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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2019

Shaowei He, Zaheer Khan, Yong Kyu Lew and Grahame Fallon

The purpose of this paper is to examine how innovation-related firm-specific ownership advantage (FSA) plays a role in developing the competitive advantage of Chinese…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how innovation-related firm-specific ownership advantage (FSA) plays a role in developing the competitive advantage of Chinese multinationals when they internationalize.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of the existing literature concerning foreign direct investment by emerging economy multinational enterprises (EMNEs), the authors identify that numerous studies explain this phenomenon on the basis of their location-bound country-specific advantages. However, such views do not fully explain the key underlying factors behind the rapid rise and success of many EMNEs as these firms rapidly internationalize and develop global competitiveness in developed markets. The current research explores three leading innovative Chinese EMNEs from the engineering sector: BYD, Sany Heavy Industry and CSR China.

Findings

The authors find that EMNEs’ knowledge, and particularly their innovation-creating technological knowledge, has contributed greatly to their successful internationalization. The illustrative cases show that the three firms have now moved beyond the infant to the mature stage of EMNE development through developing their technological knowledge in order to realize FSA through internationalization. This study helps in contributing fresh reflections to the continuing debate concerning the causes of internationalization and global competitive development by EMNEs and the role of their FSAs in these processes.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies which have demonstrated that some of the EMNEs do possess firms’ specific advantage which helps explain their innovative capabilities, competitive advantages and subsequent internationalization patterns.

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Ching-Chiu Hsu, Jeong-Yang Park and Yong Kyu Lew

In cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), acquirers often fail to achieve the expectations they held when they made the M&A deals. This paper aims to propose that…

Abstract

Purpose

In cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), acquirers often fail to achieve the expectations they held when they made the M&A deals. This paper aims to propose that the risks of cross-border M&As can be mitigated by building and cultivating organizational resilience as a prime means of risk management.

Design/methodology/approach

The research examines risks associated with cross-border M&A and how such risks can be mitigated by developing resilience. It presents dual cases of acquisitions of the biggest branded mobile phone manufacturer in Taiwan.

Findings

The authors find that the acquirer faces multiple risks in cross-border M&A transactions, including financial, strategic and organizational, and process risks that arise from misalignment between the goal of the M&As and the post-acquisition performance of the target firms.

Originality/value

The research provides theoretical insights on organizational resilience and how it can mitigate the specific risks involved in cross-border M&As, thereby developing coherent organizational resilience processes.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Jeong-Yang Park, Yong Kyu Lew and Byung Il Park

The purpose of this paper is to answer why some multinational enterprises (MNEs) fail within the international business (IB) domain.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer why some multinational enterprises (MNEs) fail within the international business (IB) domain.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptually, the study takes an organismic approach to MNE failure. Methodologically, it adopts an elite interview approach derived from the Delphi technique. Respondents are 39 IB and strategic management academics.

Findings

The paper finds that MNE failure is rooted in strategic leadership and capabilities (i.e. internal deterioration of organizational resources and strategies) and institutional pressures and differences, and these factors lead to deterioration of institutional legitimacy for an MNE.

Originality/value

The paper conducts a review of the firm failure and foreign divestment literature and undertakes an organismic approach to the analysis of MNE failure in the IB context. The paper provides useful insights on developing and implementing both market and non-market strategies for overcoming MNE internationalization failure.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Rudolf R. Sinkovics, Noemi Sinkovics, Yong Kyu Lew, Mohd Haniff Jedin and Stefan Zagelmeyer

The purpose of this paper is to examine operational-level implementation issues regarding mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in general, and resource combination and…

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2492

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine operational-level implementation issues regarding mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in general, and resource combination and integration at the functional marketing level in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces four factors (i.e. collaboration, interaction, marketing synergy, and the realignment of marketing resources) that support successful M&A marketing integration and enhance overall M&A performance.

Findings

The results indicate that marketing synergy and the realignment of marketing resources contribute significantly to the extent of integration. At the same time, the authors find a significant but negative relationship between the interaction dimension and the speed of integration.

Originality/value

The cultural integration of firms that feature different management styles and organizational cultures has been recognized as a particularly challenging aspect of cross-border M&As. This study explains factors that contribute to effective marketing integration in M&As.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Zaheer Khan, Yong Kyu Lew and Byung Il Park

The purpose of this corporate social responsibility (CSR) paper is to investigate specific social roles of multinational corporations (MNCs) in a developing economy, and…

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3790

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this corporate social responsibility (CSR) paper is to investigate specific social roles of multinational corporations (MNCs) in a developing economy, and how these MNCs’ CSR marketing activities are legitimized, from the institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Anchoring this study in institutional theory, the authors explore how formal and informal institutions affect the legitimacy of MNCs’ CSR marketing practices in the host country of Pakistan. The authors conducted interviews with top managers from 15 local MNCs undertaking CSR programs in various sectors, such as automotive, banking, consumer products, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, and telecommunications.

Findings

The authors find that MNCs show commitment to CSR programs despite underdeveloped and very weak formal institutions, and that lots of these initiatives such as education, health, environmental protection, and civil society/religious organizations are oriented toward norms-based social CSR marketing, i.e. charitable and philanthropic work, civil society-led social media and religious groups also force MNCs to spend more on CSR marketing initiatives. MNCs follow headquarters’ global CSR marketing strategies and adapt their CSR programs to the host country’s norms, focussing on their product brand value related CSR marketing. However, the MNCs have not taken an integrated approach to CSR marketing, considering the overall institutional environment of the host country.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of very weak regulatory constraints on CSR marketing activities, MNCs have the propensity to develop normatively acceptable CSR marketing under very weak formal institutional pressures. The findings suggest the need for developing an integrative approach to the CSR strategies of MNCs, comprehensively incorporating regulatory, economic, and socio-cultural as well as various stakeholders’ perspectives.

Originality/value

The authors take the institution-based approach to MNCs’ CSR marketing in the context of the developing economy, which extends the extant MNC and international marketing literature. Particularly, MNCs’ CSR marketing legitimacy depends highly on the adaptation to local norms, leading to the importance of the normative pillar of institutionalization in developing economies.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Zaheer Khan, Yong Kyu Lew and Rudolf R. Sinkovics

This paper aims to explore inter-organizational linkages and the extent of technology transfer and develop propositions related to the linkages, technology transfer and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore inter-organizational linkages and the extent of technology transfer and develop propositions related to the linkages, technology transfer and upgrading of local suppliers in developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a literature review and 50 exploratory interviews with senior managers and policymakers in the automotive parts industry of Pakistan.

Findings

The data revealed that three major international joint ventures (IJVs) established in the automotive industry of Pakistan have created significant vertical linkages. However, advanced high-level technology transfer has not actually taken place due to the following reasons: IJV parents are reluctant to engage in technology transfer, there is limited support from local government and local suppliers exhibit limited improvement in their innovation capability. The vertical linkage creation and low-medium technology transfer contributes to incremental product upgrading of the local suppliers, rather than their process upgrading and insertion into the global value chain (GVC).

Research limitations/implications

This research looked at technology interactions between IJVs and local tier-1 suppliers (not tier 2 and tier 3) in Pakistan’s automotive industry. This paper’ illustrative case indicates what is required for local suppliers in developing economies to make breakthrough upgrades of their products and processes through their vertical linkages with foreign-owned indigenous firms.

Originality/value

Unlike prior research, the authors investigate the role of inter-organizational linkages and the extent of technology transfer, and how these affect local suppliers’ product/process upgrading in the local value chain. Highlighting the illusion of upgrading in the GVC, this paper reveals the difficulties involved in upgrading suppliers’ positions (e.g. insertion and functional upgrading in the GVC) through their vertical linkages with foreign multinational enterprises in developing economies. The illusion of upgrading sheds a rather disappointing light on the position of developing country supplier vis-à-vis their powerful international partners.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Abstract

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

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Continuity & Resilience Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7502

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Pervez N. Ghauri, Byung Il Park and Chang Hoon Oh

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322

Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

John Lie

From 1953 to 1961, the South Korean economy grew slowly; the average per capita GNP growth was a mere percent, amounting to less than $100 in 1961. Few people, therefore…

Abstract

From 1953 to 1961, the South Korean economy grew slowly; the average per capita GNP growth was a mere percent, amounting to less than $100 in 1961. Few people, therefore, look for the sources of later dynamism in this period. As Kyung Cho Chung (1956:225) wrote in the mid‐1950s: “[South Korea] faces grave economic difficulties. The limitations imposed by the Japanese have been succeeded by the division of the country, the general destruction incurred by the Korean War, and the attendant dislocation of the population, which has further disorganized the economy” (see also McCune 1956:191–192). T.R. Fehrenbach (1963:37), in his widely read book on the Korean War, prognosticated: “By themselves, the two halves [of Korea] might possibly build a viable economy by the year 2000, certainly not sooner.”

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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