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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Robert Sparks

Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and

Abstract

Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and communicating positive brand information to children(28,31,32). Research on tobacco sponsorship effects on children is as yet inconclusive, but growing evidence suggests that sponsorship is an effective medium for building cigarette brand awareness and image among under‐aged youth. Research in this area has been inconclusive in part because it lacks a unified framework in which the various contributions of sponsorship to brand knowledge and use can be analysed holistically. This paper proposes that the brand equity concept(1,2,18) provides such a framework. The paper reviews previous research on tobacco sponsorship and children, and presents findings from a study that assessed the relative contribution of sponsorship to brand awareness among fourteen year‐olds (n=366) in Dunedin, New Zealand. The value of sponsorship‐derived cigarette brand knowledge among youth is expressed in terms of Keller's(18) concept of customer‐based brand equity. The study found that children's awareness of tobacco brands and tobacco sponsorships varied according to their smoking experience, sports interests and gender. Cigarette brands with the strongest event associations were those that sponsored events that had a high appeal for the youth in the study. The brands with the highest unaided recall levels were those that were prominently shown in point of purchase displays in stores frequented by the youth, and included those with the highest sponsorship profiles. The research demonstrates that tobacco companies can achieve significant brand recall among children through sport sponsorship, as well as interest‐based (lifestyle) segmentation and targeting benefits, and brand positioning (personality) benefits. The findings have implications for public policy and industry practice. In policy terms, if the goal of tobacco advertising prohibitions is to denormalise smoking by restricting the positive promotional imagery of cigarettes, then sport sponsorship and point of purchase displays need to be incorporated into advertising legislation. In terms of industry practice, the fact that tobacco sponsorship reaches and influences under‐aged youth stands to be a matter of concern for any entity that does not want this social burden. It is recommended that corporations considering involvement in a tobacco‐sponsored event should evaluate the reach of the event and the potential effects of its promotions on youth. Where a youth‐interest connection has been demonstrated for the event, corporations should weigh the social risks and costs of the sponsorship. For non‐tobacco related entities these costs include the potential negative impacts of tobacco‐linked event cross‐promotions on their own brands and corporate image.

Details

International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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Abstract

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Dalia Abdelrahman Farrag

This study aims to examine the factors influencing Qatari youth’s attitude toward luxury brands and intentions to purchase luxury brands. The appetite for luxury spending…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the factors influencing Qatari youth’s attitude toward luxury brands and intentions to purchase luxury brands. The appetite for luxury spending in the Gulf region and specifically in Qatar is accelerating even with the fall in oil prices and faltering economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Both qualitative research in the form of in-depth interviews and quantitative research in the form of survey were utilized in this study. Initially, eight in-depth interviews were conducted with luxury store owners and/or salespersons to identify the most important factors influencing attitude toward luxury brands. Furthermore, 330 Qatari respondents between the ages from 16 to 25 years were interviewed via a mall-interception method at two different malls with high-end/ luxury stores in Doha. Structural equation modeling using AMOS was run to analyze the hypothesized relationships between variables and test the model fit.

Findings

The findings indicated the overall fitness of the model. More specifically, the results indicated that fashion involvement, brand consciousness, social comparison and experiential needs have a significant impact on attitude toward luxury brands and consequently on their purchasing intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This study has several limitations. A more comprehensive framework can be proposed including more variables that may also influence the attitude of youth toward purchasing luxury, for example, brand prominence, vanity and functional value. Comparative studies across demographics (e.g. male vs female and adult vs young luxury buyers) as well as across different cultures and countries can also provide interesting insights related to luxury purchasing behavior among youth. Developing a typology for Qatari luxury consumers can also be very insightful, specifically for supporting brand owners in fine-tuning their marketing and targeting strategies. Finally, other moderating variables like influence of social media or peer influence can also be considered in future studies.

Originality/value

The study sheds light on a significantly important and emerging phenomenon; the increasing consumption of luxury in the gulf region and specifically in Qatar in an attempt to understand the main drivers to their attitude toward luxury brands in general.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Jo Adams and David Burrows

This paper was first presented at the ESOMAR Youth Marketing Conference, Beijing, 24–26 October 1999. It discusses approaches to youth research designed to help ensure…

Abstract

This paper was first presented at the ESOMAR Youth Marketing Conference, Beijing, 24–26 October 1999. It discusses approaches to youth research designed to help ensure that our understanding of the youth target is maximised. It acknowledges the complexity of the youth consumer's attitudes and brand relationships, and the consequent need to understand these relationships from a number of different angles. It focuses on an examination of methodologies and techniques which go beyond the classical qualitative remit, challenging traditional notions of researcher objectivity. It will argue that more subjective approaches to the world of the youth consumer will enable a more contextualised vision of their world and their relationship with brands. The paper will outline the belief that such an approach will contribute to the levels of insight researchers are able to offer clients, in turn enabling them to better anticipate change and development in youth attitudes and needs. Project examples where we believe this has been achieved will be detailed.

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International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Ruppal Walia Sharma

This paper aims to study whether age impacts the responses to different communication cues in terms of brand recall, attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study whether age impacts the responses to different communication cues in terms of brand recall, attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand and purchase intention, and which age groups respond more favorably to a given cue.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental research was conducted across a sample of 1,050 respondents in Delhi to test variance in consumer attitudes across “tweenagers”, teenagers, youth, young adults and adults, when exposed to different communication cues for dummy brands of biscuits and mobile handsets.

Findings

Significant variances were observed in consumer attitudes across the five age groups. However, the variation pattern differs across the two product categories. The caricature cue worked well for biscuits across most age groups. For mobile handsets, the picture cue was very effective for the two younger age groups but not as much for others. The product information cue was highly effective for adults.

Practical implications

The study provides insights on making communication for brands targeted at more than one age group. If adults are a part of the marketers’ age group, some amount of product information is highly desirable, just as bright pictures/caricatures are necessary for tweenagers. For teenagers, who exhibit high variance vis-a-vis other age groups, communication needs to be customized. For brands where both children and adults are part of the target audience, common appeals can easily be identified, as they had similar responses in all but one case.

Originality/value

The framework proposed in this research fills a gap in the existing literature by establishing that age impacts attitude formation in response to communication cues and gives insights for marketing communication.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Zhijuan Zhu, Huai Cao and Bin Li

The purpose of this paper is to explore how logo design characteristics influence consumer response based on visual representation. Logos in different areas may have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how logo design characteristics influence consumer response based on visual representation. Logos in different areas may have different characteristics that impact liking a logo. The logos of youth education brands were explored in this study.

Design/methodology/approach

The Kansei engineering (KE) method was employed in this research. In total, 115 logos of youth education brands were collected and classified into three categories: abstract, natural and text mark. Then 12 of these logos were selected as representative samples. A set of 171 Kansei pairwise image words was collected, and 14 of them were chosen for further investigation. The psychological projection experiment was conducted based on a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire with 120 participants. Three statistical methods including cluster analysis, factor analysis and correlation analysis were combined for the data analysis.

Findings

The results show that four factors affect liking a logo including a sense of contemporaneity, a sense of esthetics, a feeling of interest and a sense of style. Accordingly, the weights of these four factors are proposed. The positive correlation between logo characteristics and liking a logo was also verified. In addition, the classification results of this study confirm the wide use of natural and English text mark logos in youth education brands.

Originality/value

The results could guide designers and managers in selecting or modifying logo design for achieving a positive effective response. This is the first research on logo design characteristics linked with industry domains. This study also contributes to the KE approach to investigate the relative impact of logo characteristics on liking a logo.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Franco Manuel Sancho, Maria Jose Miguel and Joaquin Aldás

The purpose of this paper is to analyze, within the consumer socialization theory framework, the influence of three socialization agents (parents, peers and advertising as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze, within the consumer socialization theory framework, the influence of three socialization agents (parents, peers and advertising as part of media content) over alcohol consumption intentions among young people, differentiating between underage and overage individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured interviews were performed in both high schools and a university to analyze the hypothesized model.

Findings

The results show that both positive and negative expectancies towards the perceived consequences of consuming alcohol are the main antecedents of consumption intention. Moreover, all three considered agents have either a direct and indirect effect on those expectancies; and advertising plays a more important role on underage audience intentions to consume alcohol.

Practical implications

The findings demonstrate that consumption intention among adolescents and young adults is affected by parents, peers and advertising. However, each social agent has a differential effect on young people.

Social implications

This research highlights the importance of strict regulation (or even restriction) on alcoholic advertising to reduce the effect on youth.

Originality/value

The paper develops a comprehensive model to explain some (of the many) relationships underlying alcohol consumption among young people.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Ole Christensen

Reports a survey by GfK Ad Hoc Worldwide on new trends in youth culture and language; this shows a new generation of youngsters, dubbed Generation Search, which is…

Abstract

Reports a survey by GfK Ad Hoc Worldwide on new trends in youth culture and language; this shows a new generation of youngsters, dubbed Generation Search, which is searching for more meaning in life, and has different expectations of brands and advertising. Outlines these attitude changes in relation to femininity and masculinity (notably a general preference in both sexes for the “planet of femininity“); the world of the media and interconnection; multiculturalism; the importance of brands; what makes good advertising (humour, naturalness, openness, harmony, aesthetics, provocativeness, and vision marketing); and the social role of companies.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Bing Shi, Shanshan Li, Xiao Zhang and Dan Zhang

The purpose of this research is to examine the role of worry versus sadness in influencing young consumers’ purchase decisions and to clarify the differences across the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine the role of worry versus sadness in influencing young consumers’ purchase decisions and to clarify the differences across the worry–consumption versus the sadness–consumption relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted. Study 1 was a 3 (emotion: worry vs sadness vs neutral) × 2 (brand perceptions: conflicting vs consistent) between-subject design. Study 2 was a 3 (emotion: sadness vs worry vs neutral) × 2 (product type: social status associated vs hedonic) mixed design. Study 3 was a questionnaire survey.

Findings

The results demonstrate that worry induces young consumers’ identification with peers, and is more related to youth’s purchase intention for social status associated products rather than hedonic products. Sadness induces young consumers to follow their own perceptions, and is more associated with purchase intention for hedonic rather than social status-associated products. The drivers of purchase behavior for expensive products also differ: worried young consumers’ purchase intention is driven by perceptions of social status value associated with these products, whereas sad consumers’ purchase intention is driven by perceptions of hedonic value.

Practical implications

This research has significant implications for marketing practitioners on strategic marketing and communication to young consumers. It also provides important suggestions to young consumers on how to effectively regulate negative emotions via socially accepted behavior (i.e. purchases).

Originality/value

This research contributes to the extant literature on emotion’s impact on consumer behavior by elaborating carryover effects of emotion varying in the overlooked personal- and social-focus dimension. It also extends the literature on peer influence among young consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Caroline Piaster and Sven Arn

What is it about Chupa Chups which makes it so fascinating to kids and teenagers around the world? This paper will look at how Chupa Chups has developed itself as a…

Abstract

What is it about Chupa Chups which makes it so fascinating to kids and teenagers around the world? This paper will look at how Chupa Chups has developed itself as a ‘discovery brand’, always offering something new about itself to be discovered. Like people, brands live and mature in real time, and their communication with their public must also feel real and not appear to be trying too hard to attract attention to themselves. One way of achieving this is by allowing the brand to have contradictions. Chupa Chups is a brand which will not commit to a clear and uniform brand strategy — and this is what makes it so interesting to consumers (and researchers). But even a contradictory brand needs a strategy — and one of the challenges of understanding the brand is identifying where the tensions within it lie — in order that they can be developed and built upon in the future. The methods of researching the contradictory components of Chupa Chups will be discussed.

Details

International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

Keywords

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