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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Sabina Alkire and Yangyang Shen

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China…

Abstract

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find China’s global MPI was 0.035 in 2010 and decreased significantly to 0.017 in 2014. The dimensional composition of MPI suggests that nutrition, education, safe drinking water, and cooking fuel contribute most to overall non-monetary poverty in China. Such analysis is also applied to subgroups, including geographic areas (rural/urban, east/central/west, provinces), as well as social characteristics such as gender of the household heads, age, education level, marital status, household size, migration status, ethnicity, and religion. We find the level and composition of poverty differs significantly across certain subgroups. We also find high levels of mismatch between monetary and multidimensional poverty at the household level, which highlights the importance of using both complementary measures to track progress in eradicating poverty.

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Payal S. Kapoor, M.S. Balaji and Yangyang Jiang

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of sustainability communication on social media. More specifically, the effects of message appeal (sensual vs guilt) and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of sustainability communication on social media. More specifically, the effects of message appeal (sensual vs guilt) and message source (hotel vs social media influencer [SMI]) on perceived environmental corporate social responsibility and the intention to stay at the eco-friendly hotel were examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies using the experimental design were carried out. Study 1 examined the relationship between message appeal (sensual vs guilt), perceived environmental social corporate responsibility and the intention to stay at the eco-friendly hotel when the hotel posts sustainability messages on social media. Study 2 replicated Study 1 findings when the SMI posts sustainability messages. Study 3 examined the moderating role of message source (hotel vs influencer) in the effects of message appeal (sensual vs guilt) on behavioral intentions.

Findings

Sustainability messages with the sensual (vs guilt) appeal are more persuasive when the eco-friendly hotel (vs SMI) posts it on social media. Furthermore, the traveler’s perception of the hotel’s environmental corporate social responsibility mediates this relationship.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the literature on sustainability communication by demonstrating the role of message source and message appeal in influencing the traveler’s perceptions and intentions toward eco-friendly hotels.

Practical implications

According to the study findings, eco-friendly hotels can motivate travelers to make pro-sustainable choices by accurately matching the message appeal with the message source in the sustainability communication on social media.

Originality/value

This study is one of the earliest studies that examine the congruency effect of message appeal and message source for sustainability communication on social media in the hospitality realm. The findings offer novel insights for eco-friendly hotels to develop effective sustainability communication on social media.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Tian Wang, Yunan Duan and Yangyang Liang

The authors address a two-dimensional (both customer acquisition and retention) incentive in a decentralized service chain consisting of a risk-neutral brand and agent (or…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors address a two-dimensional (both customer acquisition and retention) incentive in a decentralized service chain consisting of a risk-neutral brand and agent (or averse). 

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus on the relationship between acquisition and retention, that is, retained customers (repeated purchases) are based on and come from the acquired (new) customers in the former period. The authors also design a two-period separate incentive on both dimensions.

Findings

The authors found that a targeted incentive strategy should be applied for achieving more revenue when the incentive intensities are relatively small. Otherwise, the brand needs to adjust the targeted incentive strategy into incentivizing the opposite dimension, particularly on acquisition. Under the optimal contract, the brand needs to be very careful with deciding the fixed part of the incentive salary and the incentive intensities on both dimensions. For example, the fixed salary initially decreases and then increases in the incentive intensities. For the optimal incentive policies, the brand should incentivize acquisition but outsource retention if the agent is risk-neutral. When the agent is becoming risk-averse, the brand should lower its incentive intensity as the risk degree and variances become larger. Interestingly, the brand may benefit from introducing risks.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by considering the following points. First, the authors extend the principal-agent incentive model by considering two-period decisions of customer acquisition and retention. Second, based on the two-period principal-agent problem, the authors design separate incentive intensities on acquisition and retention, respectively. While, most of the literature focused on acquisition incentives. Third, different from other works focusing on either risk-neutral or risk-averse environments, the authors consider both and compare the cases of risk-neutral and risk-averse to analyze the impact of risk on the optimal decisions and the brand's expected profit.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Ying Huang, Chao Hao, Jian Liu, Xiaohui Guo, Yangyang Zhang, Ping Liu, Caixia Liu, Yugang Zhang and Xiaoming Yang

The purpose of this study is to present a highly stretchable and flexible strain sensor with simple and low cost of fabrication process and excellent dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a highly stretchable and flexible strain sensor with simple and low cost of fabrication process and excellent dynamic characteristics, which make it suitable for human motion monitoring under large strain and high frequency.

Design/methodology/approach

The strain sensor was fabricated using the rubber/latex polymer as elastic carrier and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/carbon black (CB) as a synergistic conductive network. The rubber/latex polymer was pre-treated in naphtha and then soaked in SWCNTs/CB/silicon rubber composite solution. The strain sensing and other performance of the sensor were measured and human motion tracking applications were tried.

Findings

These strain sensors based on aforementioned materials display high stretchability (500 per cent), excellent flexibility, fast response (approximately 45 ms), low creep (3.1 per cent at 100 per cent strain), temperature and humidity independence, superior stability and reproducibility during approximately 5,000 stretch/release cycles. Furthermore, the authors used these composites as human motion sensors, effectively monitoring joint motion, indicating that the stretchable strain sensor based on the rubber/latex polymer and the synergetic effects of mixed SWCNTs and CB could have promising applications in flexible and wearable devices for human motion tracking.

Originality/value

This paper presents a low-cost and a new type of strain sensor with excellent performance that can open up new fields of applications in flexible, stretchable and wearable electronics, especially in human motion tracking applications where very large strain should be accommodated by the strain sensor.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

John Anderson, Dylan Sutherland, Fan Zhang and Yangyang Zan

Many academic studies in international business empirically test the determinants of Chinese outward (O)FDI. A weakness with these studies is the limited critical…

Abstract

Purpose

Many academic studies in international business empirically test the determinants of Chinese outward (O)FDI. A weakness with these studies is the limited critical evaluation given to the way in which Chinese OFDI data is collected and used. Chinese multinational enterprises (C)MNEs frequently establish special purpose entities in tax havens to transit FDI via intermediary jurisdictions. The purpose of this paper is to develop an alternative approach for measuring CMNE OFDI and subsequently explore how the results of previous studies may have been confounded use of tax havens by MNEs. The authors address the latter question by replicating widely cited quantitative studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Replication approach.

Findings

Through the replication of several studies, this paper finds high levels of discrepancies in general sign and significance between global ultimate ownership modeling results and those using officially recorded FDI data. More specifically, the main areas impacted by using official data rather than data which accounts for the use of tax havens are cultural proximity, geographic distance and natural resource seeking.

Practical implications

This paper looks at studies, which use official FDI data to understand CMNE behavior. It is important to note, however, that there are many hundreds, if not thousands, of studies that use other national-level FDI data to draw similar types of inferences about MNE activity. In this sense, the authors’ critical evaluation of CMNE work holds a much broader and, arguably, more important question: How reliable, in general, are studies, which use officially recorded FDI data? The results from this paper have already caused reflection on the impact of tax haven use on official FDI collection organizations, such as the OECD.

Social implications

The social implications of companies using tax havens to route FDI is immense. The use of tax havens not only aids in tax minimization for companies, but also obscures the true providence and identity of companies. This is problematic in a society, which increasingly desires to understand where, how and by whom a product or service was created prior to consumption.

Originality/value

This paper argues that the tendency for Chinese MNEs to establish offshore holding companies in tax havens has given rise to significant biases in official FDI statistics. Through the use of global ultimate ownership data, the authors have put forward an alternate approach to measure genuine CMNEs’ OFDI activity, one which confronts and deals with their pervasive engagement with tax havens. Through the replication of several Chinese OFDI location choice studies, it was possible to understand how methodological issues stemming from the use of official FDI data may influence prior econometric results. In doing so, the authors hope to have sparked a debate which may lead to a re-evaluation of earlier received wisdom regarding Chinese MNE investment strategy and behaviors. This in turn should foster improved theorizing regarding the Chinese MNE and its outward investment activities.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Yan Yin, Xingming Xiao, Jiusheng Bao, Jinge Liu, Yuhao Lu and Yangyang Ji

The purpose of this study is to establish a new temperature set for characterizing the frictional temperature rise (FTR) of disc brakes. The FTR produced by braking is an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish a new temperature set for characterizing the frictional temperature rise (FTR) of disc brakes. The FTR produced by braking is an important factor which directly affects the tribological properties of disc brakes. Presently, most existing researches characterize the FTR only by several static parameters such as average temperature or maximum temperature, which cannot reflect accurately the dynamic characteristics of temperature variation in the process of braking. In this paper, a new temperature parameter set was extracted and the influences of braking conditions on these parameters were investigated by experiments.

Design/methodology/approach

First, several simulated braking experiments of disc brakes were conducted to reveal the dynamic variation rules and mechanisms of the FTR in braking. Second, the characteristic parameter subset of the FTR was extracted with five significant parameters, namely, initial temperature, average temperature, end temperature, maximum temperature and the ratio of maximum temperature time. Furthermore, the fitting parameter subset of the FTR was constructed based on the temperature rise curve. Finally, the influence and mechanisms of initial braking velocity and braking pressure on the new temperature parameter set were investigated through braking experiments.

Findings

This paper extracted a new temperature parameter set including a characteristic parameter subset and a fitting parameter subset and revealed the influences of braking conditions on it by experiments.

Originality/value

The results showed that the new temperature parameter set extracted in this paper can characterize the dynamic characteristics of disc brake’s FTR variations more objectively and comprehensively. The research results will provide a theoretical basis for extracting the fault feature of friction properties.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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