Search results

1 – 10 of over 13000
Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Degsew Melak and Beyene Derso

Currently, there is widespread consensus that training is helpful to the long-term success of business competitive advantages. However, youth continue to invest in various…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, there is widespread consensus that training is helpful to the long-term success of business competitive advantages. However, youth continue to invest in various self-employment business options with low quality of short term trainings. The purpose of this study was to understand the competency level, training need and the role of training to business survival.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the training needs of youth engaged in self-employment and validated its role in sustainable business performance using primary data. To determine training needs, data were analysed using effect size, and probit model was used to understand the predictive validity of training gap to business performance.

Findings

This study has strong evidence that youth engaged in self-employment career have low entrepreneurial competency. The findings of this study revealed that there was little effort to narrow skill and knowledge gaps of youth before entry into self-employment. Training deficiencies were reported in business planning, confidence, risk and time management, conflict management, and communications skills. In addition, self-employment business options were starting up their function with insufficient entrepreneurial knowledge and skills. This would have limited businesses' better chance of long-run survival. Training should be given to bridge the knowledge and skill gaps of youth to ensure the long-term survival of their business. Recommendations include: government should allocate budget for youth short term training, relevant stakeholders should also create access to training for youths before and after entry into self-employment.

Practical implications

Small businesses, during start up with sufficient knowledge and skills, have a better chance of long-term survival. Therefore, this study calls for organized training that would be given to youth to bridge their knowledge and skill gaps on certain competency items and to ensure the long-term survival of micro and small enterprises. Relevant stakeholders should also deliberately create access to training for youth before and after entry into self-employment.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence of measurement of training gap and its effects of training on small business performance. Understanding role of training gap in business performance requires measurement of level of competency and training need in operating self-employment schemes. Validating consequence of level of training needs towards business performance of youth is essential to understand the contribution of skill training in the promotion of self-employment. The predictive validity of training need to business performance enhances our knowledge of the importance of training for small enterprise development. Previous studies focus on real training and its quality, however, fails to link youth self-employment initiatives. The finding of this study provides important insights on how strong skill training is important in supporting long term survival of youth self-employment.

Details

Education + Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Degsew Melak and Tegegne Derbe

Given the different manifestations of the unemployment crisis, the main purpose of this study was to identify what characteristics influence the participation of youth in…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the different manifestations of the unemployment crisis, the main purpose of this study was to identify what characteristics influence the participation of youth in key self-employment business options.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has used both probability and nonprobability sampling techniques. Purposive sampling methods were used to identify target study areas (districts and Kebeles) while the systematic random sampling method was used to locate sample respondents. A total of 424 sample respondents were interviewed through interview scheduled questionnaires. Statistical data analysis was carried out using STATA 14 software.

Findings

Agriculture, local value-added business activities, food-related services, petty trade and local transportation were common business choices where unemployed youths were engaged in. The findings of the study also showed that sex, loan size, loan repayment period and training gap were predictors of youth engagement in various self-employment career choices.

Practical implications

Increasing loan size has a positive and significant influence on youth engagement in all self-employment business choices and has reminded us the need to revise or lift up loan size celling to assist youths in engaging in productive sectors. Similarly, the favourable correlation between female youths and value-added activities necessitates a well-designed female-specific intervention.

Originality/value

An understanding of the key determinants of youth preference to engage in specific self-employment career choices enables practitioners to intervene where necessary in supporting youth self-employment engagement. A combination of skill training, relaxed loan size and relaxed repayment is likely to gain sustainable business, which would benefit the local economy by transforming small businesses to a higher level and creating more job opportunities.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Devanto Shasta Pratomo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of minimum wage on youth employment across employment statuses in Indonesia. This study uses the National Labour Force…

2149

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of minimum wage on youth employment across employment statuses in Indonesia. This study uses the National Labour Force Survey (Sakernas) from 2010 to 2012.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a multinomial logit model to see the youth distribution across different employment status changes as a result of an increase in the minimum wage. Five categories of youth employment statuses are examined including self-employed; unpaid family workers; paid employees in the covered sector; paid employees in the uncovered sectors; and unemployed. The model is examined separately for urban and rural areas, as well as for the male and female youth labour market.

Findings

The results generally suggest that an increase in minimum wage decrease the probability of youth being employed in the covered sector, i.e. paid employment in the covered sector and increase the probability of youth being employed in the uncovered sectors, including self-employed, unpaid family workers, and paid employment in the uncovered sectors. This study indicates a displacement effect for youths from the covered sector into the uncovered sector as suggested by the two-sector model. The specific results are different across urban and rural labour markets, as well as across males and females.

Originality/value

Compared to the developed country studies, the studies on the effects of minimum wage on youth employment in developing countries is relatively limited. The sample from Indonesian labour market with a large informal sector has never been used for these purposes. This study also contributes to the literature by using the particular definition of the covered-uncovered sector to the Indonesian labour market based on the employment status and individual wage data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

John Mangan and John Johnston

High rates of youth unemployment, worldwide, have led governments to advocate a range of policies designed to increase job offers to young workers. For example, the…

3974

Abstract

High rates of youth unemployment, worldwide, have led governments to advocate a range of policies designed to increase job offers to young workers. For example, the Australian Government is currently introducing a system of “training wages” which will see effective youth wages set well below adult award wages for a designated training period. This policy is designed to simultaneously increase the human capital of young workers as well as help to overcome the initial barriers to entry into the labour market. However, youth‐specific wages have been criticized on the basis of age discrimination and on equity grounds. Also, some US data question the employment‐boosting potential of reduced minimum youth wages. In this paper recent international findings on the relationship between youth wages and employment are presented and compared with empirical tests of the relationship using labour market data for Australia as a whole as well as the State of Queensland. The results are used to examine the likely impact of the introduction of the training wage on the youth labour market in Australia and to provide further generalizations on the wider issue of employment and youth‐specific wages.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Emmanuel Tetteh Jumpah, Richard Ampadu-Ameyaw and Johnny Owusu-Arthur

Creating employment opportunities for the youth remains a dilemma for policymakers. In many cases, policies and programmes to tackle youth unemployment have produced…

Abstract

Purpose

Creating employment opportunities for the youth remains a dilemma for policymakers. In many cases, policies and programmes to tackle youth unemployment have produced little results, because such initiatives have failed to consider some fundamental inputs. In Ghana, youth unemployment rate has doubled or more than doubled the national average unemployment rate in recent years. The current study, therefore, examines how policies in the past two decades have affected youth unemployment rate and other development outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reviewed national economic development policy documents from 1996 to 2017 and other relevant policies aimed at creating employment opportunities for the youth, applying the content analysis procedure. Four main policy documents were reviewed in this regard. Data from secondary sources including International Labour Organisation (ILO), World Bank (WB), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) were analysed to examine the trends in youth unemployment rate, human development index and GDP growth rate in Ghana over the years. There were also formal and informal consultations with youth and development practitioners.

Findings

The results of the study show that policies that promote general growth in the economy reduce youth unemployment, while continuation of existing youth programmes, expansion, as well as addition of new ones by new governments reduces youth unemployment rate. In particular, GDP growth and youth unemployment rate trend in opposite direction; periods of increased growth have reduced youth unemployment rate and vice versa. The period of Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda I & II witnessed better reduction (5.7%) in youth unemployment rate than any of the policy periods. This was not sustained, and despite the current youth employment initiatives, unemployment among young people still remained higher than the national average.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides relevant information on how development policies and programmes affect youth unemployment rate over time. In as much as it is not the interest of the study, the study stops short of empirical estimation to determine the level of GDP growth rate that can reduce a particular level of youth unemployment, which is a case for further research. Nevertheless, the outcome of the study reflects the data and methodology used.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is a first study in Ghana that has attempted to directly link development outcomes such as youth unemployment to national economic development policies, although there are studies that have analysed the policy gaps and implementation challenges. This paper, therefore, bridges the knowledge of how development policies affect youth employment opportunities, particularly for Ghana.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Stephen Hunt

This chapter uses discourse analysis to explain why entrepreneurship has become a primary response to Africa’s youth employment challenge. It analyses almost 20 years of…

Abstract

This chapter uses discourse analysis to explain why entrepreneurship has become a primary response to Africa’s youth employment challenge. It analyses almost 20 years of academic literature and publications from one of the world’s foremost authorities on entrepreneurship: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The study found that youth were positioned within a discourse of entrepreneurial essentialism; where entrepreneurship was narrativised as the only option for youth employment; and youth were framed as entrepreneurship being the natural solution for them. Youth were concurrently framed within numerous contradictory entrepreneurial discourses which were used to elevate and legitimise entrepreneurship as the key pathway for addressing Africa’s youth employment challenge. An important finding in this study was that the dominant model of entrepreneurship being promoted by GEM to address the challenge is a mainly skills-based pathway to self-employment and low-growth microenterprise development. This is concerning for two reasons: firstly, global evidence does not demonstrate much support for such an approach, and secondly, it undermines other responses to youth unemployment, particularly those which seek to address more structural, demand-side barriers to employment.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Shireen Alazzawi and Vladimir Hlasny

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and drivers of employment vulnerability among youth in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia, and their propensity to…

216

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and drivers of employment vulnerability among youth in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia, and their propensity to transition to better jobs over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on longitudinal data from Labor Market Panel Surveys spanning 6–20 years. The authors use transition matrices to examine the prevalence of transitions between labor market statuses for the same individuals over time, distinguishing between youth and non-youth, and men and women, as well as multinomial logistic regressions that control for individual and family background, including previous labor market status, family wealth and parental education.

Findings

The paper finds that youth in all three countries were disadvantaged in terms of labor market outcomes with most young men in particular ending up in vulnerable jobs while women of all ages were most likely to exit the labor market all together, unless they had formal jobs. Moreover, youth who started out in the labor market in a vulnerable job were unlikely to move to a better-quality job over time. Family wealth, parental education and father's occupation were found to be important determinants of labor market outcomes and vulnerability, even after a long period of work experience.

Social implications

The paper finds that wealth effects, parental education and occupation effects follow workers throughout their careers, implying low equality of opportunity and inter-generational and lifetime mobility.

Originality/value

The findings indicate worsening labor market outcomes over time, heavily influenced by family background. High levels of vulnerable employment persistence, regardless of skill and experience, reinforce the importance of initial labor market outcome on the quality of lifetime employment prospects.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Christopher Kusemererwa, John C. Munene, Orobia A. Laura and Juma Waswa Balunywa

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether all the dimensions of individual learning behavior matter for self-employment practice among youths, using evidence from Uganda.

6427

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether all the dimensions of individual learning behavior matter for self-employment practice among youths, using evidence from Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a correlational and cross-sectional type. A questionnaire survey of 393 youths was used. The data collected were analyzed through SPSS.

Findings

The results indicate that meaning-oriented learning behavior, planned learning behavior and emergent learning behavior do matter for self-employment practice among youths in Uganda unlike instruction-oriented learning behavior.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on self-employed youths who have gone through tertiary education in Uganda. Therefore, it is likely that the results may not be generalized to other settings. The results show that to promote self-employment practice among youths, the focus should be put mainly on meaning-oriented learning behavior, planned learning behavior and emergent learning behavior.

Originality/value

This study provides initial evidence on whether all the dimensions of individual learning behavior do matter for self-employment practice among youths using evidence from an African developing country – Uganda.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2022

Daniel Belay

Social resources have gained considerable interest from scholars for their effect on youth's labor market outcomes. The available evidence indicates that social capital is…

Abstract

Purpose

Social resources have gained considerable interest from scholars for their effect on youth's labor market outcomes. The available evidence indicates that social capital is a crucial factor in determining youth's labor force status. This paper examines the effect of social capital components on youth self-employment in Holeta town, Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using youth survey data, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on social capital components datasets. This provided the construction of composite indicators for measuring social capital component, which are robust and exhibited construct validity. Following this, the effect of social capital component on youth self-employment was examined using Logit model.

Findings

The results show that institutional trust positively affects the likelihood of young people's decision to be self-employed.

Practical implications

The finding reveals a need to improve the transparency of the institutions' resource delivery, the competency of the institutions' workforce, communication, and information sharing of the institutions with the youth.

Originality/value

Looking at different social capital components simultaneously, the paper provides insight into the wide range of effects of social capital on youth self-employment.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shakira Hanif, Halie Peters, Carolyn McDougall and Sally Lindsay

Many youth with a disability would like to work but encounter challenges finding employment. Vocational interventions can help youth with disabilities gain employment

Abstract

Purpose

Many youth with a disability would like to work but encounter challenges finding employment. Vocational interventions can help youth with disabilities gain employment skills and jobs. In this chapter, we assess: (1) how vocational programs for youth with physical disabilities influence employment-related skills and outcomes; and (2) the common components of vocational programs for these youth.

Design/methodology

Our research team conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature with six major databases: Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase. Publications selected for inclusion met the following criteria: (1) peer-reviewed journal article, dissertation, or conference paper, published between 1990 and January 2014; (2) addresses vocational program or intervention for youth with physical disabilities; and (3) sample includes at least 50% youth (aged 15–25) with an acquired or congenital physical disability.

Findings

Of the 4,588 studies identified in our search, 8 met the inclusion criteria. In six of the studies, the majority of participants gained paid or unpaid employment after participating in a vocational program. Five studies showed improved knowledge and perceptions of employment. Most studies showed improvements in at least one vocational outcome such as knowledge about job searching, job interviews, advocating for workplace adaptations, and how to access services and supports. Common intervention components included: experiential learning, mentorship, and family involvement. Most programs took place in the community or rehabilitation centers that varied in length and were delivered by a variety of professionals. Most programs had a combination of group and individual components.

Implications

There is some evidence to suggest that vocational programs can influence employment outcomes for youth with physical disabilities. However, further research is needed with more rigorous and longitudinal designs.

Details

Factors in Studying Employment for Persons with Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-606-8

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 13000