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Clothing quality, performance, safety and health have become important considerations for consumer welfare. Properties of these aspects are encompassed on standards which…
Clothing quality, performance, safety and health have become important considerations for consumer welfare. Properties of these aspects are encompassed on standards which regulates clothing products reaching consumers. The purpose of this paper is to categorize these aspects in a common platform by suggesting minimum requirements expected on readymade garments from which clothing standards compliance assessment is performed.
With the aid of standard compliance assessment model, scored Standard Compliance Rate (SCR) values of the discussed properties of clothing standardization are synthesized from a standard compliance matrix, and the compliance of any clothing standards are assessed and assigned a “Standard Compliance Index/Level (SCI/SCL)” ranging from non compliance to full compliance at six levels.
In reference to the standard compliance assessment model, 12 children and infant clothing standards, three from Kenya and nine from China, and eight protective clothing standards from Kenya, China, Britain and USA, two from each country, were assessed and the compliance level of each standard evaluated and results presented. The results of the study reveal the importance of every aspect of clothing standardization properties to fulfil the requirements of standard compliance assessment whereby, though they meet their role in developing Standard Compliance Index (SCI), they may have different impact depending with the context applied and the scope of every standard.
The selection of standardization parameters and characteristics, and the criteria for scoring some of the Standard Compliance Rating was subjective and may require mutual agreements between relevant bodies. Furthermore, this method can only be applied on clothing standards and not other textile testing standards.
The proposed method can be applied when evaluating and comparing specific clothing standards between bodies or countries. Clothing SCI would be of primary importance as a guide on required clothing quality specifications to designers, manufacturers, standard regulators and consumer welfare bodies.
This research reports the development of an original framework to assess compliance level of any clothing standard using standardization parameters and characteristics considered when determining the quality of a garment. It establishes a theoretical framework of clothing standards compliance assessment, which has not been reported in the literature to date.
Smooth appearance of fabrics after ironing with steam, soleplate, ironing speed and their interactions cannot be studied using household ironing machines such as hang…
Smooth appearance of fabrics after ironing with steam, soleplate, ironing speed and their interactions cannot be studied using household ironing machines such as hang steamer and flatiron. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and verification of a simple, low-cost test platform based on the fabric materials hang-ironing factors includes temperature, humidity, ironing speed (time).
This platform achieves adjustable and stable steam flow rate, enabling any ironing speed and any temperature of soleplate below 200°C. Moreover, the whole ironing process is automatically after experiment level set ahead for better observation to the ironing process.
Regression results of the apparatus are stable, statistical significant which is verified by the statistics under design of experiment.
It is useful in other aspects such as nozzle test and improvement, new products evaluation and smooth appearance level experiment and test for new ironing product and its research. It is also useful in other aspects such as nozzle test and improvement, new products evaluation and smooth appearance level experiment and test for new ironing product and its research.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the nature of firm heterogeneity and factors of the host country on the choice of entry modes in greenfield…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the nature of firm heterogeneity and factors of the host country on the choice of entry modes in greenfield investments and cross-border mergers and acquisitions.
An empirical analysis was conducted of 450 outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) cases of Chinese-listed companies from 2001 to 2015. A regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the heterogeneous nature of enterprises and host country factors on the choice of entry mode.
First, the nature of a firm’s heterogeneity differs in terms of their mobile or immobile capabilities, which may affect entry strategies. Second, although Chinese multinational companies do not have a strong ownership advantage when compared with multinational companies in developed countries, they have certain marketing capabilities, such as innovations, aimed at customer needs that make it possible to implement their internationalization strategy. Third, factors such as cultural distance and investment risk of the host country significantly influence the choice of OFDI entry modes.
The authors discuss the mobility of a firm’s resource heterogeneity in determining Chinese firms’ entry mode choices and emphasize that Chinese marketing-intensive firms seek complementary resources from the firms of the host countries to achieve competitive advantages. The authors further divide heterogeneous enterprise resources into research and development resources and marketing resources according to the degree of international mobility and examine what kind of firm heterogeneity could help in the selection of different entry modes.