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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Li‐teh Sun

Among developing countries, the Republic of China in Taiwan (hereinafter Taiwan) has been experiencing economic growth accompanied by improving income distribution…

Abstract

Among developing countries, the Republic of China in Taiwan (hereinafter Taiwan) has been experiencing economic growth accompanied by improving income distribution. Between 1964 and 1980, the average annual growth rate of the real gross national product was 9.92 per cent (Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD), 1982, p. 23). In the same period, the income ratio between the top 20 per cent and the bottom 20 per cent of families dropped from 5.33 to 4.17 and the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.36 to 0.30 (CEPD, 1982, p. 54; Directorate‐General of Budget Accounting and Statistics, 1980, (DGBAS), p. 44). To put it somewhat dif‐ferently, in 1964 the lowest fifth of households received 7.71 per cent of total personal income, and the highest fifth 41.07 per cent. But in 1980, the income share of the lowest fifth increased to 8.82 per cent while that of the highest fifth decreased to 36.80 per cent. The condition of greater equality in income distribution appears more obvious in the capital city of Taipei. In 1981, for instance, its Gini coefficient was estimated to be only 0.28 (Taipei Bureau of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, 1981, (TBBAS), P. 24).

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 December 2017

Xin Li, Verner Worm and Peihong Xie

The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to alert the Chinese indigenous management researchers to the danger of Chinese exceptionalism and over-confidence.

Design/methodology/approach

To show that Peter P. Li’s assertion is doubtful, the authors identify the flaws in his analysis.

Findings

The authors find that there are three serious flaws in Peter P. Li’s analysis. First, there are four defects in the typology of cognitive frames he built in order to compare Yin-Yang with the others. Second, his understanding of dialectics in general and Hegelian dialectics in particular is flawed. And finally, without resorting to Yin-Yang, many scholars can develop theories that are equivalent to those derived from Yin-Yang.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the page limit, this paper only focuses on arguing that Yin-Yang is not superior to other cognitive frames or logical systems without going one step further to explain in which situations Yin-Yang are valuable and might be more suitable than others for helping us understand some research issues.

Practical implications

This paper implies that we should not blindly believe that the Chinese way of thinking and acting is superior to other people’s. Chinese people should be open-minded in the globalized era, not only promoting their own culture but also appreciating and learning from other cultures.

Social implications

The reduction of cultural exceptionalism and ethnocentrism can make cross-cultural communication and interaction smoother.

Originality/value

This paper is a rigorous critique on the “Yin-Yang being superior” assertion of Peter P. Li.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Somnath Santra, Shubhadeep Mandal and Suman Chakraborty

The purpose of this study is to perform a detailed review on the numerical modeling of multiphase and multicomponent flows in microfluidic system using phase-field method…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to perform a detailed review on the numerical modeling of multiphase and multicomponent flows in microfluidic system using phase-field method. The phase-field method is of emerging importance in numerical computation of transport phenomena involving multiple phases and/or components. This method is not only used to model interfacial phenomena typical to multiphase flows encountered in engineering and nature but also turns out to be a promising tool in modeling the dynamics of complex fluid-fluid interfaces encountered in physiological systems such as dynamics of vesicles and red blood cells). Intrinsically, a priori unknown topological evolution of interfaces offers to be the most concerning challenge toward accurate modeling of moving boundary problems. However, the numerical difficulties can be tackled simultaneously with numerical convenience and thermodynamic rigor in the paradigm of the phase field method.

Design/methodology/approach

The phase-field method replaces the macroscopically sharp interfaces separating the fluids by a diffuse transition layer where the interfacial forces are smoothly distributed. As against the moving mesh methods (Lagrangian) for the explicit tracking of interfaces, the phase-field method implicitly captures the same through the evolution of a phase-field function (Eulerian). In contrast to the deployment of an artificially smoothing function for the interface as used in the volume of a fluid or level set method, however, the phase-field method uses mixing free energy for describing the interface. This needs the consideration of an additional equation for an order parameter. The dynamic evolution of the system (equation for order parameter) can be described by AllenCahn or CahnHilliard formulation, which couples with the Navier–Stokes equation with the aid of a forcing function that depends on the chemical potential and the gradient of the order parameter.

Findings

In this review, first, the authors discuss the broad motivation and the fundamental theoretical foundation associated with phase-field modeling from the perspective of computational microfluidics. They subsequently pinpoint the outstanding numerical challenges, including estimations of the model-free parameters. They outline some numerical examples, including electrohydrodynamic flows, to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Finally, they pinpoint various emerging issues and futuristic perspectives connecting the phase-field method and computational microfluidics.

Originality/value

This paper gives unique perspectives to future directions of research on this topic.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Manuel Soto-Pérez, Jacqueline Y. Sánchez-García and Juan E. Núñez-Ríos

Identify some of the most relevant factors that trigger a private school's workforce to foster a sustainable competitive advantage by reinforcing the intrinsic job…

Abstract

Purpose

Identify some of the most relevant factors that trigger a private school's workforce to foster a sustainable competitive advantage by reinforcing the intrinsic job satisfaction and the levels of teacher self-efficacy, engagement and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys were applied to private school teachers to assess their perception concerning the studied variables, data were tested at a confirmatory level using the partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM).

Findings

Teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy and possessing elevated intrinsic satisfaction tend to be highly productive and results-oriented. Intrinsic job satisfaction is a key factor that influences more than extrinsic job satisfaction in the previously mentioned relationship.

Research limitations/implications

Although the obtained results are constrained and apply to the Mexican context, we suggest that virtual limitation can be overcome by extending the study due to the proposed construct that can be applied in other regions or organizations.

Practical implications

Principals will need to develop mainly the intrinsic job satisfaction in the teaching staff, to improve the job and organizational performance. This should be accompanied, secondly, by factors that encourage extrinsic satisfaction such as fair pay or recognition.

Originality/value

Open up an alternative explanation, based on the evidence of this study, to the theory of social exchange, since the factor that most influences teacher’s citizenship behaviours is not extrinsic but intrinsic satisfaction. That is, it is not what the employee receives from the institution, but what the employee does or gives to the institution the source of satisfaction that will encourage greater job performance.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Understanding Industry 4.0: AI, the Internet of Things, and the Future of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-312-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Yongqiang Yang, Jian‐bin Lu, Zhi‐Yi Luo and Di Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the research approach to optimize shape accuracy, dimensional accuracy and density of customized orthodontic production…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the research approach to optimize shape accuracy, dimensional accuracy and density of customized orthodontic production fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM).

Design/methodology/approach

A series of process experiments were applied to fabricating customized brackets directly by SLM, using 316L stainless steel. Shape accuracy can be optimized through the study on fabricating characteristics of non‐support overhanging structure. A scanning strategy combining contour scanning with orthogonal scanning, which differ in scanning speed and spot compensations, was proposed to improve dimensional accuracy. Scanning laser surface re‐melting was added to enhance the SLM density.

Findings

Optimized SLM parameters lead to high shape precision of customized brackets, and the average size error of bracket slot is less than 10 μm. The customized brackets density is more than 99 per cent, and the surface quality and mechanical properties meet the requirements.

Originality/value

The paper presents the state of the art in SLM of customized production (especially medical appliances) by optimizing part properties. It is the first time that SLM is employed in the manufacturing of customized orthodontic products. It shows the original research on overhanging structure and compound scanning strategy, approach to optimize SLM part accuracy. An improved laser surface re‐melting is employed in the density optimization.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2020

Pengyang Li, Qiang Chen, Qingyu Peng and Xiaodong He

This paper aims to study the synergistic effect of graphene sponge on the thermal properties and shape stability of composite phase change material (PCM).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the synergistic effect of graphene sponge on the thermal properties and shape stability of composite phase change material (PCM).

Design/methodology/approach

Graphene oxide sponge is first prepared from an aqueous solution of graphene oxide by freeze-drying method. The oxidized graphene sponge is reduced by hydrazine hydrate. Finally, use vacuum impregnation method to introduce paraffin into graphene sponge to prepare composite PCM.

Findings

Graphene sponge is used to improve the shape stability of paraffin wax and improves the thermal conductivity and latent heat of the composite PCM. The thermal conductivity increases by 200 per cent and the composite PCM has excellent reliability in 100 melt-freezing cycles.

Research limitations/implications

A simple way for fabricating composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat which has the potential to be used as thermal storage materials without container encapsulation has been developed by using graphene sponge and paraffin.

Originality/value

The materials and preparation methods with special structure and properties in this paper provide a new idea for the research of PCM, which can be widely used in the fields of energy conversion and storage.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2018

Lin Shi, Guicheng Shi and Huanguang Qiu

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the development of intelligent agriculture (IA) in China, which is an important tendency in advancing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the development of intelligent agriculture (IA) in China, which is an important tendency in advancing the agricultural productivity in the coming era.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering publications as featured evidence of an emerging phenomenon, the authors review publications of IA. Specifically, the use of term, definition and examples of IA, both English and Chinese literature, and government policies of China are all reviewed. Additionally, the authors use basic statistical and thematic analysis to help synthesizing the literature and drawing conclusions. Findings from various sources of publications supplement with each other.

Findings

IA in China has shown three main characteristics: unbalanced geographic distribution, an early stage of the trend and attention mainly focused on a limited range of technologies. Compared with the development of IA in other countries, such as Japan, India and the USA, featured with diversified properties, similarities and differences of IA development in China and in other countries are also discussed.

Originality/value

This general review contributes by uncovering the emergence of IA, identifying its general definition with a comprehensive set of practical examples and pointing out the present characteristics and problems of IA development in China. The general review provides a necessary summary for the policy makers and researchers to have a systematic understanding of IA and better promote its future development. At last, the paper calls for a process-based strategy with different goals at different stages, a sustainable mechanism coordinated by multiple participants, and a localized consideration for relevant policy making.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

He-Nan Bu, Hong-Gen Zhou, Zhu-Wen Yan and Dian-Hua Zhang

In the process of cold rolled strip, there is tight coupling between flatness control and gauge control. The variation of the roll gap caused by the change of bending…

Abstract

Purpose

In the process of cold rolled strip, there is tight coupling between flatness control and gauge control. The variation of the roll gap caused by the change of bending force will lead to the change of rolling force. Furthermore, it can cause a deep impact on the control accuracy of strip exit thickness and exit crown. The purpose of this paper is to improve the accuracy of the bending force preset value for cold rolled strip.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the bending force preset control strategy with considering of rolling force was proposed for the first time and the preset objective function of bending force was established on the basis of the two-objective optimization of bending force and rolling force. Meanwhile, the multi-objective intelligent algorithm – INSGA-II – was used to solve the objective function.

Findings

The proposed bending force multi-objective preset model has been tested in a 1,450 mm tandem cold rolling line. The analyzed results of field data show that the deviations of strip exit thickness and exit crown are reduced effectively by using the improved model, and at the same time, more reasonable bending force preset values are obtained, which can enhance the accuracy of flatness preset control.

Originality/value

A preset model of bending force with considering flatness and gauge is proposed in this paper and the multi-objective function of bending force preset is established on the basis of the two-objective optimization of bending force and rolling force. The value lies in proposing a new decoupling method of rolling force and bending force.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Case study
Publication date: 24 September 2015

Xiaojia Guo, Hao Chen and Peng Jiang

This case describes a real-time crisis experienced by the co-founder (Mr Yang) of a multi-national Chinese company operating in Vietnam during the 2014 Vietnam riot. After…

Abstract

Subject area

This case describes a real-time crisis experienced by the co-founder (Mr Yang) of a multi-national Chinese company operating in Vietnam during the 2014 Vietnam riot. After the strike broke out, Mr Yang made several critical decisions to protect and save both his factory and employees.

Study level/applicability

This case is applicable to graduate-level management courses such as: Business ethics, Decision-making, Business Communication and Cross-Cultural Management. Students should have some knowledge in Decision-Making concepts (e.g. “bounded rationality”); in Cross-Cultural Management concepts (e.g. “culture norms”); and in Strategic management theory such as “institution-based view” (e.g. formal vs informal institutions).

Case overview

Part A of the case introduces the main character (Mr Yang) and his factory in Vietnam, the escalation of the strike and the course of the crisis. It also elaborates the important critical decisions Mr Yang made to save both his factory and employees. Part B of the case describes the rescue of Mr Yang and his Chinese employees, his actions after the crisis and strategic positioning in future business. Part C of the case introduces the aftermath of the riot and Mr Yang's reflection regarding the crisis.

Expected learning outcomes

The instructors may emphasize different learning objectives in different courses. Business Ethics: help the students learn to recognize, clarify, speak and act on their values when conflicts arise. Decision-Making: helps the students understand the logic of sense-making in crisis and the concept of bounded rationality. Business Communication: helps the students learn to raise issues in an effective manner and learn to deliver their own responses effectively. Cross-Cultural Management: helps the students identify and analyze the many ways in which managers can voice and implement their values in the face of critical moments in a different cultural environment.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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