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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Kenneth J. Berman, Morgan J. Hayes, Matthew E. Kaplan, Byungkwon Lim, Gary E. Murphy, Yean Do and Jonathan R. Steinberg

To analyze and draw conclusions from the “Framework for ‘Investment Contract’ Analysis of Digital Assets” (the “Framework”), released by the US Securities and Exchange…

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze and draw conclusions from the “Framework for ‘Investment Contract’ Analysis of Digital Assets” (the “Framework”), released by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on April 3, 2019, and the SEC’s corresponding no-action letter to TurnKey Jet, Inc. (“TKJ”), which is the SEC’s first no-action letter publicly agreeing with the view that the digital asset described therein is not a security.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Explains how the Framework assists market participants in analyzing whether a digital asset is a security, by applying the Howey factors for identifying an investment contract. Discusses the SEC’s TKJ Letter, highlighting the factors the SEC emphasized in its analysis of the Framework.

Findings

While largely reiterating prior guidance, the Framework provides a helpful overview of the SEC’s views on when a digital asset is a security and how to properly analyze the prongs of Howey with respect to digital assets. The Framework also leaves certain important questions unanswered, including, for example, whether digital assets distributed by means of a so-called “Airdrop” are securities under the Framework, and the extent to which the Framework is meant to interact with digital assets that were issued or otherwise operate on platforms that are primarily overseas.

Originality/Value

Expert guidance from lawyers with broad experience in financial services, securities, investment funds, derivatives, and digital assets regulation and compliance.

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Johanim Johari, Faridahwati Mohd Shamsudin, Tan Fee Yean, Khulida Kirana Yahya and Zurina Adnan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the structural relationships between the job itself (i.e. job characteristics), employee well-being and job performance in light of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the structural relationships between the job itself (i.e. job characteristics), employee well-being and job performance in light of the new administrative reform called the Government Transformation Program in Malaysia that stresses on measurable performance outputs.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 208 public sector employees from various public agencies and departments in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia were surveyed. Some of the agencies that took part in the study include state departments, the fishery department, agriculture-related agencies and the rural development agency.

Findings

The authors observed that feedback positively influenced employee well-being, which served as a significant mediator in the relationship between feedback and job performance. The results indicated that 26.4 percent of the variance that explained employee well-being was accounted for by the different characteristics of a job. The authors also demonstrated that employee well-being accounted for 41.8 percent of job performance.

Research limitations/implications

The authors recommended that public sector managers consider the element of feedback and enhance employee well-being to improve job performance.

Originality/value

This study offers an insight into the effect of perceived changes in the job itself on employee well-being and subsequent job performance in light of government reforms.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2009

Richard Ely

‘Countrymindedness’ is a resonant but perhaps manufactured term, given wide currency in a 1985 article by political scientist and historian Don Aitkin in the Annual…

Abstract

‘Countrymindedness’ is a resonant but perhaps manufactured term, given wide currency in a 1985 article by political scientist and historian Don Aitkin in the Annual, Australian Cultural History. Political ideology was his focus, as he charted the rise and fall ‐ from the late nineteenth century to around the 1970s ‐ of some ideological preconceptions of the Australian Country Party. These were physiocratic, populist, and decentralist ‐ physiocratic meaning, broadly, the rural way is best. Aitkin claimed the word was used in Country Party circles in the 1920s and 1930s, but gave no examples. Since the word is in no dictionary of Australian usage, or the Oxford Dictionary, coinage may be more recent. No matter. Countrymindedness is a richly evocative word, useful in analysing rural populism during the last Australian century. I suggest it can usefully be extended to analyzing aspects of the inner history of Euro‐settlement in recent centuries.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Yean-Fu Wen and Yi-Ting Hwang

The purpose of this study is to review the levels of open government data (OGD) among various countries that are not consistent with the development levels of those…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the levels of open government data (OGD) among various countries that are not consistent with the development levels of those countries. This study evaluates the associativity between OGD Index (OGD) and the characteristics of those countries as well as to compare the degree of OGD among countries. Accordingly, an advanced discussion to explore how a country’s characteristics affect how that country’s government opens data was presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The stakeholder relationships of OGD is analysed with the characteristics of a country. The usage data are compared with the data availability according to nine indicators. These data collected from the statistics and OGDI websites are grouped for comparative statistical analyses based on basic descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and a regression model with variance inflation faction.

Findings

The results 1) revealed the reasons some countries have high-ranking indexes and 2) verified the high index values of countries in terms of their degrees of development. This study, thus, attempted to derive a balanced appraisal of national development and OGD.

Research limitations/implications

The study sample is limited only to countries 1) which open the statistical data; and 2) are of uneven population density and development degree. The OGDI is limited to expert evaluation. The score might be vary to experts and users with diverse countries at different evaluation period. The limitations can be attributed to the differences between OGDI and real open levels. These differences might influence the reliability and validity.

Practical implications

Government departments with OGD policies provide raw data in various formats and with application interfaces for user access. This study, thus, attempts to derive a balanced appraisal of national development and OGD. The factors that evaluate which types of countries open the level of data are explored.

Originality/value

This study establishes stakeholder relationships of OGD and extends to analyse the characteristics of a country and OGD that affect the government data open level. The relationships are evaluated through the OGDI with design score scheme. The measurement results indicated that a country possesses high relation to open data with high DI and nature resource.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2021

Md Karim Rabiul, Tan Fee Yean, Ataul Karim Patwary, Ahmad Edwin Mohamed and Haim Hilman

This study aims to validate the motivating language scale developed by Mayfield et al. (1995) in the context of the hotel industries of Bangladesh and Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to validate the motivating language scale developed by Mayfield et al. (1995) in the context of the hotel industries of Bangladesh and Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

For Study 1, data were collected from employees (lower and mid-level) of three to five-star hotels in Bangladesh. Customer-contact employees working in four- and five-star hotels in Malaysia participated in Study 2. Both studies featured a cross-sectional survey design.

Findings

Factor analysis revealed that both samples provided three-factor solutions for the motivating language scale in both countries. Convergent, discriminant and nomological validity were assessed by testing with outcome variables of motivating language.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies may use all three versions of the scale (Bengali, Malay and English) to collect data, as all three have been validated.

Originality/value

By validating the Bengali and Malay versions of the motivating language scale, this study contributes to the leadership language literature, specifically that related to hotel industries in developing contexts.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Yean Shan Beh, Laszlo Sajtos and Joanne T. Cao

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether consumers can recover from a service failure by utilizing internal and external energy resources that are available to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether consumers can recover from a service failure by utilizing internal and external energy resources that are available to them at the time of an online complaint. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this research conceptualizes the complainers' act of complaining through internal and external energy resources. By investing (direct utilization of resources) and mobilizing (utilizing resources to change the trajectory of a loss) these resources, this study aims to understand which resources (internal or external) and what strategies (investment or mobilization) are effective in the face of a resource loss.

Design//methodology/approach

Study 1 aimed to test the impact of energy resources (motivation and affordance) on consumers' negative emotions and satisfaction with their complaints through an online panel survey. Study 2 was a between-subjects design experiment aimed to overcome the diversity of the circumstances around a service failure, complaint motivation and complaints that were captured in Study 1.

Findings

This study provides evidence of the negative and positive effects of internal and external energy resources, respectively, in altering the consumer's emotions and behavioral intentions. The findings of this study underline the role of affordances of features, specifically perceived conversationality of digital features, in improving consumers' relationship with the defaulting firm.

Practical implications

Based on the findings related to the perceived conversationality of digital features, managers are urged to explore the affordances of online features that consumers use for communications, in general, or for complaints, in particular.

Originality/value

To our understanding, this paper is the first study to employ COR theory as a conceptual background, and in turn, the first to conceptualize complaint motivations and online complaint features as internal and external resources, respectively. As such, this study is the first of its kind to examine complaint media systematically.

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Lee Chin Tay, Fee Yean Tan, Khulida Kirana Yahya and Amran Rasli

The purpose of this paper is to validate the corporate environmental citizenship measurement originally developed by Banerjee (2002) in the Malaysian setting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the corporate environmental citizenship measurement originally developed by Banerjee (2002) in the Malaysian setting.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic sampling technique was used, with a total of 251 responses. The measurement was tested using content validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity.

Findings

The study finds that all four dimensions are highly suited for measuring corporate environmental citizenship in the construction companies in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

The study uses a single respondent to report on the organization’s corporate environmental citizenship. The perceptions among the respondents may differ.

Practical implications

Organizations can use the measurement for benchmarking current levels of organizations’ environmental degradation as well as identify which business areas are in need to improve environmental preservation.

Social implications

This study theoretically conceptualized corporate environmental citizenship as a multidimensional construct containing four dimensions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the body of knowledge by validating corporate environmental citizenship measurement in the Malaysian context as measurement validation studies are scarcely found.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2018

Wen-Hsien Kao, Yean-Liang Su, Jeng-Haur Horng and Shu-Er Yang

This paper aims to investigate the tribology, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of high-temperature gas-nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the tribology, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of high-temperature gas-nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties were studied by reciprocating wear tester. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by using potentiodynamic polarization test. The purified mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cells are used to investigate the biocompatibility.

Findings

The results show that the nitriding treatment leads to a significant improvement in the hardness and tribological properties of Ti6Al4V alloy. Specifically, compared to untreated Ti6Al4V, the hardness increases from 3.24 to 9.02 GPa, while the wear rate reduces by 12.5 times in sliding against a Ti6Al4V cylinder and 19.6 times in sliding against a Si3N4 ball. Furthermore, the nitriding treatment yields an improved corrosion resistance and a biocompatibility similar to that of untreated Ti6Al4V.

Originality/value

The nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy is an ideal material for the fabrication of load-bearing artificial implants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Huan Zhang, Na Gao, Yean Wang and Yixuan Han

The purpose of this paper is to model how risk governance (RG) influences risk prevention behaviors toward food safety issues, considering the perception of related risks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model how risk governance (RG) influences risk prevention behaviors toward food safety issues, considering the perception of related risks in the Taiwanese context.

Design/methodology/approach

The national representative data on risk society modules from the Taiwan Social Change Survey data were used (sample size = 2,005). The procedure for the analysis consisted of investigation of the model fit indices of structural equation modeling, incorporating the mediation effect. Multiple-group analysis was used to examine the moderation effects.

Findings

Results show that the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the advanced TRA can accurately explain personal risk perception (RP) (R2=0.40) and risk prevention (R2=0.42). Results also suggest that RG institutions can affect personal RP and risk prevention through subjective norms. In addition, moderation effects of media and gender were found.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to examine the RG effects on RP and risk prevention behavior of food safety issues in Taiwan. The results and findings may be helpful for RG institutions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2018

Florence Yean Yng Ling, Yan Ning, Yi Hao Chang and Zhe Zhang

More attention should be paid to project managers’ (PMs) job satisfaction as they play an important role in ensuring projects are completed successfully. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

More attention should be paid to project managers’ (PMs) job satisfaction as they play an important role in ensuring projects are completed successfully. The purpose of this paper is to identify human resource management (HRM) policies and practices that lead to higher PMs’ job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted on PMs who are working in construction firms and project management consultancy firms. Data were collected via random, convenience and snowball sampling. The data collected were analysed using partial least square-structural equation modelling, independent samples t-test and Pearson’s correlation.

Findings

The findings show that PMs who are satisfied with their firms’ HRM practices and job rewards also have higher job satisfaction. Several HRM strategies that give rise to higher job satisfaction are identified, e.g. a system to recognise and develop talent, and taking active steps to identify and develop backups in case of emergency. Unfortunately, some practices are not implemented to a significant extent, and these include: systematically recruiting and retaining talented PMs, encouraging PMs to plan for their careers, offering performance and development coaching, and appraising employees.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations include the low response rate and the relatively small sample size of 81. The profile of respondents is largely from construction companies with more than 150 staff, and, therefore, the findings are more applicable to medium- to large-sized construction firms.

Practical implications

The study identified many HRM practices and policies that are significantly associated with PMs’ job satisfaction, yet many of these are not implemented to a significant extent by the employers. The practical implication is that employers of PMs should systematically implement these in order that their PMs have higher job satisfaction which is important for a project’s success.

Originality/value

The originality of this research is that the HRM practices and policies that are associated with job satisfaction of PMs are uncovered. Its value is in showing that PMs derive greater job satisfaction when HRM policies encompass talent development, career coaching and a personalised management style. Among these important practices, those that have been neglected were also identified. The study offers recommendations on the HRM practices that firms should be put in place for their PMs to experience higher job satisfaction.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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