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1 – 10 of 809
Article
Publication date: 23 February 2018

Yage Zhan, Ziyang Shen, Zeyu Sun, Qiao Yu, Hong Liu and Yong Kong

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate the investigation of and present a kind of sensing system for monitoring simultaneous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate the investigation of and present a kind of sensing system for monitoring simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and single mode fiber (SMF).

Design/methodology/approach

First, the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) characteristics of the HNLF have been studied, including the Brillouin gain bandwidth, Brillouin gain center frequency and SBS threshold. Second, based on the Brillouin gain center frequency, the Brillouin frequency shift coefficients of strain and temperature in HNLF have been studied. Third, the sensing and signal interrogation scheme for simultaneous monitoring of temperature and strain with high resolution has been presented.

Findings

It is found that the HNLF has a wider Brillouin gain bandwidth. The SBS threshold of HNLF is 78 mW, which is much larger than 7.9 mW of SMF. Also, the Brillouin frequency shift coefficients of strain and temperature in HNLF are 0.0308 and 0.413 MHz/°C, respectively.

Originality/value

The larger threshold of SBS is useful to avoid SBS under certain situations that Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering is necessary and should be applied. The technique is based on the fact that the Brillouin frequency shift coefficients of strain and temperature in HNLF are different from those in SMF. Therefore, the two-parameter monitoring can be achieved by producing SBS and obtaining the back-scattering Brillouin signal light simultaneously in HNLF and SMF.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Ji Li, Kevin Lam and Yong‐qing Fang

This study deals with one strategic issue for manufacturing firms operating in Asian emerging markets – technology commitment or investment. It compares two different…

2126

Abstract

This study deals with one strategic issue for manufacturing firms operating in Asian emerging markets – technology commitment or investment. It compares two different approaches adopted by international manufacturing firms in China, one of the major emerging markets in the world. Analyzing the data from the 100 largest manufacturing firms (in terms of market share) competing in one of China’s manufacturing industries, i.e. electronics, this paper shows an interesting positive relationship between technology investment and firm performance in China’s manufacturing industries. This paper concludes with a discussion on the implications of the findings.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Kwong‐Sak Leung, Jian‐Yong Sun and Zong‐Ben Xu

In this paper, a set of safe adaptive genetic algorithms (sGAs) is proposed based on the Splicing/Decomposable encoding scheme and the efficient speed‐up strategies…

Abstract

In this paper, a set of safe adaptive genetic algorithms (sGAs) is proposed based on the Splicing/Decomposable encoding scheme and the efficient speed‐up strategies developed by Xu et al.. The proposed algorithms implement the self‐adaptation of the problem representation, selection and recombination operators at the levels of population, individual and component which commendably balance the conflicts between “reliability” and “efficiency”, as well as “exploitation” and “exploration” existed in the evolutionary algorithms. It is shown that the algorithms converge to the optimum solution in probability one. The proposed sGAs are experimentally compared with the classical genetic algorithm (CGA), non‐uniform genetic algorithm (nGA) proposed by Michalewicz, forking genetic algorithm (FGA) proposed by Tsutsui et al. and the classical evolution programming (CEP). The experiments indicate that the new algorithms perform much more efficiently than CGA and FGA do, comparable with the real‐coded GAs — nGA and CEP. All the algorithms are further evaluated through an application to a difficult real‐life application problem: the inverse problem of fractal encoding related to fractal image compression technique. The results for the sGA is better than those of CGA and FGA, and has the same, sometimes better performance compared to those of nGA and CEP.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Charlie C.L. Wang and Yong Chen

Given an intersection-free mesh surface S, the paper introduces a method to thicken S into a solid H located at one side of S. By such a surface-to-solid conversion…

1002

Abstract

Purpose

Given an intersection-free mesh surface S, the paper introduces a method to thicken S into a solid H located at one side of S. By such a surface-to-solid conversion operation, industrial users are able to fabricate a designed (or reconstructed) surface by rapid prototyping.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first investigates an implicit representation of the thickened solid H according to an extension of signed distance function. After that, a partial surface reconstruction algorithm is proposed to generate the boundary surface of H, which retains the given surface S on the resultant surface.

Findings

Experimental tests show that the thickening results generated by the method give nearly uniform thickness and meanwhile do not present shape approximation error at the region of input surface S. These two good properties are important to the industrial applications of solid fabrication.

Research limitations/implications

The input polygonal model is assumed to be intersection-free, where models containing self-intersection will lead to invalid thickening results.

Originality/value

A novel robust operation is to convert a freeform open surface into a solid by introducing no shape approximation error. A new implicit function gives a compact mathematical representation, which can easily handle the topological change on the thickened solids. A new polygonization algorithm generates faces for the boundary of thickened solid meanwhile retaining faces on the input open mesh.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2014

Nadjla Hariri, Maryam Asadi and Yazdan Mansourian

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of verbal-imagery cognitive styles of information searching behavior of users in using the Web.

1288

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of verbal-imagery cognitive styles of information searching behavior of users in using the Web.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 44 participants were recruited for this study. The participants’ cognitive styles were measured by using Riding's Cognitive Style Analysis test. Three search tasks were designed based on Kim's search task definitions. Moreover, an individual lab session was arranged and then participants’ memos were analyzed using content analysis.

Findings

In all, 48 strategies in four categories of behaviors in searching the Web were identified. There were associations between users’ cognitive styles and their information searching behavior. The participants’ selection of the search initiation behaviors varied, so that imagers suffered from more varied initial behavior than verbalizers. The verbalizers tended to search in a narrow area, then broadening the area and following structured navigation and reading behavior to process information, while imagers tended to search in a general area, then narrowing down the search and adopting mixed navigational styles and mixed behaviors to process information. This study revealed that there was a difference in search performance of verbalizers and imagers descriptively, as verbalizers spent more time compared to imagers and imagers visited more nodes than verbalizers for the tasks completion. In addition, the task was an important variable influencing the search performance. Based on the key findings (search initiation behaviors, formulating search queries, navigational behaviors, information processing behaviors), a conceptual pattern of Web searching and cognitive styles is presented.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides a new understanding of Web users’ information search behavior based on cognitive styles which contributes to the theoretical basis of Web search research. It also raises various questions within the context of user studies

Originality/value

The paper adopted a mixed approach in the area of information searching on the Web. A valuable contribution lies in the methods developed.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2022

Muhammad Usman Shahid, Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem and Husnain Arshad

The construction industry struggles in environmental and economic performance due to waste generation. Several studies have measured this waste in the construction…

Abstract

Purpose

The construction industry struggles in environmental and economic performance due to waste generation. Several studies have measured this waste in the construction industry of developing countries like India, Brazil, China, Nigeria and Iran, and proposed strategies to enhance the overall efficiency. But no such work exists in Pakistan's context. The construction industry of Pakistan contributes significantly to the country's gross domestic product (GDP). And with several mega projects in progress to overcome the energy crises and improve the infrastructure of the country, the absence of proper waste management policies and plans calls for empirical research. Therefore, this study quantifies and benchmarks material waste in the local context, its impact on project cost and the effect of multiple subcontracting arrangements on waste generation. It also proposes a conceptual waste management plan (WMP) for local conditions which can be generalized for developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a mixed research approach by leveraging Saunders's research onion model. To benchmark the current wastage practices, quantitative data of material waste in the Pakistani construction industry are gathered through document review of accounting systems, inventory and payment records of 40 completed building projects. Using the data, the waste rate of different materials is measured along with their impact on cost. Additionally, the role of subcontracting arrangements in waste generation is also investigated. Also, semi-structured interviews are conducted with project managers of high- and low-performing construction organizations to propose a conceptual WMP for the local industry and developing countries.

Findings

The highest wasteful materials by quantity are wood, sand and concrete blocks, and those by cost are wood, bricks and steel. By quantity, 123% more material was used on average than the actual productive work. Also, the labor only (L-O) subcontracting arrangement causes maximum waste. Moreover, the difference between the highest (155%) and lowest wasting company (104%) is 51%, highlighting the proactive and resistive waste management culture and approach by the worst- and best-performing companies. Further, the impact of waste quantities is more than 2% of the project cost. Finally, a conceptual model consisting of measures at the project, industry and national levels is also proposed as a guide for developing countries.

Practical implications

The findings of this benchmarking study can help improve the project planning, execution and monitoring, and control practices by providing a better understanding of the material waste potential. This will help economize the construction industry and improve its sustainability.

Originality/value

This is the first benchmarking study that quantitatively measures material waste in the construction industry of Pakistan. It highlights that costly as well as sustainability-implicating materials are frequently wasted in the local construction projects. Also, this study correlates the wastage with subcontracting arrangements. Additionally, an original conceptual WMP is proposed that could help the industry improve its performance. The findings could help the construction professionals identify the loopholes in their material management practices and not only save money but also ensure better sustainability.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Yongzheng Qu, Wen Wu, Fangcheng Tang, Haijian Si and Yuhuan Xia

The purpose of this study is to advance and test a new construct, harmony voice. Furthermore, according to the social influence theory, the relationship between zhongyong

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to advance and test a new construct, harmony voice. Furthermore, according to the social influence theory, the relationship between zhongyong, an essential Confucian orientation mode and voice behavior, and the moderating role of coworker’s regulatory focus (promotion focus and prevention focus) has been examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study has been designed to test our hypotheses. We used samples of 291 employee–coworker dyads from a variety of organizations in China to test this study’s hypotheses.

Findings

The results of this empirical study show that zhongyong is positively related to harmony voice. Coworkers’ promotion focus strengthens the positive effect of zhongyong on harmony voice, and coworkers’ prevention focus weakens the positive effect of zhongyong on harmony voice.

Research limitations/implications

Traditionally defined voice and harmony voice might cause different risks to the voicer. However, how and what kinds of risks may be differently caused by these two types of voice behaviors have not been examined in this study. Future empirical research can explore the different effects of traditionally defined voice and harmony voice.

Practical implications

Managers responsible for managing Chinese employees should notice the difference in some important ways of thinking between Easterners and Westerners. Specifically, zhongyong may direct people to express issues related to work in ways that are different from those of their Western counterparts. Harmony voice can benefit the Chinese organization without disrupting organizational development.

Social implications

By examining the relationship between zhongyong and harmony voice, we contribute to identifying antecedents of voice by using an emic research perspective.

Originality/value

We made significant theoretical contributions to voice literature. We developed the construct of harmony voice, and we examined the relationship between zhongyong and voice.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Ruwini Edirisinghe

The future construction site will be pervasive, context aware and embedded with intelligence. The purpose of this paper is to explore and define the concept of the digital…

15094

Abstract

Purpose

The future construction site will be pervasive, context aware and embedded with intelligence. The purpose of this paper is to explore and define the concept of the digital skin of the future smart construction site.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a systematic and hierarchical classification of 114 articles from both industry and academia on the digital skin concept and evaluates them. The hierarchical classification is based on application areas relevant to construction, such as augmented reality, building information model-based visualisation, labour tracking, supply chain tracking, safety management, mobile equipment tracking and schedule and progress monitoring. Evaluations of the research papers were conducted based on three pillars: validation of technological feasibility, onsite application and user acceptance testing.

Findings

Technologies learned about in the literature review enabled the envisaging of the pervasive construction site of the future. The paper presents scenarios for the future context-aware construction site, including the construction worker, construction procurement management and future real-time safety management systems.

Originality/value

Based on the gaps identified by the review in the body of knowledge and on a broader analysis of technology diffusion, the paper highlights the research challenges to be overcome in the advent of digital skin. The paper recommends that researchers follow a coherent process for smart technology design, development and implementation in order to achieve this vision for the construction industry.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

377

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Ray Chan

– The purpose of this paper is to study police powers and accountability from a comparative perspective in both China and Hong Kong.

318

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study police powers and accountability from a comparative perspective in both China and Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper compares and contrasts police powers and accountability.

Findings

The implications are many, including different political systems in which China is more authoritarian or paternalistic whereas Hong Kong is more pluralistic; checks and balances mechanisms in Hong Kong are far greater than in China; and the concept of accountability to the public is different in that Hong Kong police are accountable to members of the public but the mainland Chinese police force has a limited and top-down concept of accountability.

Originality/value

An original comparative approach to policing in Hong Kong and China.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

1 – 10 of 809