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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

YooHee Hwang, Na Su and Anna Mattila

The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactive effect of social crowding and solo consumers’ sense of power on attitudes toward the restaurant menu with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactive effect of social crowding and solo consumers’ sense of power on attitudes toward the restaurant menu with popularity and scarcity cues.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 181 US consumers were recruited. Using a quasi-experimental design, social crowding and promotional cues on a restaurant menu were manipulated and solo consumers’ sense of power was measured.

Findings

Low-power individuals exhibited more favorable attitudes toward the menu with a popularity cue at a crowded restaurant. High-power individuals’ attitudes toward the menu were equally favorable across the two promotional cues and crowding levels.

Practical implications

Restaurant managers might want to leverage popularity cues on the menu during peak hours to appeal to solo diners. After diners indicate their dining type (alone vs with others) in kiosks and tablets, restaurants can tailor promotional cues accordingly. Restaurants can also embed more popularity cues in dinner (vs lunch) menus because dinner is more hedonic and social in nature.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the crowding literature by examining promotional cues on the menu and sense of power as moderators of consumer responses to crowding. This study further adds to the solo consumption literature by extending the notion of power and social crowding to ethnic dining contexts.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2022

YooHee Hwang, Eunkyoung Park, Choong-Ki Lee, Hea-Jin Son and Hossein Olya

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the lighter (entertainment and esthetic experiences) and darker sides (educational and escapist experiences) of dark tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the lighter (entertainment and esthetic experiences) and darker sides (educational and escapist experiences) of dark tourism experiences. This study also examines the effect of lighter and darker sides of dark tourism experiences on functional and emotional value.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate how and where visitors experience lighter and darker sides of dark tourism, the authors conducted in-depth interviews from visitors to the Korean demilitarized zone (DMZ). To demonstrate consequences of lighter and darker sides of dark tourism experiences on functional and emotional value, the authors collected field survey data. Taken together, the authors used mixed methods with exploratory sequential design.

Findings

Interviewees vividly described their entertainment (crossing the suspension bridge) and esthetic experiences (seeing a family of crane birds from a short distance) in the Korean DMZ. They also described educational (understanding the background of the civil war) and escapist experiences (limiting daily entries made them feel like they were entering a special place or even a foreign country). Survey results showed that educational and esthetic experiences increased emotional value, while educational and escapist experiences enhanced functional value of a tour of the Korean DMZ.

Originality/value

Previous research operationalized lighter and darker sides of dark tourism based on characteristics of dark tourism sites. Specifically, darker and lighter aspects of dark tourism were determined, depending on whether such sites are directly related to human death or not. However, the current study draws on tourist experiences to operationalize lighter and darker sides of dark tourism. While previous research focused on the supply side, this study shifts focus to the demand side, thereby advancing knowledge in hybrid dark tourism experiences.

目的

本研究旨在通过娱乐和审美体验(相对于教育和逃避现实的体验)展示黑暗旅游的光明(相对于黑暗)的一面。除此, 本研究以到访频率和到访目的作调节变量, 分别探讨上述四个类别的黑色旅游体验、功能性或情感性价值和访客满意度的关系。

设计

为了深入探究上述四个类别的黑色旅游体验的性质, 我们与韩国非军事区的访客进行了深入的访谈。我们收集了田野问卷数据来测试上述四个类别的黑色旅游体验、价值观和满意度。运用测量不变性测试和多组分析试验了到访频率和到访目的之调节变量。

结果

受访者在韩国非军事区生动地描述他们的娱乐(走过吊桥)和审美经历(近距离观赏一群鹤鸟)。他们还描述了教育(解释了韩战的背景)和逃避现实的经历(每日入场人数限制让访客觉得他们正在进入一个特别的地方甚至是国外)。问卷结果显示了教育和审美经历引致了情感价值, 教育和逃避现实经历则引致功能价值。

原创性

先前的研究根据黑色旅游地点的特点, 对黑色旅游的光明面和黑暗面进行了展示。具体来说, 根据这些地点是否与人类死亡直接相关, 确定了黑暗旅游的光明及黑暗的方面。然而, 本研究利用旅游体验来定义黑色旅游的光明面和黑暗面。虽然之前的研究侧重于旅游供应方面, 但本研究将重点转移到需求方面, 从而推进了混合黑色旅游体验的知识发展。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El propósito de este estudio es demostrar el encendedor (entretenimiento y estética) experiencias) y los lados más oscuros (experiencias educativas y escapistas) de las experiencias de turismo oscuro. Este El estudio también examina el efecto de los lados más claros y más oscuros de las experiencias de turismo oscuro en funcional y valor emocional.

Propósito

Para investigar cómo y dónde los visitantes experimentan más claro y más oscuro lados del turismo oscuro, los autores realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a visitantes del desmilitarizado coreano zona desmilitarizada (DMZ). Demostrar las consecuencias de los lados más claros y más oscuros de las experiencias de turismo oscuro en valor funcional y emocional, los autores recopilaron datos de encuestas de campo. En conjunto, los autores utilizaron métodos mixtos con diseño secuencial exploratorio.

Hallazgos

Los entrevistados describieron vívidamente su entretenimiento (cruzar el puente colgante) y Experiencias estéticas (ver una familia de pájaros grulla desde una corta distancia) en la DMZ coreana. Ellos también describió experiencias educativas (comprendiendo los antecedentes de la guerra civil) y escapistas (limitar las entradas diarias les hizo sentir como si estuvieran entrando en un lugar especial o incluso en un país extranjero). Los resultados de la encuesta mostraron que las experiencias educativas y estéticas aumentaron el valor emocional, mientras que Las experiencias educativas y escapistas mejoraron el valor funcional de un recorrido por la DMZ coreana.

Originalidad/valor

Investigaciones anteriores operacionalizaron los lados más claros y más oscuros del turismo oscuro con base en Características de los sitios de turismo oscuro. Específicamente, los aspectos más oscuros y más claros del turismo oscuro fueron determinado, dependiendo de si tales sitios están directamente relacionados con la muerte humana o no. sin embargo, el El estudio actual se basa en las experiencias turísticas para operacionalizar los lados más claros y más oscuros del turismo oscuro. Si bien la investigación anterior se centró en el lado de la oferta, este estudio cambia el enfoque hacia el lado de la demanda, por lo que avanzar en el conocimiento de experiencias híbridas de turismo oscuro.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 June 2022

YooHee Hwang, Xingyu Wang and Priyanko Guchait

Considerable research has examined the negative consequences of customer incivility on employees (e.g. turnover intention and sabotage behavior toward the customer)…

Abstract

Purpose

Considerable research has examined the negative consequences of customer incivility on employees (e.g. turnover intention and sabotage behavior toward the customer). However, there is scant research investigating how other customers, as observers, may react to incivility. This knowledge gap should be filled because hospitality services are often consumed in the public setting where customers can observe and be influenced by each other. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by examining observing customers’ willingness to revisit the company following customer incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants are American consumers recruited from a crowdsourced online panel. Two scenario-based experimental studies in the restaurant setting are conducted. Customer incivility and relationship norms (communal versus exchange) are manipulated, while relationship closeness is measured.

Findings

Study 1 shows that following fellow customer incivility (vs civility), observing customers’ intention to revisit the company was lower when they perceive a distant relationship with the employee. This intention did not differ regardless of incivility and civility when they perceive a close relationship with the employee. Study 2 shows that when observing customers perceive a communal relationship with the employee, their revisit intention was even higher following customer incivility (vs civility).

Practical implications

Hospitality managers need to train employees to identify signs of customer incivility and assume appropriate actions to reduce the negative consequences on observers. Hospitality managers should also communicate their expectations for respectful customer behaviors through an organization-wide campaign. Finally, hospitality businesses should foster a close relationship with their customers, particularly a communal relationship to offset the negative consequences of customer incivility on observers.

Originality/value

This study adds to previous research by challenging the universally negative view of customer incivility. The authors do so by examining the moderating effects of relationship closeness and norms in observer reactions to customer incivility. This study contributes to previous research drawing on script theory and deontic justice theory.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

YooHee Hwang, Xiaolin (Crystal) Shi and Xingyu Wang

This systematic review synthesizes the recent literature (2010–2020) on hospitality employees’ emotions, affect and moods. This study has three objectives: to clarify the…

1450

Abstract

Purpose

This systematic review synthesizes the recent literature (2010–2020) on hospitality employees’ emotions, affect and moods. This study has three objectives: to clarify the definitions of emotions, affect and moods; to explain how theories are integrated into understanding hospitality employees’ emotions, affect and moods; and to assess how emotions, affect and moods are measured.

Design/methodology/approach

Using seven major databases, the authors selected 61 peer-reviewed academic journal articles published in hospitality outlets for review. We based our study on five stages of conducting a systematic review: scoping, planning, identification, screening and eligibility.

Findings

Affect is an umbrella term encompassing moods and emotions. Emotions are distinct from emotion-laden constructs, such as emotional labor and emotional intelligence. Theories on conservation of resources, emotional labor and social exchange have been most frequently used to understand hospitality employees’ emotions. However, they overlooked the dynamic nature of emotions when using these theories. Hospitality researchers often used a subset of the positive and negative affect scale and did not discuss back-translation.

Practical implications

Hospitality employees’ emotions lead to far-reaching consequences in attitudes, intentions and behaviors in work and non-work domains. Effective practices (e.g. creating a supportive climate) that help evoke positive employee emotions and reduce negative employee emotions are thus desirable.

Originality/value

Our findings crystallize the understanding of emotions, affect and moods of hospitality employees. We further provide a roadmap for future research on hospitality employees’ emotions. Data triangulation, cross-cultural research and mixed emotions are novel opportunities for future research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 March 2021

YooHee Hwang, Xingyu Wang and Aysin Pașamehmetoġlu

Online reviews are perceived as credible and trustworthy across various business sectors; thus, they influence customers’ purchase decisions. However, the potential role…

1147

Abstract

Purpose

Online reviews are perceived as credible and trustworthy across various business sectors; thus, they influence customers’ purchase decisions. However, the potential role of customer online reviews as feedback for employee performance and employee reactions to customer reviews remain largely unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study proposes that employee characteristics, namely, self-efficacy (Study 1) and moral identity (Study 2), moderate the effect of the valence of customer reviews on hospitality employees’ helping behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a scenario-based, quasi-experimental design in two studies. They recruited a total of 215 frontline employees at independent casual dining restaurants in Istanbul, Turkey (Study 1) and 226 US residents who have worked in the restaurant industry for more than six months (Study 2). Multiple linear regressions via PROCESS and moderation analysis via Johnson–Neyman technique were used.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that when employees’ self-efficacy is low, positive (vs negative) customer reviews enhance employees’ helping behavior. By contrast, when employees’ self-efficacy is high, their helping behavior is invariantly high regardless of the valence of customer reviews. Study 2 reveals that when employees’ moral identity is low, their helping behavior decreases in the presence of negative (vs positive) customer reviews. Conversely, when employees’ moral identity is high, their helping behavior is similarly high regardless of the valence of customer reviews.

Practical implications

Hospitality managers may need to develop training programs to enhance their employees’ self-efficacy and moral identity. They may also provide necessary organizational support to induce their employees’ self-efficacy and moral identity, given that such psychological resources help buffer the dampening effect of negative reviews on helping behavior. Last, hospitality managers may consider incorporating customer reviews as part of employee performance feedback.

Originality/value

This study advances the understanding of employees’ responses to customer reviews, with the performance appraisal feedback framework as fresh theoretical lens. This study is among the first to demonstrate the relationship between the valence of customer reviews and subsequent helping behavior of employees toward customers. It also contributes to the emerging literature that identifies boundary conditions for employees’ responses to customer reviews.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Joongwon Shin, Yoohee Hwang and Anna S. Mattila

Though social trends are driving consumers toward solo consumption of various services, many are reluctant to do so. There is little guidance for service providers as to…

Abstract

Purpose

Though social trends are driving consumers toward solo consumption of various services, many are reluctant to do so. There is little guidance for service providers as to how to effectively induce solo consumption. This study aims to examine the joint effect of self-esteem and an incidental similarity cue (e.g. a person’s initials) on anticipated satisfaction with with a solo consumption experience to fill this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a two-factor (incidental similarity cue and self-esteem) quasi-experimental design to test the hypotheses. The respondents read a scenario depicting a solo service consumption experience and completed scales that measured perceived fit with the service context and anticipated satisfaction with the experience.

Findings

Results indicate that, in the absence of an incidental similarity cue, self-esteem has a positive effect on solo consumers’ perceived fit. In the presence of such a cue, however, self-esteem has a minimal impact on perceived fit. Furthermore, perceived fit mediates the effect of self-esteem on anticipated satisfaction when the cue is absent.

Originality/value

The authors’ findings suggest that promoting incidental similarities with consumers may not be an efficient strategy to attract solo consumers. Conversely, service providers wishing to induce solo consumption may benefit from situationally increasing self-esteem among potential solo consumers. The current research advances the authors’ understanding of the effect of an incidental similarity cue and self-esteem in the context of a growing social trend of solo consumption.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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