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Details

Entrepreneurship for Deprived Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-988-6

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Article

Xiaosong Zhou, Xu Sun, Qingfeng Wang and Sarah Sharples

The current understanding of serendipity is based primarily on studies employing westerners as the participants, and it remains uncertain whether or not this understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

The current understanding of serendipity is based primarily on studies employing westerners as the participants, and it remains uncertain whether or not this understanding would be pervasive under different cultures, such as in China. In addition, there is not a sufficient systematic investigation of context during the occurrence of serendipity in current studies. The purpose of this paper is to examine the above issues by conducting a follow-up empirical study with a group of Chinese scholars.

Design/methodology/approach

The social media application “WeChat” was employed as a research tool. A diary-based study was conducted and 16 participants were required to send to the researchers any cases of serendipity they encountered during a period of two weeks, and this was followed by a post-interview.

Findings

Chinese scholars experienced serendipity in line with the three main processes of: encountering unexpectedness, connection-making and recognising the value. An updated context-based serendipity model was constructed, where the role of context during each episode of experiencing serendipity was identified, including the external context (e.g. time, location and status), the social context and the internal context (e.g. precipitating conditions, sagacity/perceptiveness and emotion).

Originality/value

The updated context model provides a further understanding of the role played by context during the different processes of serendipity. The framework for experiencing serendipity has been expanded, and this may be used to classify the categories of serendipity.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Joyce Hoese Addae, Michael Brown, Xu Sun, Dave Towey and Milena Radenkovic

This paper presents an initial development of a personal data attitude (PDA) measurement instrument based on established psychometric principles. The aim of the research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an initial development of a personal data attitude (PDA) measurement instrument based on established psychometric principles. The aim of the research was to develop a reliable measurement scale for quantifying and comparing attitudes towards personal data that can be incorporated into cybersecurity behavioural research models. Such a scale has become necessary for understanding individuals’ attitudes towards specific sets of data, as more technologies are being designed to harvest, collate, share and analyse personal data.

Design/methodology/approach

An initial set of 34 five-point Likert-style items were developed with eight subscales and administered to participants online. The data collected were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and MANOVA. The results are consistent with the multidimensionality of attitude theories and suggest that the adopted methodology for the study is appropriate for future research with a more representative sample.

Findings

Factor analysis of 247 responses identified six constructs of individuals’ attitude towards personal data: protective behaviour, privacy concerns, cost-benefit, awareness, responsibility and security. This paper illustrates how the PDA scale can be a useful guide for information security research and design by briefly discussing the factor structure of the PDA and related results.

Originality/value

This study addresses a genuine gap in research by taking the first step towards establishing empirical evidence for dimensions underlying personal data attitudes. It also adds a significant benchmark to a growing body of literature on understanding and modelling computer users’ security behaviours.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article

Adil Baykasoglu and Cengiz Baykasoglu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new multi-objective optimization procedure for crashworthiness optimization of thin-walled structures especially circular tubes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new multi-objective optimization procedure for crashworthiness optimization of thin-walled structures especially circular tubes with functionally graded thickness.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed optimization approach is based on finite element analyses for construction of sample design space and verification; gene-expression programming (GEP) for generating algebraic equations (meta-models) to compute objective functions values (peak crash force and specific energy absorption) for design parameters; multi-objective genetic algorithms for generating design parameters alternatives and determining optimal combination of them. The authors have also utilized linear and non-linear least square regression meta-models as a benchmark for GEP.

Findings

It is shown that the proposed approach is able to generate Pareto optimal designs which are in a very good agreement with the actual results.

Originality/value

The paper presents the application of a genetic programming-based method, namely, GEP first time in the literature. The proposed approach can be used to all kinds of related crashworthiness problems.

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Book part

Aleksei V. Bogoviz, Dina N. Savinskaya, Alfira M. Kumratova, Tatiana B. Fonina and Naimdzhon M. Ibragimov

The purpose of this chapter is to compile the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system, determine the role of scenario that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to compile the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system, determine the role of scenario that envisages practical implementation of the new model of a well-balanced information economy among these scenarios according to the criterion of effectiveness and probability, and select and substantiate the optimal scenario.

Methodology

Due to the absence of initial statistical information that allows characterizing the basic conditions for further development of information economy in the global economic system, the method of stochastic modeling is used for describing forecast scenarios in this chapter. This method is used due to its applicability for forecast analysis in the conditions of uncertainty. With the help of this method, qualitative description of the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system is accompanied by selected quantitative characteristics, which are conventional, that is, they are given for comparing various scenarios, not for specifying a precise value of estimate indicators. Comparison of the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system is conducted using comparative analysis method.

Results

It is concluded that the most effective and optimal scenario is the one that supposes implementation of the offered new model of a well-balanced information economy – despite its lower probability as compared to the other scenarios.

Recommendations

The set optimal expected scenario of development of information economy, which envisages application of its new well-balanced model, is recommended for practical implementation in the modern economic systems.

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Abstract

Details

Experiencing Persian Heritage
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-813-8

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Book part

Wayne A. Hochwarter, Ilias Kapoutsis, Samantha L. Jordan, Abdul Karim Khan and Mayowa Babalola

Persistent change has placed considerable pressure on organizations to keep up or fade into obscurity. Firms that remain viable, or even thrive, are staffed with…

Abstract

Persistent change has placed considerable pressure on organizations to keep up or fade into obscurity. Firms that remain viable, or even thrive, are staffed with decision-makers who capably steer organizations toward opportunities and away from threats. Accordingly, leadership development has never been more critical. In this chapter, the authors propose that leader development is an inherently dyadic process initiated to communicate formal and informal expectations. The authors focus on the informal component, in the form of organizational politics, as an element of leadership that is critical to employee and company success. The authors advocate that superiors represent the most salient information source for leader development, especially as it relates to political dynamics embedded in work systems. The authors discuss research associated with our conceptualization of dyadic political leader development (DPLD). Specifically, the authors develop DPLD by exploring its conceptual underpinnings as they relate to sensemaking, identity, and social learning theories. Once established, the authors provide a refined discussion of the construct, illustrating its scholarly mechanisms that better explain leader development processes and outcomes. The authors then expand research in the areas of political skill, political will, political knowledge, and political phronesis by embedding our conceptualization of DPLD into a political leadership model. The authors conclude by discussing methodological issues and avenues of future research stemming from the development of DPLD.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-076-1

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Article

Zhi Ding, Xinjiang Wei, Xiao Zhang and Xinsheng Yin

The shield tunnels closely constructed near the foundations have an inevitable influence on the structures, even results in the large settlement or uplift of the structures.

Abstract

Purpose

The shield tunnels closely constructed near the foundations have an inevitable influence on the structures, even results in the large settlement or uplift of the structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The comparison of structural deformation of three different foundations is presented based on the field monitoring data.

Findings

Shield tunnelling parameters vary for the different types of foundations. For the long pile foundations, the recommended speed is 3 to 4 cm/min, the grouting pressure is about 0.3 MPa and the grouting rate ranges from 150 to 180.

Originality/value

The study based on the field monitoring data is rarely reported, especially the topic about the structural deformation of different types of the foundations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part

Dominique Lord and Srinivas Reddy Geedipally

Purpose – This chapter provides an overview of issues related to analysing crash data characterised by excess zero responses and/or long tails and how to overcome these…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter provides an overview of issues related to analysing crash data characterised by excess zero responses and/or long tails and how to overcome these problems. Factors affecting excess zeros and/or long tails are discussed, as well as how they can bias the results when traditional distributions or models are used. Recently introduced multi-parameter distributions and models developed specifically for such datasets are described. The chapter is intended to guide readers on how to properly analyse crash datasets with excess zeros and long or heavy tails.

Methodology – Key references from the literature are summarised and discussed, and two examples detailing how multi-parameter distributions and models compare with the negative binomial distribution and model are presented.

Findings – In the event that the characteristics of the crash dataset cannot be changed or modified, recently introduced multi-parameter distributions and models can be used efficiently to analyse datasets characterised by excess zero responses and/or long tails. They offer a simpler way to interpret the relationship between crashes and explanatory variables, while providing better statistical performance in terms of goodness-of-fit and predictive capabilities.

Research implications – Multi-parameter models are expected to become the next series of traditional distributions and models. The research on these models is still ongoing.

Practical implications – With the advancement of computing power and Bayesian simulation methods, multi-parameter models can now be easily coded and applied to analyse crash datasets characterised by excess zero responses and/or long tails.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Book part

Mateusz Lewandowski

Performance management is the ‘Achilles heel’ of many reforms and public management practices and requires changes. Governance in general and co-production in particular…

Abstract

Performance management is the ‘Achilles heel’ of many reforms and public management practices and requires changes. Governance in general and co-production in particular impose an organizational setting which requires rethinking performance management, which is still conceptually embedded in New Public Management paradigm. This chapter builds on the latest co-production framework and service-dominant logic and outlines new challenges for rethinking performance measurement and management. It also discusses how public service design (PSD) may interact with them. As a result the need to shift between performance control loops has been emphasized, suggesting that service design may significantly support internal ex-nunc performance management. Although it should be facilitated in addressing some of the performance challenges, an outline of a framework for appropriate method has also been proposed.

Details

Cross-Sectoral Relations in the Delivery of Public Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-172-0

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