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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Xing Li and Minyue Jin

Many people in developing countries are suffering from serious diseases, such as HIV and tuberculosis. On the other hand, drug patents impact the availability of the drug…

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198

Abstract

Purpose

Many people in developing countries are suffering from serious diseases, such as HIV and tuberculosis. On the other hand, drug patents impact the availability of the drug for patients. Pharmaceutical technology transfer is widely used by domestic and foreign pharmaceutical enterprises because it promotes the availability of the drug for patients. The purpose of this paper, which is on drug technology transfer, is mainly to discuss how to solve the conflict between drug patent protection and public health from the perspective of the law, but not from the perspective of economics. To fill this gap, the authors introduce a model in the prescription drug market and analyze how a foreign manufacturer that produces brand name drugs authorizes a domestic enterprise that produces common drugs.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors consider a situation that if the patent holders are provided a certain amount of compensation, then whether compulsory licensing would be an effective tool to promote competition and improve the availability of drugs. Furthermore, they also consider three different cooperation mechanisms, namely, fixed-fee contract, royalty contract and two-part tariff contract, under the case of technology transfer and give the condition of which contract would be better under different scenarios.

Findings

It is found that the product differentiation and the agent behavior of doctor in the domestic market have a deep impact on the foreign enterprise’s decision on technology transfer. If both fixed-fee contract and royalty contract are permitted, foreign enterprise will choose different transfer contracts under different conditions. Under two-part tariff contract, it is equivalent to a fixed-fee or royalty contract under certain conditions. Furthermore, all contracts can improve patients’ benefits, while the royalty contract and the two-part tariff contract would reduce importer’s social welfare under certain conditions.

Originality/value

Prescription drugs can treat many acute diseases and improve people’s quality of life. On the other hand, it requires investment in pharmaceutical research and development and is hard to afford the drug for the people living in poverty. This paper tries to solve the problem by introducing three cooperation contracts. The authors consider an innovative drug company and a regular drug company. The regular drug company can improve the quality of its drug by signing a technology transfer agreement with the innovative company. Three contracts are discussed in this paper; they are fixed-fee contract, royalty contract and two-part tariff contract. The authors examine the impact of different contracts on the companies’ profit, patients’ benefit and social welfare. It is found that quality differentiation of drugs and doctor behaviors can have large impacts on the company’s decision about technology adoption as well as contract choice strategies. In all of the three contracts, patients’ benefit improves, while the profit of the two companies and social welfare can increase or decrease under different contracts.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Li Hong Xing

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244

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Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2020

Li-Hong May Xing

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142

Abstract

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Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Li Hong Xing

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271

Abstract

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Li-Hong Xing

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239

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Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Pankaj Ghemawat

This chapter argues that international business has much to contribute to intranational business in helping develop a theory of the business enterprise in space. It makes…

Abstract

This chapter argues that international business has much to contribute to intranational business in helping develop a theory of the business enterprise in space. It makes its arguments by articulating four propositions about international business that appear to carry over directly to intranational business. According to the first three propositions, business activities of multiple types are dampened by borders and those that do cross them typically diminish with geographic as well as other types of distance. The fourth proposition supplements these general discussions of the landscape of business with a focus on a specific business application: it works through the case of business strategy by discussing how insights from the international domain can be applied to the intranational domain in that field of business.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Hong Jiang, Wentao Liu, Shukuan Zhao and Yong Chen

With the development and innovation of IoT technologies, both domestic and international people in the industry believe the development of IoT are the new points of…

Abstract

Purpose

With the development and innovation of IoT technologies, both domestic and international people in the industry believe the development of IoT are the new points of technological innovation and economic growth. But it is becoming more and more prominent that the industries are difficult to connect and the IoT technologies are not standardized. The purpose of this paper is to promote the further development of IoT technology and industry, technology standardization of IoT has become the focus of all concerned parties. Technology standardization, as a technological innovation and development process of the “pruning shears,” has been embedded into the various aspects of innovation activities.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on many previous theories, the authors establish a matrix of the patterns of technology standardization. The authors use the relative state of the highest level of technology of the enterprise and The degree of independent technological innovation as the two dimensions of the model. At the same time, the authors divide the competitive behaviors into two categories and match them with the technology standardization model.

Findings

The authors explain the short-term competitive behaviors in the same enterprise and among different enterprises by using the theories of mutualism and competition among species in biology, and make an analogy between the phenomenon of base pairing in DNA double helix structure and the corresponding relationship of two kinds of innovation abilities and two kinds of competitive behaviors in the process of technology standardization.

Originality/value

Combined with previous theories, explain that innovation capability plays a mediating role in the process in which the combinations of the patterns of technology standardization and competitive behaviors are transformed into the enterprise innovation performance, and the uncertainty of external environment play a regulatory role in the process. Finally, the authors established the final conceptual model for providing theoretical basis for the later research, and put forward the conclusions and prospect at the end of the paper.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Marie‐Claude Boudreau and Richard T. Watson

Because the web can be an influential medium for attracting and retaining customers, it is critical to examine the connection between web advertising and corporate…

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8506

Abstract

Purpose

Because the web can be an influential medium for attracting and retaining customers, it is critical to examine the connection between web advertising and corporate strategy. This is particularly true for multinational organizations, which face the most complex organizational environment. The purpose of this paper is to propose that multinational organizations should be concerned with alignment of their strategy and web image because of the size and geographic spread of their operations.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper reviews the fundamental global strategies that corporations can pursue (e.g. integration, transnational, national responsiveness) and then empirically examine the relationship between corporate global strategy and web advertising strategy for 20 multinational organizations.

Findings

The results show that misalignment between corporate global strategy and web advertising strategy is reasonably common. For two thirds of the companies in our sample, there was imperfect alignment.

Originality/value

The paper suggests three reasons why this can be, and offer a tool that enables organizations to recognize how they should handle design and content matters for the combination of corporate and national web sites.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Haijie Yu, Haijun Wei, Daping Zhou, Jingming Li and Hong Liu

This study aims to reconstruct the frictional vibration signal from noise and characterize the running-in process by frictional vibration.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to reconstruct the frictional vibration signal from noise and characterize the running-in process by frictional vibration.

Design/methodology/approach

There is a strong correlation between tangential frictional vibration and normal frictional vibration. On this basis, a new frictional vibration reconstruction method combining cross-correlation analysis with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was proposed. Moreover, the concept of information entropy of friction vibration is introduced to characterize the running-in process.

Findings

Compared with the wavelet packet method, the tangential friction vibration and the normal friction vibration reconstructed by the method presented in this paper have a stronger correlation. More importantly, during the running-in process, the information entropy of friction vibration gradually decreases until the equilibrium point is reached, which is the same as the changing trend of friction coefficient, indicating that the information entropy of friction vibration can be used to characterize the running-in process.

Practical implications

The study reveals that the application EEMD method is an appropriate approach to reconstruct frictional vibration and the information entropy of friction vibration represents the running-in process. Based on these results, a condition monitoring system can be established to automatically evaluate the running-in state of mechanical parts.

Originality/value

The EEMD method was applied to reconstruct the frictional vibration. Furthermore, the information entropy of friction vibration was used to analysis the running-in process.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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