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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Weidong Wang, Yongqing Dong, Renfu Luo, Yunli Bai and Linxiu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of education in the labor market and to understand how returns to education change over time in rural China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of education in the labor market and to understand how returns to education change over time in rural China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using nationally representative survey data from 2004 to 2015, this study provides insights on wage determination in the labor market and examines how the returns to education in rural China differ with time and educational endowment. This study applies ordinary least squares estimation and the Heckman selection model to estimate the returns to education.

Findings

The returns to education decreased during the observed years from more than 6 percent in 2004 to only about 3 percent in 2011, rising to nearly 4 percent in 2015. The overall trend is robust and observed within groups defined by education. Additionally, the returns to education vary greatly with educational endowment. Tertiary education has always maintained a high rate of returns at nearly 10 percent, while returns to senior high school education and below have gradually diminished.

Originality/value

The authors believe that the results will not only enrich studies on the returns to education in rural China, but also provide a basis for diagnosing the changes of rural labor market in the early twenty-first century.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Linxiu Zhang, Yongqing Dong, Chengfang Liu and Yunli Bai

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the trend of off-farm employment in rural China over the past four decades since the reform and opening-up.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the trend of off-farm employment in rural China over the past four decades since the reform and opening-up.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two sets of panel survey data, the China National Rural Survey conducted in 2000 and 2008, and the China Rural Development Survey conducted in 2005, 2008, 2012 and 2016, this study offers a re-visit of China’s off-farm employment to give us the latest information about its evolution and whether rural labor markets have developed in a way that will allow them to facilitate the transformation of China’s economy more effectively. The evolution of off-farm employment is further examined through decomposition of types, destinations, industries, and population sub-groups as well as the change in the wage rate.

Findings

The data show the rapid increase in rural labor activities over the whole study period. Most notably, the authors findnd that a rapid rise in off-farm employment has continued even until after 2008 and into the mid-2010s, which is a time when some feared that macroeconomic conditions might keep rural residents on the farm or drive them back to the farm. In the disaggregation of labor market trends, the authors show that labor markets are acting consistently with an economy that is in transition from being dominated by agriculture to being dominated by other forms of production and with a population that is consistently becoming more urban.

Originality/value

The authors believe that the results will contribute positively to the exploration of answers to the question whether or not rural labor markets have developed in a way that will allow them to facilitate the transformation of China’s economy more effectively over the last four decades.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2018

Yongqing Nan, Yanyan Gao and Qin Zhou

Rural credit cooperatives (RCCs) have long dominated China’s rural credit market and met most of agricultural credit demands while the existing literature seldom examines…

Abstract

Purpose

Rural credit cooperatives (RCCs) have long dominated China’s rural credit market and met most of agricultural credit demands while the existing literature seldom examines their contribution to agricultural sector. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the contribution of RCCs to agricultural growth, using China’s provincial panel data from 1997 to 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Both static fixed effects models and two-step generalized method of moment dynamic panel data models, which control the endogeneity, are employed to identify the causality from RCC credit to agricultural growth in China.

Findings

The results show that the credit from RCCs increases the agricultural output significantly. A 1 percent increase in RCC credit leads to agricultural growth of about 0.08 percent, which is robust to various empirical specifications. Further study shows that the contribution of RCC credit to agricultural growth decreases from the most developed eastern region to the least developed western region and increases over time.

Research limitations/implications

The results imply that RCC credit is critical in financing agricultural activities by relaxing rural credit constraints and intense competition strengthens the contribution of RCCs to agricultural growth by improving managerial efficiency and developing diversified financial products to meet better rural credit demands.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is first empirical study on the effect of RCC credit on agricultural growth despite of many on the role of financial development in agricultural growth.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 79 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Yankun Zhou, Xiaoqiang Zhi, Huiying Wu and Yongqing Li

This paper aims to examine the role of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a political advisory body in China, in addressing environmental challenges.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a political advisory body in China, in addressing environmental challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses 457 CPPCC environmental proposals across 160 cities for the period of 2013 to 2015 and a mediation effect model to examine the effect of CPPCC environmental proposals on environmental quality.

Findings

This study shows that CPPCC environmental proposals improve environmental quality; and the relationship between CPPCC environmental proposals and environmental quality is partially mediated by enforcement of environmental laws and regulations only although the proposals positively influence both law enforcement and environmental public budget expenditures.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may examine how the interaction between the government and other important stakeholders such as non-governmental organizations can help improve environmental quality. In addition, future research may examine whether other policy tools such as pollution tax and fees, environmental subsidies, and emissions trading can play a role in dealing with environmental issues.

Practical implications

This study provides evidence that supports CPPCC members to take an even more active role in public governance by engaging with both the government and the public.

Social implications

The CPPCC’s participation in public governance helps the government respond to critical issues more effectively. The government should pay close attention to CPPCC proposals when making public policies. Furthermore, the government probably needs to review its policies in relation to environmental expenditures.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the role of the CPPCC, a political advisory body, in addressing environmental challenges through functioning as a bridge between government and the public, whereas the extant literature has predominantly focused on the role of government, market and the public.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Xiaomin Fan, Yingzhi Xu, Yongqing Nan, Baoli Li and Haiya Cai

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of high-speed railway (HSR) on industrial pollution emissions using the data for 285 prefecture-level cities in China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of high-speed railway (HSR) on industrial pollution emissions using the data for 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2004 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method used in this paper is the multi-period difference-in-differences (DID) model, which is an effective policy effect assessment method. To further address the issue of endogeneity, the DID integrated with the propensity score matching (PSM-DID) approach is employed to eliminate the potential self-selection bias.

Findings

The results show that the HSR has significantly reduced industrial pollution emissions, which is validated by several robustness tests. Compared with peripheral cities, HSR exerts a greater impact on industrial pollution emissions in central cities. In addition, the mechanism test reveals that the optimised allocation of inter-city industries is an important channel for HSR to mitigate industrial pollution emissions, and this is closely related to the location of HSR stations.

Originality/value

Previous studies have paid more attention to evaluating the economic effects of HSR, however, most of these studies overlook its environmental effects. Consequently, the impact of HSR on industrial pollution emissions is led by using multi-period DID models in this paper, in which the environmental effects are measured. The results of this paper can provide a reference for the pollution reduction policies and also the coordinated development of economic growth and environmental quality.

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Haiya Cai, Yongqing Nan, Yongliang Zhao and Haoran Xiao

The purpose of this study is to regard winter heating as a quasi-natural experiment to identify the possible causal effects of winter heating on population mobility…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to regard winter heating as a quasi-natural experiment to identify the possible causal effects of winter heating on population mobility. However, there are scant research studies examining the effect of atmospheric quality on population mobility. There also exists some relevant research studies on the relationship between population mobility and environmental degradation (Lu et al., 2018; Reis et al., 2018; Shen et al., 2018), and these studies exist still some deficiencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The notorious atmospheric quality problems caused by coal-fired heating in winter of northern China have an aroused widespread concern. However, the quantitative study on the effects on population mobility of winter heating is still rare. In this study, the authors regard the winter heating as a quasi-natural experiment, based on the of daily panel data of 58 cities of Tencent location Big Data in China from August 13 to December 30 in 2016 and August 16 to December 30 in 2017, and examine the impacts of winter heating on population mobility by utilizing a regression discontinuity method.

Findings

The findings are as follows, in general, winter heating significantly aggravates regional population mobility, but the impacts on population mobility among different cities are heterogeneous. Specifically, the effects of winter heating on population mobility is greater for cities with relatively good air quality, and the effects is also more obvious for big and medium-sized cities than that in small cities. In addition, different robustness tests, including continuity test, different bandwidth tests and alternative empirical model, are adopted to ensure the reliability of the conclusion. Finally, the authors put forward corresponding policy suggestions from the three dimensions of government, enterprises and residents.

Originality/value

First, regarding winter heating as a quasi-natural experiment, a regression discontinuity design method is introduced to investigate the relationship between winter heating and population mobility, which is helpful to avoid the estimation error caused by endogeneity. Second, the authors use the passenger travel “big data” based on the website of Tencent Location Big Data, which can effectively capture the daily characteristics of China's population mobility. Third, this study discusses the population mobility from the perspective of winter heating and researches population mobility before and after winter heating, which is helpful in enriching the research on population mobility.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Jiazhi Miao, Yongqing Li, Xiang Rao, Libao Zhu, Zhiwei Guo and Chengqing Yuan

The emission from marine engines has a crucial effect on energy economy and environment pollution. One of the effective emission reduction schemes is to minimize the…

Abstract

Purpose

The emission from marine engines has a crucial effect on energy economy and environment pollution. One of the effective emission reduction schemes is to minimize the friction loss of main friction pairs such as cylinder liner-piston ring (CLPR). Micro-groove textures were designed to accomplish this aim.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of micro-groove textures at different cylinder liner positions. The micro-groove texture was fabricated on samples by chemical etching and cut from the real CLPR pair. Sliding contact tests were conducted by a reciprocation test apparatus.

Findings

The average friction coefficient of grooves at 30° inclination were reduced up to 58.22% and produced better tribological behavior at most conditions. The operating condition was the critical factor that determined the optimum texture pattern. The surface morphology indicated that textures could produce smoother surfaces and less scratches as compared with the untextured surface.

Originality/value

Inclined grooves and V-grooves were designed and applied to real CLPR pairs. The knowledge obtained in this study will lead to practical basis for tribological design and manufacturing of CLPR pair in marine diesel engines.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Sheau‐yueh J. Chao

The purpose of this paper is to provide the historical background of genealogical records and analyze the value of Chinese genealogical research through the study of names…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the historical background of genealogical records and analyze the value of Chinese genealogical research through the study of names and genealogical resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the historical evolution and value of Chinese genealogical records, with the focus on researching the Islamic Chinese names used by the people living in Guilin. The highlight of this paper includes the analysis and evolution of the Islamic Chinese names commonly adopted by the local people in Guilin. It concludes with the recommendations on emphasizing and making the best use of genealogical records to enhance the research value of Chinese overseas studies.

Findings

The paper covers the history of Islam and describes how the religion was introduced into China, as well as Muslims' ethnicity and identity. It also places focus on the importance of building a research collection in Asian history and Chinese genealogy.

Research limitations/implications

This research study has a strong subject focus on Chinese genealogy, Asian history, and Islamic Chinese surnames. It is a narrow field that few researchers have delved into.

Practical implications

The results of this study will assist students, researchers, and the general public in tracing the origin of their surnames and developing their interest in the social and historical value of Chinese local history and genealogies.

Social implications

The study of Chinese surnames is, by itself, a particular field for researching the social and political implications of contemporary Chinese society during the time the family members lived.

Originality/value

Very little research has been done in the area of Chinese local history and genealogy. The paper would be of value to researchers such as historians, sociologists, ethnologists and archaeologists, as well as students and anyone interested in researching a surname origin, its history and evolution.

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Sudipto Ray and S.K. Roy Chowdhury

The paper's aim is to predict numerically the contact temperatures between two rough sliding bodies and to compare with the experimental results.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to predict numerically the contact temperatures between two rough sliding bodies and to compare with the experimental results.

Design/methodology/approach

An elastic contact algorithm is used to analyze the normal contact between two nominally smooth surfaces. The algorithm evaluates real contact area using digitized roughness data and the corresponding contact pressure distribution. Using finite element method a steady state 3D temperature distribution at the interface between the sliding bodies is obtained. Using infrared (IR) imaging technique, experiments were carried out to measure the contact temperature distribution between rough rubbing bodies with a systematic variation of surface roughness and operating variables.

Findings

Contact temperature distributions over a wide range of normal load, sliding velocity and surface roughness have been obtained. It was seen that the maximum contact temperature expectedly increases with surface roughness (Sa values), normal load and sliding velocity. The results also indicate that the “hot spots” are located exactly at the positions where the contact pressures are extremely high. Temperatures can be seen to fall drastically at areas where no asperity contacts were established. The temperature contours at different depths were also plotted and it was observed that the temperatures fall away from the actual contact zone and relatively high temperatures persist at the “hot spot” zones much below the contact surface. Finally it is encouraging to find a good correlation between the numerical and experimental results and this indicates the strength of the present analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Experimental accuracy can be improved by using a thermal imaging camera that measures emissivity in situ and uses it to find the contact temperature. The spatial resolution and the response time of the camera also need to be improved. This can improve the correlation between numerical and experimental results.

Practical implications

One of the major factors attributed to the failure of sliding components is the frictional heating and the resulting flash temperatures at the sliding interface. However, it is not easy to measure such temperatures owing to the inherent difficulties in accessing the contact zone. Besides, thermal imaging techniques can be applied only with such tribo‐pairs where at least one of the contacting materials is transparent to IR radiation. In practice, such cases are a rarity. However, the good correlation observed between the numerical and experimental results in this work would give the practicing engineer a confidence to apply the numerical model directly and calculate contact temperatures for any tribo‐material pairs that are generally seen around.

Originality/value

A good correlation between the numerical and experimental results gives credence to the fact that the numerical model can be used to predict contact temperatures between any sliding tribo‐pairs.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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