Search results

1 – 10 of over 31000
Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Zoe Edelstein, Michael Kharfen, Michelle Kim, Benjamin Tsoi, Paul M. Salcuni, Theresa Gamble, Blayne Cutler, Bernard Branson and Wafaa M. El-Sadr

Awareness raising campaigns have been used to promote HIV prevention messages, including the expansion of HIV testing, but initiating such campaigns de novo can be costly…

Abstract

Purpose

Awareness raising campaigns have been used to promote HIV prevention messages, including the expansion of HIV testing, but initiating such campaigns de novo can be costly. Both the Bronx, New York and Washington, DC have significant local HIV epidemics and a history of efforts to scale-up HIV testing. To build on prior HIV testing campaigns and create new messages based on consultation with diverse stakeholders, a partnership with a community-based clinical trial to enhance HIV testing and treatment was established. The purpose of this paper is to describe the history of HIV testing campaigns in the two jurisdictions, the awareness raising conducted in collaboration with the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) study (HPTN 065) and provide evidence of its effect in these two communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The foundation of prior campaigns allowed for expansion of social mobilization efforts to specific priority populations (gay men and other men who have sex with men), the most severely affected groups in both communities, and to expand the efforts to include clinical settings. New compelling and acceptable messages were shaped through engagement with community members and based on input from focus groups with target populations in each city.

Findings

By engaging the target population in the development of new messaging, HPTN 065 study successfully built on campaigns that were already underway in both jurisdictions and was able to use those messages and platforms to further normalize HIV testing.

Practical implications

Modifying and adapting existing messages saved time and resources, which can be important factors to consider in settings with limited resources or high media purchasing costs.

Originality/value

Efforts of this kind may ultimately help to decrease HIV transmission in large urban settings.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Denny Vrandečić, Sofia Pinto, Christoph Tempich and York Sure

Aims to present the ontology engineering methodology DILIGENT, a methodology focussing on the evolution of ontologies instead of the initial design, thus recognizing that

Downloads
3114

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to present the ontology engineering methodology DILIGENT, a methodology focussing on the evolution of ontologies instead of the initial design, thus recognizing that knowledge is a tangible and moving target.

Design/methodology/approach

First describes the methodology as a whole, then detailing one of the five main steps of DILIGENT. The second part describes case studies, either already performed or planned, and what we learned (or expect to learn) from them.

Findings

With the case studies it was discovered the strengths and weaknesses of DILIGENT. During the evolution of ontologies, arguments need to be exchanged about the suggested changes. Identifies those kind of arguments which work best for the discussion of ontology changes.

Research implications

DILIGENT recognizes ontology engineering methodologies like OnToKnowledge or Methontology as proven useful for the initial design, but expands them with its strong focus on the user‐centric further development of the ontology and the provided integration of automatic agents in the process of ontology evolution.

Practical implications

With DILIGENT the experience distilled from a number of case studies and offers the knowledge manager a methodology to work in an ever‐changing environment.

Originality/value

DILIGENT is the first methodology to put focus not on the initial development of the ontology, but on the user and his usage of the ontology, and on the changes introduced by the user. We take the user's own view seriously and enable feedback towards the evolution of the ontology, stressing the ontology's role as a shared conceptualisation.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Amy Maria Blackstone

Sociability work, defined as the work involved in putting on community and charity events, provides one example of the intersections among gender and work. Yet…

Abstract

Sociability work, defined as the work involved in putting on community and charity events, provides one example of the intersections among gender and work. Yet sociologists have generally not included sociability work in their examinations of work. Based on ethnographic research in a breast cancer awareness organization, I analyze women’s sociability work to demonstrate how dimensions of power such as gender shape understandings of what counts and does not count as work. By applying the concept of sociability work to a contemporary group of volunteer workers in the U.S., I show first that this form of working is alive and well to day. I also highlight how sociability work complicates dominant conceptual understandings of work and consider the consequences of sociability work’s relative in visibility. I argue that excluding sociability work from the study of work shuts off critical discussion of its potential uses and misuses in shaping public policy and access to the public sphere.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 23 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Peter Haase, Johanna Völker and York Sure

This paper presents a framework for ontology evolution tailored to Digital Libraries, which makes use of two different sources for change detection and propagation, the

Downloads
3529

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a framework for ontology evolution tailored to Digital Libraries, which makes use of two different sources for change detection and propagation, the usage of ontologies by users and the changes of available data.

Design/methodology/approach

After presenting the logical architecture of the evolution framework, we first illustrate how to deal with usage‐driven changes, that is changes derived from the actual usage of ontologies. Second, we describe the generation of data‐driven ontology changes based on the constant flow of documents coming into digital libraries.

Findings

The proposed framework for ontology ontology evolution, which is currently applied and evaluated in the case studies, significantly reduces the costs of ontology updates and improves the quality of the ontology with respect to the users' requirements.

Practical implications

The management of dynamic knowledge is crucial for many knowledge management applications. Our approach for usage‐driven and data‐driven change discovery not only assures the consistency of ontologies modeling dynamic knowledge, but also reduces the burden of manual ontology engineering.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first approach towards a common framework for ontology evolution based on usage‐driven and data‐driven change discovery.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Tom Bösser

PurposeThe paper introduces methods for the evaluation of new software applications that build on semantic knowledge technology for use in information‐ and

Downloads
1615

Abstract

PurposeThe paper introduces methods for the evaluation of new software applications that build on semantic knowledge technology for use in information‐ and knowledge‐intensive application domains. Design/methodology/approachWhile user‐centred design is a mature and proven field, the new knowledge‐centred applications also require that information quality is assessed in a more profound manner than was considered previously, and the business value generated by semantic knowledge technology is quantified. The methods to be used in different phases of the development cycle are described. FindingsThe approaches used in ongoing RTD projects and in different user organizations are described. Research limitations/implicationsThe analysis of organisational aspects of knowledge management and the benefits of improvements in cooperation mechanisms provide further challenges for methodological development. Practical implicationsRecommendations and suggestions for similar innovative research and application development projects are given. Originality/valueWhile some of the methods are proven and well documented, there is a need to collect further experience with the user validation of applications using semantic knowledge technology.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Paul Warren and David Alsmeyer

This paper describes the application of semantic knowledge technology to a case study in intelligent content management, specifically the BT digital library. The intention

Downloads
2929

Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes the application of semantic knowledge technology to a case study in intelligent content management, specifically the BT digital library. The intention is to test the technology being developed within semantically‐enabled knowledge technology (SEKT) and provide feedback to the development process. This will verify the viability of our technology and verify that we are using semantic knowledge technology to satisfy the real requirements of users. The case study will also serve as a shop window for the technology.

Design/methodology/approach

During the initial stage of the project, user requirements were collected by means of a questionnaire and also an in‐depth focus group. Combined with a study of the existing literature on digital libraries, this enabled an enhanced digital library system to be designed using SEKT technologies.

Findings

Work so far has verified that semantic knowledge technologies can be used to enhance the value of digital libraries. During the later stages of the SEKT project detailed trials will enable the SEKT functionality to be fine‐tuned for the precise needs of users.

Practical implications

To be of value, semantic knowledge technologies must take into account the needs and behaviour of users. For example, a strong lesson from our focus group was that users wish to feel in control of the technology.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates how semantic knowledge technology can be used in a specific application. This application is valuable in itself, and will provide feedback to help understand how semantic knowledge technology can be used to provide user benefit in general.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Ronald J. Burke, Zena Burgess and Fay Oberrlaid

This study examined the relationship of male psychologists’ perception of organizational values supporting work‐personal life balance in their workplace and their work…

Downloads
1025

Abstract

This study examined the relationship of male psychologists’ perception of organizational values supporting work‐personal life balance in their workplace and their work experiences, indicators of work and life satisfaction and psychological well‐being. Data were collected from 134 men using anonymous questionnaires. Male psychologists reporting organizational values more supportive of work‐personal life balance also reported more joy in work, less job stress, lower intentions to quit, greater job, and career and more optimistic career prospects, satisfaction, fewer psychosomatic symptoms and more positive emotional and physical well‐being. Interestingly, organizational values supporting balance had no relationship with hours worked on job involvement.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 23 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

York Sure and Rudi Studer

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview about the Semantic Web, its importance and history and an overview of recent Semantic Web technologies which can be…

Downloads
3600

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview about the Semantic Web, its importance and history and an overview of recent Semantic Web technologies which can be used to enhance digital libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper answers, at least partially, questions like “What is the Semantic Web?”, “How could the Semantic Web look like?”, “Why is the Semantic Web important?”, “What are ontologies?” and “Where are we now?”. Several pointers to further literature and web sites complete the overview.

Findings

Semantic Web technologies are valuable add‐ons for digital libraries. There already exist numerous academic and commercial tools which can be applied right now.

Practical limitations/implications

The overview of Semantic Web technologies cannot be complete in such an article, therefore we limit ourselves to the most prominent technologies available. However, following the pointers given readers can easily find more information.

Originality/value

The article is of particular value for newcomers in this area.

Details

Library Management, vol. 26 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

John Davies, Alistair Duke, Nick Kings, Dunja Mladenić, Kalina Bontcheva, Miha Grčar, Richard Benjamins, Jesus Contreras, Mercedes Blazquez Civico and Tim Glover

The paper shows how access to knowledge can be enhanced by using a set of innovative approaches and technologies based on the semantic web.

Downloads
3049

Abstract

Purpose

The paper shows how access to knowledge can be enhanced by using a set of innovative approaches and technologies based on the semantic web.

Design/methodology/approach

Emerging trends in knowledge access are considered followed by a description of how ontologies and semantics can contribute. A set of tools is then presented which is based on semantic web technology. For each of these tools a detailed description of the approach is given together with an analysis of related and future work as appropriate.

Findings

The tools presented are at the prototype stage but can already show how knowledge access can be improved by allowing users to more precisely express what they are looking for and by presenting to them in a form that is appropriate to their current context.

Research limitations/implications

The tools show promising results in improving access to knowledge which will be further evaluated within a practical setting. The tools will be integrated and trialled as part of case studies within the SEKT project. This will allow their usability and practical applicability to be measured.

Practical implications

Ontologies as a form of knowledge representation are increasing in importance. Knowledge management, and in particular knowledge access, will benefit from their widespread acceptance. The use of open standards and compatible tools in this area will be important to support interoperability and widespread access to disparate knowledge repositories.

Originality/value

The paper presents research in an emerging but increasingly important field, i.e. semantic web‐based knowledge technology. It describes how this technology can satisfy the demand for improved knowledge access, including providing knowledge delivery to users at the right time and in the correct form.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Marko Grobelnik and Dunja Mladenić

PurposeTo resent approaches and some research results of various research areas contributing to knowledge discovery from different sources, different data forms, on

Downloads
3910

Abstract

PurposeTo resent approaches and some research results of various research areas contributing to knowledge discovery from different sources, different data forms, on different scale, and for different purpose. Design/methodology/approachContribute to knowledge management by applying knowledge discovery approaches to enable computer search for the relevant knowledge whereas the humans give just broad directions. FindingsKnowledge discovery techniques proved to be very appropriate for many problems related to knowledge management. Surprisingly, it is often the case that already relatively simple approaches provide valuable results. Research limitations/implicationsStill there are many open problems and scalability issues that arise when dealing with real‐world data and especially in the areas involving text and network analysis. Practical implicationsEach problem should be handled with care, taking into account different aspects and selecting/extending the most appropriate available methods or developing some new approaches. Originality/valueThis paper provides an interesting collection of selected knowledge discovery methods applied in different context but all contributing in some way to knowledge management. Several of the reported approaches were developed in collaboration with the authors of the paper with especial emphases on their usability for practical problems involving knowledge management.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 31000