Most studies of foreign-born faculty have documented various difficulties in their careers in academic institutions. This chapter offers data regarding the successful…
Most studies of foreign-born faculty have documented various difficulties in their careers in academic institutions. This chapter offers data regarding the successful careers of foreign-born faculty in the Israeli academic world and identifies the factors that contributed to this success. Our data are based on several measures for success of foreign-born faculty in the studied institution. A statistical analysis was performed in order to examine to what degree scoring on various excellence criteria distinguishes between foreign- and native-born faculty. The research reveals that foreign-born faculty have succeeded in reaching impressive academic achievements. Five complementary explanations for the successful integration are presented, with the most crucial being in-group ethno-cultural similarity of faculty who immigrated from the same country. We conclude by discussing managerial implications for the successful integration of foreign-born faculty in higher education institutions.
The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with…
The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with individualist cultures (Westerners) leads to interpersonal prejudices, whereas the intergroup perspective associated with collectivist cultures (Easterners) leads to intergroup prejudices. These prejudices, in turn, are argued to impact on the outcomes of individuals working in intercultural teams. An organisational diversity climate of openness fostered by diversity oriented HRM and the combined use of individualist and collectivist HRM policies and practices is proposed to minimize the negative effects of such prejudices can be minimized.
Given the growth in use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in reproductive medicine, most fertility clinics have developed websites describing the benefits of PGD…
Given the growth in use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in reproductive medicine, most fertility clinics have developed websites describing the benefits of PGD. This chapter examines the media frames employed on 372 U.S. fertility clinic websites marketing PGD to consumers and how these frames promote biomedicalization.
Evaluation of website discourse was conducted with the use of frame analysis, a research methodology for examining the way media frames bind together claims, judgments, and value statements into a narrative that guides readers’ interpretation of an issue.
Findings show that website discourse frames PGD in terms of the attainment of reproductive normality, the management of reproductive risk, and the achievement of technological progress. These discursive frames contribute to the ongoing biomedicalization of reproduction by re-naturalizing conception as a choice rather than a natural fact, by promoting preoccupation with biomedical risk, and by affirming new forms of technological power and expertise.
Examination reveals the ways in which PGD has developed its own system of representations, notions of exchange, and epistemic forms, and highlights the important ethical issues leveraged on fertility clinic websites marketing PGD.
As one of the first attempts to systematically analyze media frames that depict PGD on fertility clinic websites, this study contributes to medical sociology by advancing theoretical and empirical understanding of the media processes shaping accounts of reproductive technologies. Findings also provide a foundation for further analysis of the social norms and bioethical standards arising from consumer marketing of reproductive technologies.
The purpose of this paper is to study examine the social identity of Ultra-Orthodox students enrolled in institutions of higher learning in Israel, and specifically the…
The purpose of this paper is to study examine the social identity of Ultra-Orthodox students enrolled in institutions of higher learning in Israel, and specifically the ways in which the identity of Ultra-Orthodox students who interact with other groups on campus compares to the identity of self-segregated Ultra-Orthodox students. Traditionally, Ultra-Orthodox students have preferred self-segregated educational institutions. Today, however increasing numbers of Ultra-Orthodox Jews are enrolling in regular academic institutions. Although they study in separate, homogeneous classrooms, they interact with secular students within the framework of the institution.
A four-part questionnaire dealing with attributions, feelings, personal identities, and social proximity was administered to the Ultra-Orthodox students.
As hypothesized, the students in self-segregated institutions exhibited a different identity than the students in secular institutions. Contrary to the hypotheses, the self-segregated students had positive feelings toward secular Israeli students and a greater desire for social proximity than the more integrated group. Explanations center on structural identity theory.
In this naturalistic study, the encounters between Ultra-Orthodox students and other students in their academic institution were random, unplanned, and unmonitored, unlike previous studies of intergroup relations in institutions of higher education. These students were not involved in cooperative tasks, which theoretically could help improve the relationships between Ultra-Orthodox and secular students.
The purpose of this paper is to bring international marketing and consumer research attention to multicultural marketplaces as a new focal research lens. It develops a…
The purpose of this paper is to bring international marketing and consumer research attention to multicultural marketplaces as a new focal research lens. It develops a conceptualisation of multicultural marketplaces, demonstrating why they constitute new conceptual territory, before specifying five key areas for research development.
The paper draws from seminal international marketing literature and other fields to propose perspective shifts, and suggest theories and frameworks of potential usefulness to the five research areas.
The paper conceptualises multicultural marketplaces as place-centred environments (physical or virtual) where the marketers, consumers, brands, ideologies and institutions of multiple cultures converge at one point of concurrent interaction, while also being potentially connected to multiple cultures in other localities. Five key areas for research development are specified, each with a different conceptual focus: increasing complexity of cultural identities (identity), differentiation of national political contexts (national integration policies), intergroup conviviality practices and conflictual relationships (intergroup relations), interconnectedness of transnational networks (networks), and cultural dynamics requiring multicultural adaptiveness (competences).
For each research area, a number of research avenues and theories and frameworks of potential interest are proposed.
The paper demonstrates why multicultural marketplaces constitute new conceptual territory for international marketing and consumer research; it provides a conceptualisation of these marketplaces and a comprehensive research agenda.
Discrimination is an intergroup as well as an interpersonal phenomenon and is related to fundamental processes associated with social categorization and the development of…
Discrimination is an intergroup as well as an interpersonal phenomenon and is related to fundamental processes associated with social categorization and the development of in-group favoritism. We propose in the Common In-Group Identity Model that by understanding the factors that underlie the development of these inter-group biases, these forces can be redirected to improve intergroup relations. In particular, if members of different groups are induced to recategorize themselves as a superordinate group rather than as two separate groups, intergroup prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination will be reduced through the extension of pro-in-group bias to former out-group members. Moreover, recategorization in the form of a dual identity, in which superordinate and subgroup identities are both salient, can achieve the benefits of a strong superordinate identity without requiring groups to forsake valued ethnic and racial identities. Data reported from laboratory studies, field experiments, and surveys involving a range of different types of groups offer converging evidence in support of the model.