrepreneurship programs by combining the cross-sectional analysis and pre- and post-intervention test in the same study. Importantly, the study highlighted the importance of considering youth’s socioeconomic background in the design and implementation of entrepreneurship programs.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Caroline Krafft and Reham Rizk

Entrepreneurship is promoted as a solution to high rates of youth unemployment around the world and especially in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is promoted as a solution to high rates of youth unemployment around the world and especially in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This paper investigates the potential for youth entrepreneurship to alleviate unemployment, focusing on Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine who entrepreneurs are (in comparison to the unemployed), using multinomial logit models. The authors compare entrepreneurs' and wage workers' working conditions and earnings. They exploit panel data to assess earnings and occupational dynamics. They specifically use the Labor Market Panel Surveys of 2012 (Egypt), 2016 (Jordan), and 2014 (Tunisia), along with previous waves.

Findings

The authors find that entrepreneurs are the opposite of the unemployed in MENA. The unemployed are disproportionately young, educated and women. Entrepreneurs are older, less educated and primarily men. Entrepreneurship does not generally lead to higher earnings and does have fewer benefits.

Originality/value

Promoting youth entrepreneurship is not only unlikely to be successful in reducing youth unemployment in MENA, but also, if successful, may even be harmful to youth.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Stavros Sindakis and Sakshi Aggarwal

Purpose: The best way of improving youth entrepreneurs’ success rates is to provide youth entrepreneurs with quality support, skills, and resources to be better equipped…

Abstract

Purpose: The best way of improving youth entrepreneurs’ success rates is to provide youth entrepreneurs with quality support, skills, and resources to be better equipped and willing to make any decision that makes them creative with time. This chapter explores youth entrepreneurship in the MENA region as educating young people about entrepreneurship is crucial today and is about developing new businesses in the region.

Design/methodology/approach: The chapter mainly aims at the role of academia in boosting entrepreneurship among young people in the UAE. Then the literature provides insights on the substantial gender effect on becoming an entrepreneur and the region’s job market.

Findings: Our research indicates that the global economy is witnessing a sudden rise in entrepreneurship in all life areas, based on current world dynamics. Thus, young people must learn and accomplish skills that promote creativity for doing business. For young people to have the requisite skills to start their businesses, educational programs must be in line with industry requirements.

Originality/value: This chapter of the book focuses on youth entrepreneurship, which would help upcoming researchers and students grasp good knowledge about entrepreneurship’s importance. It also recommends relevant research areas on MENA youth entrepreneurship support programs.

Details

Entrepreneurial Rise in the Middle East and North Africa: The Influence of Quadruple Helix on Technological Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-518-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2022

Niranjan Devkota, Ashok Joshi, Ghanashyam Khanal, Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra, Nabaraj Gautam, Udaya Raj Paudel and Udbodh Bhandari

Agriculture, since time immemorial, has been a major sector in reducing poverty, accelerating economic activities and source of sustainability of a nation. As most of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Agriculture, since time immemorial, has been a major sector in reducing poverty, accelerating economic activities and source of sustainability of a nation. As most of the youth in the 21st century are targeting the youth's career in the non-agricultural sector, attracting and involving the youths in agribusinesses is the need of the hour. In this regard, the research tries to understand the awareness and involvement of youth farmers in agripreneurship in Western Nepal.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. On the basis of descriptive and inferential analysis, the ordered logit model is employed in the study. The research is based on explanatory research design through identifying farmers' awareness of agriculture entrepreneurship from 324 farmers of Bedkot Municipality, Kanchanpur, Nepal.

Findings

Study findings have shown that agricultural knowledge with overall awareness is statistically significant. Ordered logistic regression indicated that sex has somehow influenced technical and entrepreneur skills while agriculture information highly influenced education and training. The result shows that agricultural training is still the requirement of one-fourth of the farmers, whereas another quarter of farmers need subsidies.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that in order to enhance awareness, training, subsidy, market management and development program are widely needed. In the backdrop of declining agro-products and food security challenges, the study targets to offer an understanding to policymakers and stakeholders on addressing the dire need of agripreneurship among the youths around the world.

Originality/value

The study summarizes the state of knowledge of agripreneurship of Nepalese farmers, identifies emerging issues and policy implications and priorities for future applied research.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2021

Rania Miniesy, Engy Elshahawy and Hadia Fakhreldin

This study aims to examine the impact of social media (SM) on the creation of digital entrepreneurship by female (irrespective of age) and youth male (aged 18–29 years…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of social media (SM) on the creation of digital entrepreneurship by female (irrespective of age) and youth male (aged 18–29 years) entrepreneurs, investigate if SM empowers those entrepreneurs and compare the empowerment characteristics between female and youth male entrepreneurs before and after starting their businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-assessment questionnaires were collected from a sample of 408 Egyptian female and youth male digital entrepreneurs from Greater Cairo, whose businesses had been operating for more than one year.

Findings

The research showed the following four results: Of the surveyed entrepreneurs, 95% asserted that without SM, they would not have started their businesses. Female and youth male entrepreneurs are empowered both on personal and relational levels, and women’s empowerment is more evident in the latter. Before digital entrepreneurship, youth males have significantly higher averages than female entrepreneurs in almost all empowerment characteristics, whereas after digital entrepreneurship, female entrepreneurs have significantly higher averages in making decisions related to investment, personal education and personal health, as well as those of other household members. Female entrepreneurs are relatively more empowered than youth males after digital entrepreneurship when each group is compared with its initial status.

Originality/value

This study’s originality stems from using a large sample of entrepreneurs, including youth males, not just females; employing a more structured, comprehensive measure of empowerment than found in the literature because it included the rarely used psychological dimension; considering more than one SM tool and comparing empowerment of females to that of youth males.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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