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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Xiaoyun Wu and Cynthia Lum

Empirical research suggests that traffic enforcement is the most common type of proactive activity police officers engage in on a daily basis. Further, agencies often use…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical research suggests that traffic enforcement is the most common type of proactive activity police officers engage in on a daily basis. Further, agencies often use traffic enforcement to achieve both traffic safety and crime control. Given these goals, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether (and to what extent) officers are accurately targeting their proactive traffic enforcement with crime and vehicle crashes in two agencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines traffic enforcement patterns in two agencies to see whether proactive traffic enforcement aligns spatially with crime and vehicle crashes. This study employs negative binomial regression models with clustered standard errors to investigate this alignment at the micro-spatial level. Key variables of interest are measured with police calls for service data, traffic citation data and vehicle crash data from two law enforcement jurisdictions.

Findings

High levels of spatial association are observed between traffic accidents and crime in both agencies, lending empirical support to the underlying theories of traffic enforcement programs that also try to reduce crime (i.e. “DDACTS”). In both agencies, traffic accidents also appear to be the most prominent predictor of police proactive traffic enforcement activities, even across different times of day. However, when vehicle crashes are accounted for, the association between crime and traffic stops is weaker, even during times of day when agencies believe they are using proactive traffic enforcement as a crime deterrent.

Originality/value

No prior study to authors knowledge has examined the empirical association between police proactive traffic activities and crime and traffic accidents in practice. The current study seeks to fill that void by investigating the realities of traffic stops as practiced daily by police officers, and their alignment with crime and vehicle crashes. Such empirical inquiry is especially important given the prevalent use of traffic enforcement as a common proactive policing tool by police agencies to control both traffic and crime problems.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2020

Christopher S. Koper, Cynthia Lum, Xiaoyun Wu and Noah Fritz

To measure the practice and management of proactive policing in local American police agencies and assess them in comparison to recommendations of the National Academies…

Abstract

Purpose

To measure the practice and management of proactive policing in local American police agencies and assess them in comparison to recommendations of the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) Committee on Proactive Policing.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted with a national sample of American police agencies having 100 or more sworn officers to obtain detailed information about the types of proactive work that officers engage in, to quantify their proactive work and to understand how the agencies measure and manage those activities. Responding agencies (n = 180) were geographically diverse and served populations of approximately half a million persons on average.

Findings

Proactivity as practiced is much more limited in scope than what the NAS envisions. Most agencies track only a few forms of proactivity and cannot readily estimate how much uncommitted time officers have available for proactive work. Measured proactivity is mostly limited to traffic stops, business and property checks and some form of directed or general preventive patrol. Many agencies have no formal policy in place to define or guide proactive activities, nor do they evaluate officer performance on proactivity with a detailed and deliberate rubric.

Originality/value

This is the first national survey that attempts to quantify proactive policing as practiced broadly in the United States. It provides context to the NAS recommendations and provides knowledge about the gap between practice and those recommendations.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Lishan Xie, Xiaoyun Han and Hui Fu

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Changsong Niu

The purpose of this paper is to examine China-Africa educational cooperation under the framework of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) while illustrating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine China-Africa educational cooperation under the framework of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) while illustrating the modalities of Sino-Africa educational cooperation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on empirical and documentary analysis, the paper describes and explores the unique features of China-Africa educational cooperation.

Findings

In the past decades, China's expanding engagement with Africa in the field of international development assistance has attracted great attention and given rise to mixed reactions and arguments at the international level. China's cooperation with Africa has a long and notable history, dating back to the 1950s. China's cooperation with other developing countries is known as South-South development cooperation, based on principles of equality, mutual benefit, solidarity and no conditionality. With a thorough and critical analysis of the decision-making mechanism and the practices of China's educational cooperation with Africa, this paper puts forward some important issues regarding the perspective of sustainability and effectiveness in Chinese cooperative arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

The paper tries to explain the dynamic and the practices of China's education engagement with Africa and puts forward key challenges regarding its effectiveness toward new strategic partnerships. However, the answers to these questions require some innovative measures in the future practices of China-Africa educational cooperation.

Originality/value

The China-Africa education partnership is not a stand-alone sector, which can be better understood in the context of the historical development of China-Africa cooperation and under the framework of the FOCAC.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Qian Sun, Xiaoyun Li and Dil Bahadur Rahut

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across various urban environments of migrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the individual- and time-invariant fixed effects (two-way FE) model and five-year panel data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), this paper estimates a linear and nonlinear relationship between urbanicity and nutrition. The paper also explores the spatial heterogeneity between rural–urban migrants and rural–suburban migrants. Dietary diversity, total energy intake and the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat, respectively, are used to measure rural–urban migrants' nutrition on both quality and quantity aspects.

Findings

The study shows that rural–urban migrants have experienced access to more diverse, convenient and prepared foods, and the food variety consumed is positively associated with community urbanicity. Energy intake is positively and significantly affected by community urbanicity, and it also varies with per capita household income. The obvious inverse U-shaped relationship reveals that improving community urbanicity promotes an increase in the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat at a decreasing rate, until reaching the urbanicity index threshold of 66.69 and 54.26, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the nutritional status of rural–urban migrants, an important pillar for China's development, which is often neglected in the research. It examines the urbanicity and the nutrition of migrants in China, which provides a new perspective to understand the dietary and nutritional intake among migrants in the economic and social development. Moreover, the urbanicity index performs better at measuring urban feathers rather than the traditional rural/urban dichotomous classification.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2005

Zhiyi He and Xiaoyun Chen

This study investigates the structure of China’s market by examining the profiles of consumption values from a large scale national survey of 6250 respondents. The study…

Abstract

This study investigates the structure of China’s market by examining the profiles of consumption values from a large scale national survey of 6250 respondents. The study identifies four consumer segments that pursue distinct patterns of consumption values, including: purchase value, social status, performance and aesthetics, and “satisfi cing” needs. These distinct consumption value profiles help to provide a much needed understanding of China’s consumer market that complements existing studies on sociodemographic characteristics. These four distinct segments provide useful positioning and marketing implications for multinational firms operating in the China market.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Yong Qian, Hongying Gong, Xiaoyun Zhao, Lei Cao, Weizhong Shi and Jianli He

The purpose of this study is to corroborate the advanced tribological properties of graphene as a lubricant additive.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to corroborate the advanced tribological properties of graphene as a lubricant additive.

Design/methodology/approach

Different concentrations of functionalized graphene were coated on the substrate surface. Tribological properties of the graphene lubricants were carried out by ball-on-disk tribology tests. Wear mechanism of functionalized graphene was studied by observing wear scars on the substrate surface. Finally, the wear resistance of modified graphene was calculated by calculating and analyzing the applied experimental conditions and the obtained experimental data.

Findings

The best concentration of graphene lubricant is 0.5 wt.% which shows the best tribological performance. And the coefficient of friction is 0.08. Compared with the dry friction condition, the coefficient of friction and wear rate of best graphene lubricant decreased by 80% and 82%.

Originality/value

The formula of graphene lubricant is independently developed and works very well. Graphene lubricant can prevent the substrate from oxidation. The thickness of the graphene lubricant is about 4-7µm. The concept of anti-wear strength was introduced in this paper. When 0.5 Vol.% graphene was added, the anti-wear strength was greatly improved from 115.3 kg·mm-2 to 657.6 kg·mm-2.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-08-2019-0344

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Lu Zhang, Wan Yang and Xiaoyun Zheng

The purpose of this study is to understand the joint effects of individuals’ need for status and processing fluency on customer attitudes toward hotels’ participation in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the joint effects of individuals’ need for status and processing fluency on customer attitudes toward hotels’ participation in corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a 2 (Need for status: high vs low) × 2 (Processing fluency: high vs low) experimental design with processing fluency being manipulated and individuals’ need for status being measured.

Findings

The results indicate that although high-need for status customers exhibit a more positive attitude than low-need for status customers when the CSR message is easy to process, they show similar attitude levels when processing fluency is relatively low.

Originality/value

This study makes great contribution to the literature of status consumption by examining CSR as one of the new areas that consumers use to signal social status beyond luxury products. For practitioners, the results of this study offer suggestions on how to design CSR messages to increase its effectiveness.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Xiaoyun Ye and Myung-Mook Han

By using a new feature extraction method on the Cert data set and using a hidden Markov model (HMM) to model and analyze the behavior of users to distinguish whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

By using a new feature extraction method on the Cert data set and using a hidden Markov model (HMM) to model and analyze the behavior of users to distinguish whether the behavior is normal within a continuous period.

Design/methodology/approach

Feature extraction of five parts of the time series by rules and sorting in chronological order. Use the obtained features to calculate the probability parameters required by the HMM model and establish a behavior model for each user. When the user has abnormal behavior, the model will return a very low probability value to distinguish between normal and abnormal information.

Findings

Generally, HMM parameters are obtained by supervised learning and unsupervised learning, but the hidden state cannot be clearly defined. When the hidden state is determined according to the data set, the accuracy of the model will be improved.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new feature extraction method and analysis mode, which determines the shape of the hidden state according to the situation of the data set, making subsequent HMM modeling simple and efficient and in turn improving the accuracy of user behavior detection.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Corporate Fraud Exposed
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-418-8

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