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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Il Joon Chung

After the Korean War, South Korean politics was dominated by national security concerns. Reversing Carl von Clausewitz's well-known dictum, in South Korea, “politics is…

Abstract

After the Korean War, South Korean politics was dominated by national security concerns. Reversing Carl von Clausewitz's well-known dictum, in South Korea, “politics is the continuation of war by other means.” Until the late 1980s, politics in South Korea was far from democratic. South Korea had five direct presidential elections (1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) and six national assembly elections (1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008) after the democratic transition of 1987. In 1992, a civilian candidate, Young Sam Kim, was elected president. Young Sam Kim (1993–1998) prosecuted and punished former generals turned presidents Doo Hwan Chun (1980–1988) and Tae Woo Roh (1988–1993) for corruption, mutiny and treason in 1995. Dae Jung Kim (1998–2003) was elected president in 1997. For the first time in South Korean political history, regime change occurred between a ruling party and an opposition party.

In this chapter, the change and continuity of civil–military relations through the fluctuating dynamics of the democratic transition and consolidation in South Korea is examined. A positive consolidation of democratic reform is one that, while securing indisputable civilian supremacy, grants the military enough institutional autonomy for the efficient pursuit of its mission. Civilian supremacy should be institutionalized not only by preventing military intervention in civilian politics but also by ensuring civilian control over the formation and implementation of national defense policy.

In sum, despite three terms of civilian presidency, civilian supremacy has not yet fully institutionalized. Although significant changes in civil-military relations did occur after the democratic transition, they were not initiated by elected leaders with the intention of establishing a firm institutional footing for civilian supremacy. South Korea's political leaders have not crafted durable regulations and institutions that will sustain civilian control over the military.

More than six decades, Korea is still divided. The most highly militarized zone in the world lies along the demilitarized zone. How to draw the line prudently between seeking national security and promoting democracy shall be the most delicate task facing all the civilian regimes to come in South Korea. That mission will remain challenging not only for civilian politicians but also for military leaders.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2011

Jon S.T. Quah

The Hanbo (meaning Korean treasure) scandal or “Hanbogate” occurred on January 23, 1997, with the bankruptcy of Hanbo Iron and Steel Company, the second largest steel…

Abstract

The Hanbo (meaning Korean treasure) scandal or “Hanbogate” occurred on January 23, 1997, with the bankruptcy of Hanbo Iron and Steel Company, the second largest steel company and 14th largest conglomerate in South Korea, as its debt had accumulated to US$5.6 billion. Hanbo's bankruptcy triggered an investigation by the Public Prosecutor's Office that resulted in the imprisonment for 15 years of Hanbo's founder, Chung Tae-Soo, for bribing politicians and bankers to pressure banks to extend hugh bank loans to Hanbo. Nine other persons were also convicted including Chung's son, who was jailed for three years for bribery and embezzlement, and Kim Hyun-Chol, the second son of President Kim Young-Sam, who was sentenced to three years jail and fined US$1.5 million (New York Times, 1997).

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Curbing Corruption in Asian Countries: An Impossible Dream?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-819-0

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Tae Wan Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine regional voting patterns in South Korea using the results from six presidential elections since the 1990s.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine regional voting patterns in South Korea using the results from six presidential elections since the 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

A χ2 test was used to determine the municipalities where a regional voting pattern emerged, and λ correlation coefficients were calculated to examine changes in the regional voting patterns.

Findings

The analyses lead to three key findings. First, voting patterns differ in Yeongnam and Honam: regional voting in Yeongnam is getting weaker, it remains strong in Honam. Second, the tendency to vote along regional lines decreased significantly in the election in which the Honam party fielded a candidate with a Yeongnam appeared identity. Third, regional voting patterns declined but then stabilized at a constant level, regardless of the candidates’ local identity, which was confirmed in “Bu-Ul-Gyeong.”

Originality/value

This paper can empirically verify the manifestation of regional voting pattern and confirm the trend. It is possible to derive a condition for suppressing the regional voting pattern.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2005

Young-Myon Lee and Michael Byungnam Lee

While the origin of Korean Industrial Relations goes back 150 years when the country opened its seaports to foreign countries, it didn’t emerge as a field of study until…

Abstract

While the origin of Korean Industrial Relations goes back 150 years when the country opened its seaports to foreign countries, it didn’t emerge as a field of study until 1950s when academics began to write books and papers on the Korean labor movement, labor laws, and labor economics. In this paper, we sketch this history and describe important events and people that contributed to the development of industrial relations in Korea. Korean industrial relations in the early 20th century were significantly distorted by the 35-year-Japanese colonial rule (1910–1945). After regaining its independence, the U.S. backed, growth-oriented, military-based, authoritarian Korean government followed suit and consistently suppressed organized labor until 1987. Finally, the 1987 Great Labor Offensive allowed the labor movement to flourish in a democratized society. Three groups were especially influential in the field of industrial relations in the early 1960s: labor activists, religious leaders, and university faculty. Since then, numerous scholars have published books and papers on Korean industrial relations, whose perspectives, goals, and processes are still being debated and argued. The Korean Industrial Relations Association (KIRA) was formed on March 25, 1990 and many other academic and practitioner associations have also come into being since then. The future of industrial relations as a field of study in Korea does not seem bright, however. Issues regarding organized labor are losing attention because of a steadily shrinking unionization rate, changing societal attitude toward labor unions, and the enactment of new and improved laws and regulations regarding employment relationships more broadly. Thus, we suggest that emerging issues such as contingent workers, works councils and tripartite partnership, conflict management, and human rights will be addressed by the field of industrial relations in Korea only if this field breaks with its traditional focus on union and union–management relations.

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Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-265-8

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Young Joon Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of the China–North Korea alliance that has been often described as “Lips and Teeth” or “Blood Tied.”

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of the China–North Korea alliance that has been often described as “Lips and Teeth” or “Blood Tied.”

Design/methodology/approach

In order to make accurate assessment of the China–North Korea relations, this paper conducts indepth historical analysis of the relations. The relations between two countries were formed in 1940s and lasts until today.

Findings

However, by looking into the history of two countries, this paper argues that the bilateral relations are not an extraordinary but an ordinary state-to-state relations dictated by national interests. Changes in their calculus of national interests affect their relations. They cooperate with each other when they see mutual benefit in doing so and tension arises when there is a conflict of interests. What should be noted is that the changes in the nature of relations is different from the deterioration in the relations. Recent improvement of their relations supports this paper’s argument.

Originality/value

This paper suggests new look at the China–North Korea relations that has been considered as an extraordinary relations. The findings of this paper suggest that the alliance relation is not different from other state-to-state relations where conflict and cooperation occurs based on their national interests.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Heejin Kim and Seong-Young Kim

This paper aims to explore the condition under which a multinational company’s organizational headquarters influences its development of a localized overseas product.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the condition under which a multinational company’s organizational headquarters influences its development of a localized overseas product.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on interviews with members at a Japanese multinational company’s headquarters, the authors’ analysis shows two invisible bottlenecks in the headquarters organization: the psychological resistance of the headquarters’ engineers and a lack of communication channels between the headquarters and overseas units.

Findings

The authors’ analysis shows two invisible bottlenecks in the headquarters organization: the psychological resistance of the headquarters’ engineers and a lack of communication channels between the headquarters and overseas units.

Originality/value

The authors’ research provides a rare glimpse into the ways that the conditions of local knowledge and foreign subsidiaries and the organizational conditions of home country headquarters are intertwined with one another during a period of product development.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Young Mee Kim and Se Young Kim

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between structural empowerment and patient identification behaviors of nurses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between structural empowerment and patient identification behaviors of nurses.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study was a descriptive survey using a self-reported questionnaire, following a quality improvement project at a hospital in South Korea. The participants included 984 registered nurses, who administer medication and transfusions to patients in the hospital. Data were analyzed using the t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé’s test, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The patient identification behaviors of nurses were significantly correlated with opportunity, support, information, resources, formal power and informal power of structural empowerment. The support, information and informal power of structural empowerment, as well as the age and gender of the participants explained 10.7 percent of the variance in the patient identification behaviors of nurses.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has some limitations. Although the data collected by the cross-sectional survey were analyzed, causal analysis could not have been conducted. Nursing managers can promote safety by creating a work environment that facilitates access to the support, information and resources needed for nurses to perform their duties effectively; providing opportunities for nurses to learn and develop professionally; acknowledging the achievements of nurses; and expanding their duties, so that nurses can demonstrate greater work flexibility. Future studies should investigate structural empowerment in multiple nursing organizations, and particularly the organizational characteristics that affect structural empowerment.

Originality/value

The present study confirms that structural empowerment influences the patient identification behaviors of nurses.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Jinwoo Park, Minhong Kim, John Nauright and Young Hoon Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among athlete star power, enjoyment and revisit intention of sport event tourists in a sport mega-event (SME).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among athlete star power, enjoyment and revisit intention of sport event tourists in a sport mega-event (SME).

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted in the context of 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games. A total of 419 respondents completed a survey. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study proved the final structure model fit well by having the values and scores higher than the minimum cutoff in all categories. Path coefficients indicate that H1a, H1c and H2 were supported while H1b was not supported by the analysis. In addition, enjoyment partially mediated the relationship between athlete star power and revisit intentions. In particular, two mediating effects were found: enjoyment mediated trustworthiness and revisit intention and expertise and revisit intention. However, enjoyment did not mediate the relationship between attractiveness and revisit intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study lies within two perspectives. Since the data have been collected in one country, the results may be viewed and interpreted for a specific location and time. Thus, it is strongly recommended to conduct the similar studies in the future Olympic Games. In the other perspective, the results could be different from one to another sport game because of the popularity by star power and game itself.

Originality/value

This study adds the literature on sport event research. Although there were a few studies on the effect of athlete star power, a dearth of research examined the relationships among athlete star power (trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise), enjoyment and revisit intention. These results are valuable to SME managers to increase the propensity of tourists’ revisit intention at sport mega-event by understanding the factors that lead to increased tourist enjoyment.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

John Lie

From 1953 to 1961, the South Korean economy grew slowly; the average per capita GNP growth was a mere percent, amounting to less than $100 in 1961. Few people, therefore…

Abstract

From 1953 to 1961, the South Korean economy grew slowly; the average per capita GNP growth was a mere percent, amounting to less than $100 in 1961. Few people, therefore, look for the sources of later dynamism in this period. As Kyung Cho Chung (1956:225) wrote in the mid‐1950s: “[South Korea] faces grave economic difficulties. The limitations imposed by the Japanese have been succeeded by the division of the country, the general destruction incurred by the Korean War, and the attendant dislocation of the population, which has further disorganized the economy” (see also McCune 1956:191–192). T.R. Fehrenbach (1963:37), in his widely read book on the Korean War, prognosticated: “By themselves, the two halves [of Korea] might possibly build a viable economy by the year 2000, certainly not sooner.”

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

Young Kim

The purpose of this paper is to explore the organizational effectiveness of internal crisis communication within the strategic management approach, whether it enhanced…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the organizational effectiveness of internal crisis communication within the strategic management approach, whether it enhanced voluntary and positive employee communication behaviors (ECBs) for sensemaking and sensegiving. By doing so, this study provides meaningful insight into: new crisis communication theory development that takes a strategic management approach, emphasizing employees’ valuable assets from an organization, and effective crisis communication practice that reduces misalignment with employees and that enhances voluntary and positive ECBs for the organization during a crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted a nationwide survey in the USA among full-time employees (n=544). After dimensionality check through confirmatory factor analysis, this study tested hypothesis and research question by conducting ordinary least squares multiple regression analyses using STATA 13.

Findings

This study found that strategic internal communication factors, including two-way symmetrical communication and transparent communication, were positive and strong antecedents of ECBs for sensemaking and sensegiving in crisis situations, when controlling for other effects. The post hoc analysis confirmed theses positive and strong associations across different industry areas.

Originality/value

This study suggests that voluntary and valuable ECBs can be enhanced by listening and responding to employee concerns and interests; encouraging employee participation in crisis communication; and organizational accountability through words, actions and decisions during the crisis. As a theoretical implication, the results of this study indicate the need for crisis communication theories that emphasize employees as valuable assets to an organization.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

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