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This paper aims to explore the influence of CO2 partial pressure, flow rate and water cut on N80 steel corrosion behaviors in the displacement process of oil in glutenite…
This paper aims to explore the influence of CO2 partial pressure, flow rate and water cut on N80 steel corrosion behaviors in the displacement process of oil in glutenite reservoir by CO2 injection.
A self-made 3 L high-temperature and high-pressure autoclave was used to conduct corrosion simulation experiments of N80 steel in different CO2 partial pressures, flow rates and water cut (the independently developed oil and water mixing approach can ensure the uniform mixing of oil and water in experiments). Techniques like weight loss and surface analysis were used to analyze the corrosion behaviors of N80 steel under different conditions.
Results showed that the average corrosion rate of N80 steel accelerated at varying degrees with the increase of CO2 partial pressure, flow rate and water cut. Excluding that the samples showed uniform corrosion under the two conditions of 0.5MPa CO2 partial pressure and static corrosion, they displayed mesa attack corrosion under other conditions. Besides, with the increase of CO2 partial pressure, the pH value of solution dropped and the matrix corrosion speed rose, hence leading to the increased Fe2+ and CO32− concentration. Meanwhile, a lowered pH value improved the FeCO3 critical supersaturation, thereby leading to an increased nucleation rate/growth rate and ultimately causing the decrease of the dimension of FeCO3 crystallites formed on the surface of the samples.
The results can be helpful in targeted anti-corrosion measures for CO2/oil/water corrosive environment.
Based on the team conflict theory and organizational learning theory, this study aims to discuss the two different types of conflicts of the top management team (TMT) on…
Based on the team conflict theory and organizational learning theory, this study aims to discuss the two different types of conflicts of the top management team (TMT) on the different mechanisms of exploratory learning behavior of firms, and, based on the perspective of CEO-TMT (CEO – chief executive officer) interface, the different moderating effects caused by different CEO leadership styles are clarified.
Using the sample of 193 firms’ samples with multi-source data, the authors take an empirical test of the theoretical framework.
The effect of task conflict on exploratory learning behavior was insignificant, and relationship conflict had a positive effect on exploratory learning behavior. However, when CEO’s transformational leadership level was high, or transactional leadership level was low, there existed “bathtub curve” relationship between task conflict and exploratory learning behavior, and the relationship conflict under these conditions strengthened exploratory learning behavior. When CEO’s transactional leadership level was high, or transformational leadership level was low, there existed the inverted U-shaped relationship between task conflict and exploratory learning behavior, and the relationship conflict under such conditions weakened exploratory learning behavior.
First, the authors challenge the assumption of linear mechanism of task conflict, trying to build the mechanism of curve hypothesis, and the nonlinear explanation might be able to integrate the inconsistent results in the existing literature. Second, according to the inconsistent results of relationship conflict in existing literature, this study takes perspective of the CEO-TMT and introduces CEO leadership behavior as a moderating variable to test the moderating effect of CEO leadership and clarifies the boundary conditions of TMT conflicts.
The assumption that the family migrates as a unit downplays migrants’ circularity. This chapter focuses on China's rural–urban labor migrants that travel back and forth…
The assumption that the family migrates as a unit downplays migrants’ circularity. This chapter focuses on China's rural–urban labor migrants that travel back and forth between the sites of work and home community and between places of work. I argue that migrants and their households pursue work flexibility in order to obtain the best of the urban and rural worlds, by gaining earnings from urban work and at the same time maintaining social and economic security in the countryside. Work flexibility demands flexibility in household organization, in the form of division of labor and collaboration between genders, generations, and households. Based on a study in Sichuan, I examine household biographies and narratives to identify migrants’ work and household strategies.
Migrants change jobs frequently, switch from one type of work to another and one location to another readily, and often return to the home village for months or even years before pursuing migrant work again. Not only are migrants ready to split the household between the city and the countryside, but also they frequently change from one form of division of labor to another. The inside–outside model, where the wife stays in the village and the husband does migrant work, used to be the dominant arrangement. Over time, the outside–outside model, where both the husband and wife migrate to work and leave behind other family members, is increasingly popular. This is facilitated by intergenerational and interhousehold division of labor in the form of assistance by the extended family. Intergenerational division of labor takes place when the second generation is replacing the parents in migrant work. This research's findings support the notion that rural–urban migrants are fast becoming a hybrid segment of Chinese society, playing dual roles of farmers and urban workers and straddling the peasant and urban worlds.