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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Lei Zhu, Orhan Kara and Xiaowei Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to compare women entrepreneurship in China and Vietnam by examining the motivations, success factors and problems related to establishing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare women entrepreneurship in China and Vietnam by examining the motivations, success factors and problems related to establishing women-owned businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample in this study consisted of 170 women entrepreneurs in Vietnam and 180 women entrepreneurs in China. The authors used the survey instrument developed by H.M. Chu (Chu and Katsioloudes 2001), which has been adopted in a number of small business studies since 2002. To determine whether there is a significant difference between the two countries regarding each factor of motivations, success factors and problems, the authors use the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

Findings

Women entrepreneurs are motived to earn more income in both China and Vietnam. Vietnamese businesswomen value intrinsic rewards such as gaining personal satisfaction and freedom. They also take business ownership as a way to reduce work–family conflict. Demonstrating the ability and gaining public recognition play a more important role when Chinese women entrepreneurs decide to establish their businesses. Both Chinese and Vietnamese women agree that good management skills are essential to achieve their goals. Women entrepreneurs in both countries share similar challenges, such as the inability to recruit and retain employees, severe competition, a weak economy and limited access to financial capital.

Practical implications

Given the nature of transitional economies in both countries, the government is required to improve the regulatory environment for protecting private sector employment and private property rights. Policies such as subsidies and tax incentives may assist the development of women enterprises. To support the sustainable growth of women businesses, it is suggested that the government should design effective programs that direct women entrepreneurs to move into high-growth or high-technology sectors. Training programs are also required to improve the knowledge and skills of women entrepreneurs. Making capital accessible to women is also important to stimulate entrepreneurial growth. As a further stimulus, governments should coordinate with financial institutions to provide low-cost loans or even venture capital to facilitate this process.

Originality/value

This study is among one of the first attempts to compare women entrepreneurship in the two transitional economies of Vietnam and China. It provides insight into motivations, success factors and problems that women entrepreneurs experienced by examining small business owners in Vietnam and China.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Xiaowei Zhu, Yanqiu Chen, Yu Liu, Yongqiang Deng, Changyu Tang, Weilian Gao, Jun Mei, Junhua Zhao, Tong Liu and Jian Yang

The purpose of this paper is to provide additive manufacturing-based solutions for preparation of elastomeric foam with broaden compressive stress plateau.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide additive manufacturing-based solutions for preparation of elastomeric foam with broaden compressive stress plateau.

Design/methodology/approach

Mechanic models are developed for obtaining designs of foam cell units with enhanced elastic buckling. An experimental approach is taken to fabricate the foams based on direct ink writing technique. Experimental and simulation data are collected to assist understanding of our proposals and solutions.

Findings

A simple tetragonal structured elastomeric foam is proposed and fabricated by direct ink writing, in which its cell unit is theoretically designed by repeating every four filament layers. The foam exhibits a broader stress plateau, because of the pronounced elastic buckling under compressive loading as predicted by the authors’ mechanic modeling. A two-stage stress plateaus as observed in the foam, being attributed to the dual elastic buckling of the cell units along two lateral directions of the XY plane during compression.

Research limitations/implications

Future work should incorporate more microscopic parameters to tune the elastomeric foam for mechanic performance testing on linear elastic deformation and densification of polymer matrix.

Practical implications

Additive manufacturing offers an alternative to fabricate elastomeric foam with controlled cell unit design and therefore mechanics. Our results comment on its broad space for development such superior cushioning or damping material in the fields of vibration and energy absorption.

Originality/value

This work has contributed to new knowledge on preparation of high performance elastomeric foam by providing a better understanding on its cell structure, being printed using direct ink writing machines.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Xingxing Zu, Huaming Zhou, Xiaowei Zhu and Dongqing Yao

The purpose of this study is to investigate the underlying characteristics that influence quality management implementation at manufacturing companies operating in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the underlying characteristics that influence quality management implementation at manufacturing companies operating in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this study were based on 199 manufacturing companies collected from a cross‐sectional survey in China. The cultural profiles of these companies were identified through cluster analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to identify the effects of operating characteristics and cultural profile on the implementation level of quality management practices.

Findings

The results show that in general, there is no significant difference in implementing quality management practices among companies of different operating characteristics in terms of company size, industry, ownership, and production process. This study reveals that cultural profile is a distinguishing factor to explain the difference in quality management implementation among the companies.

Originality/value

As China is becoming an important supplier of products to the global market, it is necessary to understand how product quality is controlled and managed in China. This study examines the effects of operating and cultural characteristics of companies in China on their implementation of quality management practices. The results contribute to a deeper understanding of how to build an effective quality system at companies in China.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Hung M. Chu, Orhan Kara, Xiaowei Zhu and Kubilay Gok

This article aims to investigate motivations, success factors, problems, and business‐related stress of entrepreneurs in small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises and relates…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to investigate motivations, success factors, problems, and business‐related stress of entrepreneurs in small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises and relates them to the success of the Chinese entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 196 entrepreneurs in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou were randomly selected for a survey, which was analyzed to determine motivations, success factors, problems, and business‐related stress by gender. Ordered logit models were applied to motivation and success factors.

Findings

Results showed that 68 percent were male and 32 percent female. The average age of the entrepreneurs was about 32 years old and time devoted to their business was almost 45 hours per week. Of the total respondents, 56 percent were married and 44 percent single. When asked to indicate their motives for business ownership, these entrepreneurs suggested that increasing income, becoming their own boss, and to prove that they can succeed were the most important reasons. Reputation for honesty, providing good customer services, and having good management skills were reported to be necessary conditions for business success. Friendliness to customers and hard work were also critical for high‐performance enterprises. Among the problems encountered by entrepreneurs, unreliable/undependable employees were the most critical. Intense competition and lack of management training also proved to be great challenges for Chinese entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

Policy makers can strengthen its small business entrepreneurs by promoting the factors that lead to entrepreneurs' success, such as the ability to manage personnel and management skills through business outreach services provided by universities, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations. In addition, the government has the ability to simplify the tax system, and reduce payroll taxes. Technical assistance in areas such as market research, human resources management, and technological support should be provided to small business owners.

Originality/value

This study applied to Chinese entrepreneurs in addition to an extensive analysis of the factors that affect motivations, success, problems, and business stress.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Hung M. Chu

Abstract

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Wenjing Zhu, Dexin Zhang, Jihe Wang and Xiaowei Shao

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel high-precision relative navigation method for tight formation-keeping based on thrust on-line identification.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel high-precision relative navigation method for tight formation-keeping based on thrust on-line identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering that thrust acceleration cannot be measured directly, an on-line identification method of thrust acceleration is explored via the estimated acceleration of major space perturbation and the inter-satellite relative states obtained from space-borne acceleration sensors; then, an effective identification model is designed to reconstruct thrust acceleration. Based on the identified thrust acceleration, relative orbit dynamics for tight formation-keeping is established. Further, using global positioning system (GPS) measurement information, a modified extended Kalman filter (EKF) is suggested to obtain the inter-satellite relative position and relative velocity.

Findings

Compared with the normal EKF and the adaptive robust EKF, the proposed modified EKF has better estimation accuracy in radial and along-track directions because of accurate compensation of thrust acceleration. Meanwhile, high-precision relative navigation results depend on high-precision acceleration sensors. Finally, simulation studies on a chief-deputy formation flying control system are performed to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed relative navigation algorithm.

Social implications

This paper provides a reference in solving the problem of high-precision relative navigation in tight formation-keeping application.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a novel on-line identification method for thrust acceleration and shows that thrust identification-based modified EKF is more efficient in relative navigation for tight formation-keeping.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Shuqing Li, Li Ding, Xiaowei Ding, Huan Hu and Yu Zhang

With the continuous change of research contents and methods of intelligence science, its integration with other disciplines is also deepening. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

With the continuous change of research contents and methods of intelligence science, its integration with other disciplines is also deepening. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the interdisciplinary research characteristics of intelligence science in theoretical depth and application value.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper summarizes and explores in two aspects. The first is a large number of literature review, mainly combined with the historical characteristics of the development of intelligence science researches in China and international comparison. The second is to refine the discipline construction ideas suitable for the development of contemporary intelligence science.

Findings

From the perspective of the historical development of discipline relevance, the development characteristics and positioning of intelligence science in China are introduced, with the comparison of many disciplines including information technology, library science, information science, data science, management science and other disciplines. In order to better meet the practical needs of intelligence service in the new era, this paper mainly analyzes the construction method of intelligence science research system and the relocation of intelligence science research content.

Originality/value

This paper summarizes the historical characteristics and international comparison of the development of intelligence science in China. It proposes the development characteristics and orientation of intelligence science in China from the perspective of historical development of discipline relevance. It also proposes the discipline construction ideas suitable for the development of contemporary intelligence science.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2019

Kun Zhang, Yicheng Fan, Xiaowei Luo, Xiaolang Chen, Chaolei Ban, Heming Zhao and Yiqing Chen

12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel is commonly used to make hot-wall hydrogenation reactors given its excellent mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) resistance. Longtime…

Abstract

Purpose

12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel is commonly used to make hot-wall hydrogenation reactors given its excellent mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) resistance. Longtime exposure to high-pressure hydrogen at medium temperature would still severely damage the mechanical properties of the Cr-Mo steel with surface HICs caused by hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen uptake. The mechanisms of HE remain controversial and have not been fully understood so far.

Design/methodology/approach

The HE of the steel was investigated by slow strain rate test at different strain rates with in situ hydrogen charging. The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the steel is measured by electrochemical technology of hydrogen permeation. HIC cracks of the fractured specimens were captured with field emission SEM equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction system.

Findings

Results showed that the hydrogen led to the plasticity of the samples reduced significantly, together with the distinct work hardening behavior induced by hydrogen charging during plastic flow stage. The fracture of in situ charged sample changes from quasi-cleavage to intergranular fracture with the decreasing of strain rates, which indicates that the steel become more susceptible to hydrogen. High densities of dislocations and deformation are found around the crack, where grains are highly sensitive to HIC. Grains with different Taylor factor are more susceptible to intergranular crack.

Originality/value

The results of the study would be helpful to a safer application of the steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Linhai Wu, Guangqian Qiu, Jiao Lu, Minghua Zhang and Xiaowei Wen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the responsibility that should be taken by different pork supply chain participants to ensure pork quality and safety, with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the responsibility that should be taken by different pork supply chain participants to ensure pork quality and safety, with the aim of providing some guidance for strengthening the supervision of pork quality and safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The pig farmer survey and the pork consumer survey were conducted in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, using the best-worst scaling (BWS) and a mixed logit model.

Findings

The results showed that the designation of responsibility for ensuring pork quality and safety was of, in descending order, feed producers and suppliers, backyard farmers and farms of designated size, pork processing workshops and companies of and above designated size, slaughterhouses, supermarkets, farmer’s markets, pig transporters, and consumers. Both pig farmers and pork consumers believed that those involved in the initial pork supply chain should take greater responsibility for pork quality and safety.

Originality/value

Allocation of responsibilities across the entire pork industry chain was investigated from the perspective of pig farmers and pork consumers using the BWS and a mixed logit model. The results of this study might explain the unique problems that occur in pork supply chain management in large developing countries like China.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Feifei Wang, Tina J. Jayroe, Junping Qiu and Houqiang Yu

The purpose of this paper is to further explore the co-citation and bibliographic-coupling relationship among the core authors in the field of Chinese information science…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further explore the co-citation and bibliographic-coupling relationship among the core authors in the field of Chinese information science (IS), to expose research activity and author impact, and to make induction analyses about Chinese IS research patterns and theme evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

The research data include 8,567 papers and 70,947 cited articles in the IS field indexed by Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index from 2000 to 2009. Author co-citation analysis, author bibliographic-coupling analysis, social network analysis, and factor analysis were combined to explore co-citation and bibliographic-coupling relationships and to identify research groups and subjects.

Findings

Scholars with greatest impact are different from the most active scholars of Chinese IS; there is no uniform impact pattern forming since authors’ impact subjects are scattered and not steady; while authors’ research activities present higher independence and concentration, there is still no steady research pattern due to no deep research existing. Furthermore, Chinese IS studies can be delineated by: foundation or extension. The research subjects of these two parts, as well as their corresponding/contributing authors, are different under different views. The general research status of core authors is concentrated, while their impact is broad.

Originality/value

The combined use of some related methods could enrich the development and methodology research of the discipline, and the results establish a reference point on the development of IS research.

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