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This paper aims to explore the influence of career expectations on job satisfaction of Generation Y, as well as the mediating effect of career expectations on the…
This paper aims to explore the influence of career expectations on job satisfaction of Generation Y, as well as the mediating effect of career expectations on the relationship between hotel career management (HCM) and job satisfaction.
Data were collected from the main tourist cities in China with Generation Y employees working in the hospitality industry as the target population. A total of 442 valid questionnaires were obtained, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among the constructs.
HCM contributed positively to employees’ career expectation and job satisfaction. Career expectation was positively related to job satisfaction, as well as mediated the relationship between HCM and job satisfaction.
This study is limited by the use of self-reported data in the cross-sectional design because all participants filled out the questionnaires by themselves. The use of convenience sampling method presents another limitation for this study.
This study may serve as a guide for managers and policymakers. First, this study highlights the importance of effective career management activities. Second, this study may help hotels retain the qualified staff members. Third, this study may help hotel managers respond to the career expectation of their young employees.
The meditating effect of career expectation highlights its importance in the career management system. The main force of market labor is Generation Y, who are known for their high career expectation and their emphasis on their career development. The findings indicate that both extrinsic and intrinsic value factors provide greater contributions to job satisfaction than prestige and stability factors. Therefore, hotels must provide a stable working environment, and care more on employees’ intrinsic value. Aside from providing high compensation, employers should also provide career growth opportunities and challenging job to their employees, as they are important motivational factors. By providing tailor-made career activities, hotel managers may satisfy the career expectations and enhance the job satisfaction of young employees, which, in turn, leads to a mutually beneficial situation for both managers and employees.
This study explores the predictors and outcomes of career expectations of Generation Y employees. It highlights the importance of meeting the career expectations and also shows initial evidence on the mediating effect of career expectation. The findings of this study may provide useful guidance to both hotel operators and employees.
This study aims to analyze reform path for waste management policy implementation. With reference to the Bayesian theory, this study provides a dynamic policy conversion…
This study aims to analyze reform path for waste management policy implementation. With reference to the Bayesian theory, this study provides a dynamic policy conversion method through various context settings. Furthermore, this study attempts to present an empirical research paradigm.
Matland’s “ambiguity-conflict model” is applied to explain the problems and reform paths of China’s waste management policy implementation. Integrating structure discovery and bibliometrics into qualitative analysis, this study used search data from literature search engine with specific themes to achieve structure learning of Bayesian network with key factors refined in waste management policy.
The results show that China’s waste management policy implementation belongs to symbolic implementation with high ambiguity and high conflict. Four basic conversion paths for the waste management policy are proposed, which are classified by length and stability. Then, it is possible to locate the factors, paths and types of policy implementation through involvement analysis with features of each path and each district of policy implementation. Public education holds direct but unstable impact on waste management. Economic incentives hold continuous but gradually diminishing impact. Perceived policy effectiveness plays the crucial role like a central bridge. Resident conditions have a positive impact, which could be enhanced through economic development of China. The impact of subjective norm on waste management is not significant. But subjective norm has the potential breakthrough for solving stagnation of waste classification policy. However, the impacts from each factor may change along with economy growth and technology innovation.
This study uses the “ambiguity-conflict model” to position China’s waste classification policy and suggests that structure discovery methods help understand feasible reform paths for reform policy. The integration of theoretical analysis and quantitative simulation can achieve a comprehensive analysis of problems and solutions in waste management policy implementation of China. Promotion and education, economic incentives, perceived value, behavior control, subjective norm, perceived policy effectiveness, informal waste recycling system and residential conditions are explored as key factors for waste classification policy implementation as a representative in waste management policy. The role of each key factor and features of each conversion paths are integrated to position reform paths in the ambiguity-conflict model. This work helps to explain the stagnation of waste management policy implementation from the perspective of dynamic structure evolution, and some specific suggestions to get out of stagnation are proposed.
Rare earths are essential materials for many high-tech industries critical to both economic development and national defense. China, the world's dominant supplier of rare…
Rare earths are essential materials for many high-tech industries critical to both economic development and national defense. China, the world's dominant supplier of rare earths, has recently been imposing stricter controls over its production and export. The purpose of this paper is to examine the domestic roots of the changes in China's rare earth industry production and exports in its three-decade rise to the current global monopoly.
This paper adopts the historical institutionalism approach to analyze the trajectory of industry and trade development. The author analyzes data collected from government whitepapers and reputed scholarly and news sources.
This paper argues that the Chinese rare earth industry has gone through three periods of development, in which the state attempted to control the market and industry through reformulating rules and institutions to achieve state goals. Domestic state institutions, combined with macroeconomic environment and state governance strategy shaped the three-decade experience of rare earth industry and trade development in China.
This paper builds on existing findings about Chinese state regulations to provide a novel analytical framework to analyze the role of the state in industry and trade development in the rare earth industry. The focus on a single strategic industry seldom studied in the current literature also provides ample empirical value to further scholarly understanding about this industry.