To date, little research has been focused on the nature and dynamics of female entrepreneurial networking activity. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine how…
To date, little research has been focused on the nature and dynamics of female entrepreneurial networking activity. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine how gender and culture affect business creation, how women perceive social capital, and how important their personal networks are for their businesses, especially in the context of patriarchal societies.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women entrepreneurs living and operating businesses in Turkey and in four countries of the Middle East and North African region, namely, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Egypt.
The results indicate that being a woman entrepreneur in a highly patriarchal society limits entrepreneurial activities due to culture and social norms. However, networking appears as the key factor for these women entrepreneurs to overcome the barriers that they face, such as access to capital, financial information, resources, and new business opportunities.
This study has limitations that tend to be commonly found in exploratory studies, so you cannot make generalizations. However, the findings lay the groundwork for future studies to examine the role of networking activity in female entrepreneurship in the context of patriarchal societies.
The findings are helpful for policymakers and other social groups interested in improving the conditions for female entrepreneurship. Governments and other economic actors need to provide training in both management and networking skills, encourage local businesses and associations to provide their venues for networking opportunities, and also provide support to women business organizations.
Women’s entrepreneurship is growing, but still there is a scarcity of scholarly literature on the women entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial activity.
This research provides empirical evidence of the nature and dynamics of female entrepreneurial networking activity in the context of patriarchal societies.
The paper aims to answer the question of what the new role of government in advanced democracies for the twenty‐first century should be and what institutional and…
The paper aims to answer the question of what the new role of government in advanced democracies for the twenty‐first century should be and what institutional and organizational capabilities are required for that role to face the challenges of globalization and the crisis of the welfare state.
The literature on public management reform and modernization initiatives in developed countries over the last two decades, along with the growing body of literature on public governance, provide the reference framework from which the contents of the relational state are formulated.
The relational state seeks to achieve the greatest possible synergy between the resources, knowledge and capacities of the public sector and those of civil society and business organizations. It does so by its ability to articulate social interrelationships and the intangible aspects involved (by using competitive or cooperative arrangements to incorporate civil society and business organizations in particular policy fields, raising society's awareness of its own responsibility, promoting social self‐regulation, acting as intermediary between different social actors, providing strategic direction, etc.). Hence, the relational nature of its activities becomes the core attribute of the process of public value creation.
The relational state locates the relations between the state, the market and civil society in the field of co‐responsibility, which is a crucial but missing feature in the neo‐liberal state and the welfare state models. The paper analyses emerging forms of the relational state and highlights the challenges that confront its adoption.
The starting point of this paper is the traditional view of stakeholders (encompassing the binomial affecting – affected by the company), and identifies the analytical…
The starting point of this paper is the traditional view of stakeholders (encompassing the binomial affecting – affected by the company), and identifies the analytical, managerial and normative dimensions implicit in this view. It goes on to suggest that all stakeholder approaches should make explicit their models, what we call a company model, a management model, a description model, a values clarification model and a legitimacy model. The next issue raised is how far most stakeholder approaches are constructed from a view of the corporation focused inwards, at the center of a universe with stakeholders revolving round it. The complexity of contemporary society (the network society) may require us to learn how to interpret the company’s economic and social relationships system, so that thinking about the company means thinking about it both within and without the network. This is why we propose the term relational corporation, to refer to a corporation that changes its approach to links with its stakeholders, moving from managing relationships to building relationships.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy orientations in the Euopean Union (EU) by focusing on the specific case of the…
The aim of this paper is to investigate the corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy orientations in the Euopean Union (EU) by focusing on the specific case of the French legislation on compulsory sustainability reporting for publicly‐listed companies.
The approach is mostly exploratory and based on secondary literature review as well as empirical classroom work on reporting.
This exploratory paper provides findings about the relevance of the French law, thus highlighting some critical aspects of sustainability reporting practices. It also raises the broader issue of the consistency of the European CSR approach.
This research needs to be completed by field studies on sustainability reporting practices both in France and in all EU members.
This paper may help firms improve their sustainability reporting practices.
There have been hardly any papers on the impact of the French NRE law so far. Another original feature is the issue raised about the somewhat unclear links between environmental legislation and CSR policy in the EU. The paper provides a case for regulation in CSR, showing the possible positive impacts on corporate behavior.
Management of technology, technological innovation, business innovation and new product development, innovation, design and strategy, entrepreneurship innovation and…
Management of technology, technological innovation, business innovation and new product development, innovation, design and strategy, entrepreneurship innovation and leadership strategic planning of technological innovation.
KidZania® is a Mexican company of family entertainment centers, founded in 1996 by Luis Javier Laresgoiti Fernández and fully developed by Xavier López Ancona. An innovative concept inspired in a fusion of nursery and theme park, KidZania®, brings together strong brands as partners to support their own and offer a complete entertainment and educational experience to kids between two and 16 years old. A unique business model, involvement of experts and a committed board of directors has been the key to the innovation of KidZania®. Its managers, by 2011, operate eight centers – two in Mexico, two in Japan and the rest in Indonesia, Portugal, United Arab Emirates and South Korea – and have plans to expand to more countries in Asia, Latin America and Europe in 2011 and finally to the USA. The future of KidZania® seemed bright, and the manager of the company believed that the growth appeared unstoppable because the purpose was to grow on 100 percent. The strategy appeared clear: dominate in the emerging and consolidated markets (big cities) in order to strengthen its competitive position and then, enter the US market with all the muscle and take the lead in the biggest market. But what was the competition going to do about it? What will the moves be for big players like Walt Disney – which had revenues of US$38.06 billion (USSEC, 2010), for example? Will the competitors try to buy the new entrant in order to build it up or to disappear it? Or will they try to imitate KidZania®? What would be the future of this new edutainment business model?
Expected learning outcomes
This case has been used in executive and MBA courses in creating and sustaining innovation, recognizing disruptive technologies, and in identifying effective methods of marketing a new innovative business model. Instructors can use the case to achieve the following two learning objectives: the KidZania® case helps students to refine their understanding of the model of disruption. They are forced to look closely at the product/service and decide whether it is a disruptive innovation or a sustaining innovation. This close examination becomes a helpful tool as students think about what decisions they would make to secure the success of the KidZania® in the entertainment market. The KidZania® case allows students the opportunity to develop their knowledge and understanding of the model “skating to where the money is”. Based on their analysis of the company and product students, must decide whether the KidZania® is a business that will produce sustained revenue and is worth investing in.
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Matt Bloom, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Management Department at the Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University. Before receiving his doctorate he worked as paramedic, psychiatric technician, and then as a consultant for Arthur Young & Company and American Express. Matt's current research interests center on well-being at work and include exploring topics such as what work is like when people experience it as a calling and what conditions help people to be at their cognitive and emotional best at work. He is currently undertaking a program of research to study well-being among people in the caring professions.
The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature on marketing in social enterprises (SEs). It identifies major trends and issues and highlights gaps in the…
The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature on marketing in social enterprises (SEs). It identifies major trends and issues and highlights gaps in the existing knowledge base on social enterprise marketing (SEM).
Relevant articles on SEM were searched, following the PRISMA framework, in online databases using keywords and phrases like “marketing in social enterprises,” “marketing strategy/practice in social enterprises,” “social enterprise marketing” and “business practices in social enterprises.” After screening and checking for eligibility, 47 significant articles published in 21 peer-reviewed journals during 1995–2018 were selected for review.
The findings suggest that marketing in SEs has different issues and challenges when compared to marketing practices adopted by conventional business organizations. They are forced to address the varied expectations of the stakeholders in a resource-constrained situation, which creates problems for them. The review also highlights the fact that resource constraints, legacy mindset, and lack of marketing skills limit the impact of marketing practices in SEs. To address these issues, many social entrepreneurs survive through cost-effective marketing techniques.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first effort to identify and analyze extant literature in SEM. The resultant themes and research gaps highlight the current status of SEM literature. The paper can help SEs to understand and plan their marketing activities for better impact and profitability. Future research can draw on the findings of this review.