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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2015

Masaki Kudo, Yong Jae Ko, Matthew Walker and Daniel P Connaughton

The purpose of this study was to examine stock price abnormal returns following title sponsorship announcement and event date of NASCAR, the PGA Tour, and the LPGA Tour…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine stock price abnormal returns following title sponsorship announcement and event date of NASCAR, the PGA Tour, and the LPGA Tour. For this purpose, the authors used event study analysis where the analysis measures the impact that a specific event has on stock prices by comparing actual stock returns to estimated returns (Spais & Filis, 2008). An event study analysis demonstrated that title sponsors for the LPGA Tour and NASCAR garnered significant stock price increases on both the announcement date and the event date. The moderator tests suggested that high image congruence and high-technology related sponsorships assumed a key role in stock price increases.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Walter L. Leite

Despite the remarkable growth of the luxury industry, a phenomenon referred to as luxury fever, as well as the growing interest in word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the remarkable growth of the luxury industry, a phenomenon referred to as luxury fever, as well as the growing interest in word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing in the industry at hand, little is known about how consumers’ perceived leadership of luxury brands dynamically influences their WOM behavior. This paper aims to examine the moderating role of a type of luxuries (accessible vs inaccessible) in the relationship between the four dimensions of perceived brand leadership – quality, value, innovativeness and popularity – and consumers’ WOM recommendation intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research is based on survey data gathered from 333 actual customers who attend five golf clubs located in North Florida. An innovative data analysis procedure that combines structural equation modeling with propensity score analysis to estimate the moderating effects, controlling for selection bias, is presented.

Findings

Quality was the significant predictor of WOM among consumers of inaccessible luxuries (private club). In contrast, financial value and popularity were key factors in predicting WOM of individuals who chose accessible luxuries (public club).

Originality/value

This paper attempts to shed new light on the field of strategic luxury marketing by addressing differential consumption decision-making processes corresponding to hierarchically constructed luxury services. In addition, an innovative way is suggested to achieve covariates’ balance in the examinations of latent variables and multisampling models for observational research.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Yonghwan Chang and Yong Jae Ko

The purpose of this study was to test whether endorsements that show a low strength of association (bottom-up bias) benefit from increased attention and processing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to test whether endorsements that show a low strength of association (bottom-up bias) benefit from increased attention and processing efforts. The current study also tested whether consumer involvement level (top-down bias) dynamically interacts with the bottom-up attention phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a series of pretests, 36 potential celebrity-product matches were identified using real athletes and product brands. Two experiments were conducted: 330 individual responses (110 participants × three conditions) were obtained in a within-subjects lab experiment, and 868 participants were recruited for a between-subjects online experiment. Linear mixed modeling and moderated mediation analysis were performed.

Findings

The relationships between the strength of image associations and attention time to endorsements and recall and choice consideration of endorsed brands were U-shaped and curvilinear. Attention largely mediated the relationship between the strength of association and recall/choice. Involvement effects were diluted by the strength of association effects, rejecting top-down attentional control.

Practical implications

Brand managers for both products and celebrities are recommended to search for corresponding not only image-matched partners but also endorsement partners with dissonant pre-existing images.

Originality/value

The majority of the existing endorsement literature has conventionally suggested that congruence between the endorser and the endorsed property, rather than incongruence, induces consumers’ positive endorsement evaluation. This study constructs important theoretical advancements to the existing literature by empirically proving that through an attentional process, an endorsement contract, conventionally perceived as mismatched, can also generate positive outcomes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Wonseok (Eric) Jang

The current study aims to develop a comprehensive hierarchical model of traits and needs to provide a theoretical understanding of personality determinants of…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to develop a comprehensive hierarchical model of traits and needs to provide a theoretical understanding of personality determinants of luxury-services consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised 415 single-event buyers of premium seats in sports stadiums. The causal relationships of hierarchically ordered four traits – elemental, compound, situational and surface – were examined.

Findings

Extraversion was found to be an important trait for needs for material resources and status, while conscientiousness and openness were important predictors of need for arousal. Furthermore, needs for material resources, status and uniqueness were found to be important for self-value consciousness. Self-value consciousness was found to be an important predictor of purchase intention.

Originality/value

The study integrates fragmented luxury services research on individual differences. The findings about the personality determinants would provide relatively consistent predictions behind luxury-services consumption potentially applicable to diverse luxury markets.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Yong Jae Ko and Yu Kyoum Kim

Although the martial arts industry is rapidly evolving into a mature and highly competitive marketplace, only a few studies have been conducted to understand why people…

Abstract

Although the martial arts industry is rapidly evolving into a mature and highly competitive marketplace, only a few studies have been conducted to understand why people participate in martial arts. The purpose of this study is to examine motivation factors that influence an individual's participation in martial arts to provide leaders of the industry with meaningful managerial implications. The researchers collected data from the 2004 Battle of Columbus Martial Arts World Games IV, one of the most popular martial arts events in the US. The results of a series of MANOVA tests revealed that these martial arts participants (N = 307) are highly motivated by growth-related motivation (e.g. value development and actualisation). In addition, the findings indicate that motivation of martial arts practitioners varies across types of martial arts disciplines, competition orientation and past experiences. Given these results, implications for future research and practice are discussed

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2011

Nicholas D Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Yong Jae Ko

This study examines the mediating role of Overall Service Quality in the service quality-customer satisfaction relationship in the context of professional football…

Abstract

This study examines the mediating role of Overall Service Quality in the service quality-customer satisfaction relationship in the context of professional football. Quantitative data were collected from a survey of 415 spectators attending a professional football game in Greece. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to examine the validity of the scale. Multiple regression analyses was used to assess the mediation effect of Overall Service Quality. Results of the CFA and alpha test supported the psychometric property of the scale. Overall Service Quality was shown to mediate the relationship between the five dimensions of service quality and fans' satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2012

Youngjin Hur, Yong Jae Ko and Cathryn L. Claussen

This study empirically tested the Sport Website Acceptance Model (SWAM), proposed by Hur, Ko and Claussen (2007). The SWAM added Perceived Enjoyment (Davis et al, 1992…

Abstract

This study empirically tested the Sport Website Acceptance Model (SWAM), proposed by Hur, Ko and Claussen (2007). The SWAM added Perceived Enjoyment (Davis et al, 1992) and Perceived Trustworthiness (Belanger et al, 2002) to the two factors Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness used in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989). This study proposes a competing model to the original SWAM and compares this by incorporating two additional constructs, Sport Involvement (Shank & Beasley, 1998) and Psychological Commitment to a Team (Mahony et al, 2000). Structural equation modeling analyses revealed acceptable model fits, both in the original SWAM and in the competing model. Subsequent analyses led the authors to conclude that the competing model was the better version of the SWAM.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2010

Yong Jae Ko, Yu Kyoum Kim, Min Kil Kim and Jeoung Hak Lee

Since the introduction of martial arts in the global community through a variety of international sport events, the sport of Taekwondo (TKD) has grown rapidly. Although…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the introduction of martial arts in the global community through a variety of international sport events, the sport of Taekwondo (TKD) has grown rapidly. Although the magnitude of the TKD market has increased, few systematic studies have been conducted to understand TKD participants, particularly consumer variables associated with TKD events. The rapid growth of TKD as a global cultural product warrants a better understanding of event consumers and their decision‐making processes. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to investigate consumers' quality perceptions and satisfaction by focusing on their sport involvement and identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Research respondents (n = 215) were spectators of the 2007 US Open TKD Championship, an annual event held by USA Taekwondo Inc.

Findings

Results suggest that identification and involvement positively influence event quality perceptions and satisfaction. Specifically, highly identified fans/competitors are highly satisfied and perceive service quality more positively. This study proceeds to a discussion of theoretical implications and future opportunities for event managers.

Originality/value

Until now, there has not been substantial research on these issues. It is anticipated that the results of this study may enhance the understanding of a particular TKD market in the USA and provide guidance for developing effective marketing strategies and maintaining current event successes. Therefore, the scholarly effort aimed at understanding these issues will make both scientific and practical contributions.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2013

Tae Ho Kim, Yong Jae Ko and Chan Min Park

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between spectators’ event quality perceptions and revisit intention in both men's and women's basketball events…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between spectators’ event quality perceptions and revisit intention in both men's and women's basketball events by focusing on gender influence.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes structural equation modeling (SEM) on data collected by questionnaire survey from a total of 623 spectators of two college men's basketball events (n=292) and two college women's basketball events (n=331).

Findings

The results indicate that for men's basketball events, game performance and staff quality had a significant influence on the revisit intention of spectators, regardless of the spectator's gender. For women's basketball events, game performance and in‐game entertainment were significant determinants of spectator revisit intentions, again regardless of gender.

Research limitations/implications

The current research collected data from division I‐A men's and women's basketball events in only one higher education institution. Further the current research adopted only four salient event quality factors (i.e., game performance, in‐game entertainment, staff quality, and physical surrounding). Finally, current research measured only revisit intention as a dependent variable.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that game performance was found to be the most significant event quality factor regardless of gender in both men’s and women’s sporting events. Furthermore, in‐game entertainment was another critical event quality factor for the revisit intention for women’s basketball events. In addition, females have more sensitive event quality perceptions in both men’s and women’s basketball events.

Originality/value

This study investigated the moderating role of gender in the relationship between specific event quality factors (i.e., game performance, in‐game entertainment, staff quality, and physical surrounding) and revisit intention for both men's and women's college basketball events. The study's findings yield insight into service research and offers meaningful implications to managers for future improvements of their services and development of marketing strategies in this context.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Yong Jae Ko, James Zhang, Kevin Cattani and Donna Pastore

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of service quality at major spectator sports events by developing a conceptual framework and measurement scale…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of service quality at major spectator sports events by developing a conceptual framework and measurement scale specifically designed for assessment of spectators' perceptions of event quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising a comprehensive literature review and detailed qualitative preliminary procedures, a comprehensive model of event quality for spectator sports (MEQSS) and a measurement scale of event quality in spectator sports (SEQSS) are developed. The models are then tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling using data from a quantitative survey of a convenience sample of spectators at a major league baseball game in the United States.

Findings

The proposed model is shown to fit the data well. Reliability and validity of the SEQSS are established through a pilot test and the substantive survey.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study are limited by the sample being restricted to a single sports event in the United States. Further studies in other settings using larger samples are desirable.

Practical implications

The study provides a valid and reliable conceptual framework and measurement tool that can be used to ascertain the quality perceptions of consumers of major spectator sports events. Managers can use this framework and measurement scale as a diagnostic tool to identify strengths and weaknesses in their services, this providing guidance for potential areas of improvement.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature on service quality by providing a unique conceptual framework and measurement scale for major spectator sports events.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

1 – 10 of 133