This study aims to design an optimized algorithm for low-cost pedestrian navigation system (PNS) to correct the heading drift and altitude error, thus achieving…
This study aims to design an optimized algorithm for low-cost pedestrian navigation system (PNS) to correct the heading drift and altitude error, thus achieving high-precise pedestrian location in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) space.
A novel heading correction algorithm based on smoothing filter at the terminal of zero velocity interval (ZVI) is proposed in the paper. This algorithm adopts the magnetic sensor to calculate all the heading angles in the ZVI and then applies a smoothing filter to obtain the optimal heading angle. Furthermore, heading correction is executed at the terminal moment of ZVI. Meanwhile, an altitude correction algorithm based on step height constraint is proposed to suppress the altitude channel divergence of strapdown inertial navigation system by using the step height as the measurement of the Kalman filter.
The verification experiments were carried out in 2-D and 3-D space to evaluate the performance of the proposed pedestrian navigation algorithm. The results show that the heading drift and altitude error were well corrected. Meanwhile, the path calculated by the novel algorithm has a higher match degree with the reference trajectory, and the positioning errors of the 2-D and 3-D trajectories are both less than 0.5 per cent.
Besides zero velocity update, another two problems, namely, heading drift and altitude error in the PNS, are solved, which ensures the high positioning precision of pedestrian in indoor and outdoor environments.
This paper aims to explore the developing trend of higher pedagogy, to promote the research of higher pedagogy to be more canonical and scientific and to improve the higher education theory.
The utility research uses a method of quantitative study, namely “content analysis”, to estimate and analyze the higher education theory literature on ten dimensionalities which include theme, author, abstract, keywords, subject, proposing of the issue, definition of key terms, research methods, conclusion, reference and annotations from 1996 to 2006 in China.
The analysis of the selected 250 academic theses and reports in the field of higher education shows that academic research and theoretical standard have been improved, meanwhile academic criterion have been formed by degrees in higher pedagogy within ten years. At the same time, there are still some problems in the papers and reports the authors have selected such as title, key words, proposing of the issue, researching method and conclusion.
This paper sums up the trend of research on higher education in China for the past ten years, and points out the problems in this trend and then proposes ways to improve the research of higher education in China.