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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Xuan Santos and Christopher Bickel

In 1987, the City of Los Angeles instituted the first gang injunction in the country. Gang injunctions are pursued through the civil courts to seriously restrict the…

Abstract

Purpose

In 1987, the City of Los Angeles instituted the first gang injunction in the country. Gang injunctions are pursued through the civil courts to seriously restrict the activities and movement of suspected gang members and affiliates. People who have been served with a gang injunction are often prohibited from everyday activities, such as wearing sports jerseys, talking to other gang members, and being out in public past curfew, regardless of age. Though often justified by law enforcement as a necessary tool to fight gang violence, we argue that gang injunctions are similar to Slave Codes, Black Codes, and Jim Crow laws, which established a separate system of justice based on race. As such, gang injunctions serve as an extension of an apartheid-like system of justice that seriously limits the life opportunities of people of color within gang injunction territories.

Methodology/approach

This chapter draws upon the oral histories of people targeted by gang injunction laws within California, paying particular attention to how gang-identified individuals are surveiled, controlled, and confined.

Findings

Gang injunctions operate on an apartheid-like justice system that punishes perceived gang members harsher than non-gang members. These laws affirm the legal tactics that maintain racial boundaries and promote a system of justice that mirrors the Black Codes following the end of slavery. The evidence suggests that gang injunctions solely target low-income youth of color, who have been identified as gang members and served with injunctions.

Originality/value

Despite the ubiquity of gang injunctions within California, there is little research on gang injunctions, and even less literature on how these injunctions shape the life course of suspected gang members. We attempt to address this gap in the literature by showing how gang injunctions are not simply about fighting crime, but rather they are a tool used to control and corral communities of color.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Beverly Yuen Thompson

The act of becoming ‘heavily tattooed’, with its historical association with deviant subcultures, continues to carry a social stigma and evoke negative sanctions. This is…

Abstract

The act of becoming ‘heavily tattooed’, with its historical association with deviant subcultures, continues to carry a social stigma and evoke negative sanctions. This is especially so for women, who must also contend with gender norms within the highly masculinised tattoo subculture. For women, the experience of becoming heavily tattooed comes to represent an embodied resistance to normative ideals of beauty, against which the participants construct their own alternative gender and beauty philosophies. Besides gender norms, the tattoo world has specific ethos which divides the serious subcultural member from those more casually connected to it. The physical parameter of the subculture finds people gathering in tattoo studios and at tattoo conventions, as well as consuming tattoo-oriented media, such as magazines and television shows. This study draws on in-depth interviews with 36 participants across the United States who consider themselves serious tattoo collectors. From their stories, we learn about the importance of participating in this leisure activity and how becoming heavily tattooed impacts their sense of self, gender and identity.

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Subcultures, Bodies and Spaces: Essays on Alternativity and Marginalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-512-8

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Abstract

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Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Abstract

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Giles Thomson, Göran Lindahl, Ammar Shemery, Mattias Roupé, Keith Hampson and Mikael Johansson

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss potential applications of emerging Building Information Model (BIM) and related technologies as applied to healthcare…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss potential applications of emerging Building Information Model (BIM) and related technologies as applied to healthcare facilities. The paper presents example of applications of digital tools enabled by BIM that support more integrated outcomes for complex healthcare projects.

Approach

Paper formulation by a transdisciplinary author group with ideas and approaches developed through discussions and writing to explore future research directions. Initial ideas are supplemented by a literature review with examples introduced where relevant.

Findings

BIM as a front-end construction engineering tool is quite mature. Application of BIM and related tools to support complex healthcare at the precinct scale, for facilities management (FM), including improved user experience (UX) has been limited but shows great promise to support complex healthcare projects.

Research Limitations/Implications

The research presented is limited and exploratory as it represents the first step by this group to investigate an integrated approach to digital healthcare design and FM.

Practical Implications

The paper introduces the considerable benefits of BIM models, and related tools for FM and/or UX (both staff and patients) to save time, money and improves efficiency and accuracy in healthcare facilities.

Originality/Value

The transdisciplinary author group brought broad perspectives to the potential benefits of combining accurate data-rich legacy building models with other digital tools for increased integration and co-ordination at all life stages of a healthcare precinct.

Details

10th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-051-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Dobrina Georgieva

Internal capital markets of diversified firms have been associated with inefficient allocation of investment funds across divisions, leading to value losses. Utilizing a…

Abstract

Internal capital markets of diversified firms have been associated with inefficient allocation of investment funds across divisions, leading to value losses. Utilizing a sample of diversified firms that adopted or eliminated Residual Income (RI) plans between 1990 and 2009, we show that adoptions of these plans mitigate investment distortions and lead to value gains. Following the adoption of RI plans, diversified firms start allocating investment funds based on growth opportunities of their divisions. RI plan adopters lower their divisional investment levels, especially in segments with below-average growth opportunities. The overall investment allocation efficiency improves, and the diversification discount diminishes after the adoption of RI plans. However, RI plans appear to be used only as temporary tools for assessing corporate performance. The plans are adopted primarily by firms expected to immediately generate plan bonuses for management, and they are frequently eliminated by firms with bad accounting performance and low managerial bonuses. The study contributes to the literature on organizational efficiency, internal capital markets, and on the importance of measures based on economic profits or RI.

Details

International Corporate Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-355-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Weihua Liu, Di Wang, Xuan Zhao, Cheng Si and Ou Tang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influencing factors of new logistics service product design (NLSPD) in China to establish a theoretical framework for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influencing factors of new logistics service product design (NLSPD) in China to establish a theoretical framework for the future development of the logistics industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts the multi-case study method based on a sample of four Chinese logistics enterprises, in which the authors consider the logistics service maturity (LSM), a distinct characteristic of logistics enterprises.

Findings

NLSPD is directly related to the degree of supply–demand matching (SDM) and LSM. Customer demand, service capability and peer competition influence the performance of NLSPD through the SDM degree, whereas LSM moderates these influencing mechanisms. Moreover, the degree of SDM has a positive impact on LSM.

Practical implications

The findings can help the managers of logistics enterprises and practitioners in the logistics industry understand the complexity of NLSPD. First, they should broaden and deepen their service offering to enhance the degree of LSM. Second, they should pay attention to the factors that affect SDM systematically. Finally, it is vital to balance the relationship between LSM and SDM.

Originality/value

NLSPD has become an important tool affecting the competitiveness and sustainability of logistics service enterprises. This is the first paper to propose a theoretical framework for NLSPD that considers the characteristic of the logistics industry. It clarifies the mechanisms of influencing factors, and contributes to the literature by filling the research gap.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Xu Wang, Xuan Zhang, Tong Li, Junhui Liu and Qingyi Chen

Business process models, while primarily intended for process documentation, communication, and improvement, are often also used as input for developing process-oriented…

Abstract

Purpose

Business process models, while primarily intended for process documentation, communication, and improvement, are often also used as input for developing process-oriented software systems (Ouyang et al., 2009). Ensuring correctness, handling complexity, and improving reusability and maintainability of business process models are important for all these goals. The purpose of this paper is to propose an aspect-oriented business process modeling and correctness controlling method based on Petri nets to satisfy these goals.

Design/methodology/approach

The aspect-oriented paradigm provides a proper mechanism to modularization, and thus reduces the complexity of models, and also improves reusability and maintainability. However, weaving aspects into base processes may bring in mistakes or errors. To ensure correctness of modeling, this paper presents a formal approach to modeling aspect-oriented business processes and a method to ensure modeling correctness. Petri net is used as the process modeling language and its analysis techniques are applied to analyze the correctness of modeling. Two types of correctness, specifically, aspect-aspect correctness and base-aspect correctness are analyzed. A real banking process model is studied systematically in the case study to evaluate the approach and the performance assessments are conducted to show the cost and effect of the approach.

Findings

Designing aspect-oriented business process models help organizations reusing the model elements to reduce redundancy of their model repository, improving their maintainability, and supporting them to adapt to the changes of business requirements with flexible modeling. It is important to stress that the correctness of business process modeling is important in ensuring the quality of the models, especially in the safety-critical business domains, such as financial business domain.

Originality/value

In this paper, separation of concerns is used to separate the cross-cutting activities and core activities in accordance with the different functions of these activities, and an approach to modeling aspect-oriented business processes is proposed. First, the cross-cutting activities are encapsulated as aspects, while core business activities are modeled as base processes. Then, according to the correctness requirements of business process models, based on the weaving mechanisms of aspect-oriented approach, weaving correctness is defined. Weaving correctness controlling methods between multi-aspects and between aspects and base processes are designed. Errors or mistakes of aspect-oriented business process modeling are prevented during the procedure of modeling to ensure error-free business process modeling.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Huong Thi Lan Huynh, Hien Xuan Nguyen, Thuy Thi Ngo and Hang Thi Van

Nowadays, under climate change contexts, natural disasters are becoming stronger in intensity and probability. The impacts of natural disasters on people and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, under climate change contexts, natural disasters are becoming stronger in intensity and probability. The impacts of natural disasters on people and the environment are also getting worse. The purpose of this study was conducted to provide a method of assessing disaster risks, in particular, floods for human life in Mid Central Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

The pre-disaster assessment method was used based on the analysis of hazard factors (Hazard-H), exposure to hazards (Exposure-E) and vulnerability (Vulnerability-V).

Findings

Flood disaster risks in the area are assessed and displayed on spatial maps. The districts in coastal plains of Quang Ngai and Thua Thien Hue provinces have the highest levels of risk. These assessments will play an important role in supporting flood prevention and mitigation in the region.

Originality/value

According to the authors, this is the first study assessing the flood risk in Vietnam on the pre-disaster perspective. The assessment provides a plain point of view on natural disaster impacts that supporting disaster prevention services.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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