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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Chi Zhang, Dajiang Zheng, Guang-Ling Song, Yang Guo, Ming Liu and Hamid Kia

This study aims to propose a simple experimental method to distinguish the galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion and self-corrosion in metal/carbon fiber reinforced…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a simple experimental method to distinguish the galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion and self-corrosion in metal/carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) joints.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behaviors of four different galvanic couples, whose anodes were Zn-coated DP590 steel and Al 6022, and cathodes were two kinds of CFRP, were investigated in immersion and GMW14872 cyclic conditions.

Findings

The results showed that the galvanic corrosion caused by direct contact between CFRP and metals was more serious than that caused by the jointing bolts. The corrosion damage caused by crevice corrosion was severer than that caused by galvanic corrosion. Self-corrosion was also significant, particularly under the cyclic salt spray condition.

Practical implications

Cyclic salt spray test may more reliably simulate the galvanic corrosion of a joint in industrial service environments, and real corrosion damage may be underestimated by a galvanic current measurement.

Originality/value

A deeper understanding of different corrosion mechanisms involved in CFRP/metal joints under different service conditions in industry has been given.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2016

Chunyu Yang and Jue Huang

Spatial integration and industrial clustering have become an important feature of the culture tourism business. When the core elements in both the culture industry and…

Abstract

Spatial integration and industrial clustering have become an important feature of the culture tourism business. When the core elements in both the culture industry and tourism industry are integrated, a model based on system science is constructed that combines the resources and capacity of the two entities to envisage the ways of creating integrated products and services from the two sectors. Guided by the system science, this study proposes a culture tourism system revealing the clustering and hierarchical structure of the industrial elements. The system contains two subsystems: internal system and external system. The agglomeration model of the system includes 26 indices and the PEF methods, which involved the Parallelogram Law, Entropy-weight Method, and Fuzzy Membership Function. Finally, this study deploys an empirical study involving all provincial territories (N=31) in mainland China. It analyzes the variability and degree of balanced development of the system. In addition, through the resultant data this research adds a typology of culture tourism system along with policy recommendations.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-615-4

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Yang Guo, Huseini S. Patanwala, Brice Bognet and Anson W.K. Ma

This paper aims to summarize the latest developments both in terms of theoretical understanding and experimental techniques related to inkjet fluids. The purpose is to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarize the latest developments both in terms of theoretical understanding and experimental techniques related to inkjet fluids. The purpose is to provide practitioners a self-contained review of how the performance of inkjet and inkjet-based three-dimensional (3D) printing is fundamentally influenced by the properties of inkjet fluids.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is written for practitioners who may not be familiar with the underlying physics of inkjet printing. The paper thus begins with a brief review of basic concepts in inkjet fluid characterization and the relevant dimensionless groups. Then, how drop impact and contact angle affect the footprint and resolution of inkjet printing is reviewed, especially onto powder and fabrics that are relevant to 3D printing and flexible electronics applications. A future outlook is given at the end of this review paper.

Findings

The jettability of Newtonian fluids is well-studied and has been generalized using a dimensionless Ohnesorge number. However, the inclusion of various functional materials may modify the ink fluid properties, leading to non-Newtonian behavior, such as shear thinning and elasticity. This paper discusses the current understanding of common inkjet fluids, such as particle suspensions, shear-thinning fluids and viscoelastic fluids.

Originality/value

A number of excellent review papers on the applications of inkjet and inkjet-based 3D printing already exist. This paper focuses on highlighting the current scientific understanding and possible future directions.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Deborah Naybor

Women from many cultures have historically been closely tied to the land and the environment through their role as subsistence farmers. But as the more developed nations…

Abstract

Women from many cultures have historically been closely tied to the land and the environment through their role as subsistence farmers. But as the more developed nations have shifted to commercial agriculture and improved technology, farming has become a male-dominated industry. China’s shift from traditional family-operated farms to government-controlled collectives required a system of incentives to encourage agricultural labor to remain and prevent mass exodus to the cities. Hukou was created in the 1950s as a system of governmental registration for restricting the internal migration of labor within China, identifying citizens’ residency by place of birth. Residents of rural or urban locations are classified agricultural or nonagricultural labor, respectively. But as China’s industrialization has grown and technology has reduced the need for human agricultural labor, the need and desire for urban employment has intensified. For women, relocating has changed marriage practices, influenced child rearing, and altered their right to land tenure in their home region. This paper examines the role of gender in the changing use of hukou in the development of China, focusing on the impact of women’s patterns of migration on land tenure. Although hukou policies are still changing and there is a lack of data on the most recent changes, initial studies show that there are few who wish to give up their rural hukou in order to obtain urban hukou. Changes over the past decade indicate that rural woman are not only taking on more of the agricultural workload as men are drawn to urban employment, but also that they are less likely to care about environmental degradation in China.

Details

Environment, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-775-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Utku Kose

It is possible to see effective use of Artificial Intelligence-based systems in many fields because it easily outperforms traditional solutions or provides solutions for…

Abstract

It is possible to see effective use of Artificial Intelligence-based systems in many fields because it easily outperforms traditional solutions or provides solutions for the problems not previously solved. Prediction applications are a widely used mechanism in research because they allow for forecasting of future states. Logical inference mechanisms in the field of Artificial Intelligence allow for faster and more accurate and powerful computation. Machine Learning, which is a sub-field of Artificial Intelligence, has been used as a tool for creating effective solutions for prediction problems.

In this chapter the authors will focus on employing Machine Learning techniques for predicting data for future states of economic using techniques which include Artificial Neural Networks, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, Dynamic Boltzmann Machine, Support Vector Machine, Hidden Markov Model, Bayesian Learning on Gaussian process model, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, Autoregressive Model (Poggi, Muselli, Notton, Cristofari, & Louche, 2003), and K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm. Findings revealed positive results in terms of predicting economic data.

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Jie Tang, Yi Gong and Zhen-Guo Yang

The submitted paper is mainly concerned with the cracking of blind and buried vias of printed circuit board (PCB) for smartphones which were encountered with abnormal…

Abstract

Purpose

The submitted paper is mainly concerned with the cracking of blind and buried vias of printed circuit board (PCB) for smartphones which were encountered with abnormal display problems like scramble display or no display during service and had to be recalled.

Design/methodology/approach

To found out the root causes of this failure and dissolve this commercial dispute, comprehensive failure analysis was performed on the printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) and PCBs of the failed smartphone, such as macrograph and micrograph observation, chemical compositions analysis, thermal performance testing and blind via pull-off experiment, which finally helped to determine the causes. Besides that, the failure mechanisms were discussed in detail, and pertinent countermeasures were proposed point by point.

Findings

It was found that the PCB blind vias cracking was the main reason for the scramble display or no display of the smartphone, and the incomplete cleaning process before copper plating was the root cause of the blind vias cracking.

Practical implications

Achievement of this paper would not only help to provide the solid evidence for determining the responsibility of this commercial dispute but also lead to a better understanding of the failure mechanisms and prevention methods for similar failure cases of other advanced mobile phones.

Originality/value

Most failure analysis researches of PCBAs only focused on the unqualified products from manufacturing, while this paper addressed a failure analysis case of PCBAs products for smartphones from actual services, which was relatively rarely reported in the past.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Yao-yao Song, Hui-hui Liu, Xiao-xiao Liu and Guo-liang Yang

This paper aims to measure Chinese regional thermal industries’ evolution.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure Chinese regional thermal industries’ evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) and global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (GMLP) index.

Findings

The results reveal that the development of Chinese thermal power industry varies significantly in different regions, and it is highly correlated with the level of local economic development. Although the change of technical efficiency and scale efficiency had different impacts on different regions from year to year, the overall GMLP index change shows a close relationship with the contemporaneous frontier shift.

Practical implications

The results indicate that the Chinese Government should make efforts to promote its policy implementations and regulations in thermal industries so that the contemporaneous frontier will shift toward the global technology frontier with more desirable outputs and less undesirable outputs.

Originality/value

As an application, this study uses DEA and GMLP index to measure the productivity of Chinese thermal industries in 30 Chinese provinces from 2006 to 2013. The results have the meaningful policy implications for decision makers in charge of Chinese thermal industries.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Gül Erkol Bayram

Information technology (IT) has become a strategic weapon on tourism products’ identification, presentation, dissemination and getting a sustainable competitive advantage…

Abstract

Information technology (IT) has become a strategic weapon on tourism products’ identification, presentation, dissemination and getting a sustainable competitive advantage. Tourism management is the most important candidate for using IT with the need for gathering information in large quantities and diffusion of tourism management. The heterogeneous nature of these businesses means that information-communication Technologies’ uses change from sector to sector and from management to management in the tourism sector. The development of IT has created new application areas for tourism industry managers especially in efficient cooperation and provided tools for real globalization, IT is unexpectedly part of tourism management because of information creation processing and transmission which are important in daily activities. Therefore, both rapid development of tourism demand and tourism supply have become a compulsory partner of IT; and for this reason, IT plays an important role in the tourism marketing, distribution, promotion, and coordination. Due to this importance; the impact of IT on tourism sector is valued to be investigated. This chapter stresses that IT’s uses play an efficient role in choosing the management on behalf of the consumer. Within this context, this chapter composes of the information society; IT development and tourism; the usage of IT on travel, hospitality, tourism sector, its challenges, and advantages. This chapter mostly emphasizes on these subjects that will be examined deeply.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-689-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Daochun Li, Shijun Guo, Tariq Osman Aburass, Daqing Yang and Jinwu Xiang

The purpose of this study is to develop an active controller of both leading-edge (LE) and trailing-edge (TE) control surfaces for an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) with a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an active controller of both leading-edge (LE) and trailing-edge (TE) control surfaces for an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) with a composite morphing wing.

Design/methodology/approach

Instead of conventional hinged control surfaces, both LE and TE seamless control surfaces were integrated with the wing. Based on the longitudinal state space equation, the root locus plot of the morphing wing aircraft, with a stability augmented system, was constructed. Using the pole placement, the feedback gain matrix for an active control was obtained.

Findings

The aerodynamic benefits of a morphing wing section are compared with a wing of a rigid control surface. However, the 3D morphing wing with a large sweptback angle produces a washout negative aeroelastic effect, which causes a significant reduction of the control effectiveness. The results show that the stability augmentation system can significantly improve the longitudinal controllability of an aircraft with a morphing wing.

Practical implications

This study is necessary to analyse the effect of a morphing wing on an UAV and perform a comparison with the rigid model.

Originality/value

The control surfaces assignment plan for trim, pitch and roll control was obtained. An active control algorism for the morphing wing was created to satisfy the required stability and control effectiveness by operating the LE and TE control surfaces according to flight conditions. The aeroelastic effect of control derivatives on the morphing aircraft was considered.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2018

De-gan Zhang, Ya-meng Tang, Yu-ya Cui, Jing-xin Gao, Xiao-huan Liu and Ting Zhang

The communication link in the engineering of Internet of Vehicle (IOV) is more frequent than the communication link in the Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). Therefore, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The communication link in the engineering of Internet of Vehicle (IOV) is more frequent than the communication link in the Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). Therefore, the highly dynamic network routing reliability problem is a research hotspot to be solved.

Design/methodology/approach

The graph theory is used to model the MANET communication diagram on the highway and propose a new reliable routing method for internet of vehicles based on graph theory.

Findings

The expanded graph theory can help capture the evolution characteristics of the network topology and predetermine the reliable route to promote quality of service (QoS) in the routing process. The program can find the most reliable route from source to the destination from the MANET graph theory.

Originality/value

The good performance of the proposed method is verified and compared with the related algorithms of the literature.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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