This paper aims to introduce the weighted squared Euclidean distance between points in signal space, to improve the performance of the Wi-Fi indoor positioning. Nowadays…
This paper aims to introduce the weighted squared Euclidean distance between points in signal space, to improve the performance of the Wi-Fi indoor positioning. Nowadays, the received signal strength-based Wi-Fi indoor positioning, a low-cost indoor positioning approach, has attracted a significant attention from both academia and industry.
The local principal gradient direction is introduced and used to define the weighting function and an average algorithm based on k-means algorithm is used to estimate the local principal gradient direction of each access point. Then, correlation distance is used in the new method to find the k nearest calibration points. The weighted squared Euclidean distance between the nearest calibration point and target point is calculated and used to estimate the position of target point.
Experiments are conducted and the results indicate that the proposed Wi-Fi indoor positioning approach considerably outperforms the weighted k nearest neighbor method. The new method also outperforms support vector regression and extreme learning machine algorithms in the absence of sufficient fingerprints.
Weighted k nearest neighbor approach, support vector regression algorithm and extreme learning machine algorithm are the three classic strategies for location determination using Wi-Fi fingerprinting. However, weighted k nearest neighbor suffers from dramatic performance degradation in the presence of multipath signal attenuation and environmental changes. More fingerprints are required for support vector regression algorithm to ensure the desirable performance; and labeling Wi-Fi fingerprints is labor-intensive. The performance of extreme learning machine algorithm may not be stable.
The new weighted squared Euclidean distance-based Wi-Fi indoor positioning strategy can improve the performance of Wi-Fi indoor positioning system.
The received signal strength-based effective Wi-Fi indoor positioning system can substitute for global positioning system that does not work indoors. This effective and low-cost positioning approach would be promising for many indoor-based location services.
A novel Wi-Fi indoor positioning strategy based on the weighted squared Euclidean distance is proposed in this paper to improve the performance of the Wi-Fi indoor positioning, and the local principal gradient direction is introduced and used to define the weighting function.
This paper assesses to what extent the workplace union power has been built under the Professional Union Leader and Organizer Program (PULOP) in China in the local…
This paper assesses to what extent the workplace union power has been built under the Professional Union Leader and Organizer Program (PULOP) in China in the local community-based private workplaces. Data obtained from in-depth interviews with union leaders, rank-and-file members, and data from documentary sources are deployed. Findings show that, for the purpose of stabilizing labor-management relations in these community-based workplaces, the PULOP attempts to reinforce implementation of existing labor law and regulations regarding wages and working conditions by organizing community-based private employers. However, without workers’ support from the bottom up, the power of the newly established workplace union associations are rather precarious. The PULOP union leaders are still distant to the organized workplaces and to the workers at these workplaces; and the organized employers are still reluctant or even hostile towards PULOP activities. The paper, therefore, concludes by drawing out the implications of the finding that, without genuine worker participation in union formation and operation processes, the administrative power held by the union bureaucracies cannot be effectively translated into workplace union power via the PULOP initiative.