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Article

Benfu Wang, Decai Ren, Qian Zhang, Xuduo Bai and Xiankai Jiang

This paper aims to investigate the electrochromic (EC) properties of poly(triphenylamine alkyl ether) and poly(triphenylamine aryl ether) in two different electrolyte…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the electrochromic (EC) properties of poly(triphenylamine alkyl ether) and poly(triphenylamine aryl ether) in two different electrolyte solution to study the resistive switching behaviour of acid-doped poly(triphenylamine alkyl ether).

Design/methodology_appach

By Buchwald–Hartwig coupling reaction, two novel poly[N-p-phenoxy-N-[4-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]triphenylamineandpoly[N,N-bis(4-phenoxy)]triphenylamine were synthesized from 4-phenoxyaniline and two dibromo aromatic compounds, 1,2-bis[β,β′-(p-bromophenoxy)ethoxy]ethane and bis(4-bromophenyl) ether.

Findings

Poly(triphenylamine alkyl ether) displayed excellent EC characteristics, with a coloration change from a colourless neutral state to light blue and red oxidized states, while poly(triphenylamine aryl ether) showed coloration a change from a colourless neutral state to light blue oxidized state in tetrabutylammonium perchlorate electrolyte solution. Moreover, p-toluenesulfonic acid-doped poly(triphenylamine alkyl ether) exhibited a non-volatile bistable resistive switching behaviour with a high high-conductivity/low-conductivity ratio of up to 104, long retention time exceeding 2.5 × 103 s and the switching threshold voltage was also lower than −2V.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the non-volatile bistable resistive switching behaviour of acid-dopedpoly(triphenylamine alkyl ether) was in accordance with the molar ratio of 1:1. The effects of different molar ratios remained to be studied.

Practical implications

Poly(triphenylamine ether)s may find optoelectronic applications as new EC and resistive switching materials.

Originality/value

The effects of alkyl and aryl ether structures in the main chain on the EC and resistive switching behaviour of triphenylamine unit have not yet been reported.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Content available
Article

Jing Bai, Le Fan, Shuyang Zhang, Zengcui Wang and Xiansheng Qin

Both geometric and non-geometric parameters have noticeable influence on the absolute positional accuracy of 6-dof articulated industrial robot. This paper aims to enhance…

Abstract

Purpose

Both geometric and non-geometric parameters have noticeable influence on the absolute positional accuracy of 6-dof articulated industrial robot. This paper aims to enhance it and improve the applicability in the field of flexible assembling processing and parts fabrication by developing a more practical parameter identification model.

Design/methodology/approach

The model is developed by considering both geometric parameters and joint stiffness; geometric parameters contain 27 parameters and the parallelism problem between axes 2 and 3 is involved by introducing a new parameter. The joint stiffness, as the non-geometric parameter considered in this paper, is considered by regarding the industrial robot as a rigid linkage and flexible joint model and adds six parameters. The model is formulated as the form of error via linearization.

Findings

The performance of the proposed model is validated by an experiment which is developed on KUKA KR500-3 robot. An experiment is implemented by measuring 20 positions in the work space of this robot, obtaining least-square solution of measured positions by the software MATLAB and comparing the result with the solution without considering joint stiffness. It illustrates that the identification model considering both joint stiffness and geometric parameters can modify the theoretical position of robots more accurately, where the error is within 0.5 mm in this case, and the volatility is also reduced.

Originality/value

A new parameter identification model is proposed and verified. According to the experimental result, the absolute positional accuracy can be remarkably enhanced and the stability of the results can be improved, which provide more accurate parameter identification for calibration and further application.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article

Gang Wang, Xiaohui Liu, Changhong Mi, Huijuan Fan, Bo Xu and Xuefeng Bai

The purpose of this study was to investigate the microstructural evolution and hydrolytic stability of poly(phenylborosiloxane) (PPhBS) to further use and develop the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the microstructural evolution and hydrolytic stability of poly(phenylborosiloxane) (PPhBS) to further use and develop the oligomers as heat-resistant modifiers.

Design/methodology/approach

PPhBS was synthesized by direct co-condensation of boric acid (BA) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS). The structural evolution of PPhBS at high temperature was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the change in the morphology of the PPhBS powder was examined to demonstrate the evolution of the chemical bonds, and the hydrolytic stability of PPhBS was investigated by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, measurement of the mass loss in water and FTIR spectroscopy.

Findings

The results revealed that a cross-linking network was gradually formed with increasing temperature through the condensation of the residual hydroxyl groups in PPhBS, and the Si-OH and B-OH bonds remained even at a high temperature of 450°C. Furthermore, heat treatment improved the hydrolytic stability of the oligomer. The hydrolysis of the B-O-B bonds in PPhBS was reversible, whereas the Si-O-Si and Si-O-B bonds were highly resistant to hydrolysis.

Practical implications

The prepared PPhBS can be used as a heat-resistant modifier in adhesives, sealants, coatings and composite matrices.

Originality/value

Investigation of the structural evolution of a polyborosiloxane at high temperature by DRIFTS is a novel approach that avoided interference from moisture in the air. The insoluble mass fraction and the FTIR spectrum of PPhBS washed with water were used to investigate the hydrolytic stability of PPhBS.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

H. Sun, L. Lin, X. Jiang and X. Bai

To develop a method based on urea/microwave treatment for improving the dyeability of the flax fibre.

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a method based on urea/microwave treatment for improving the dyeability of the flax fibre.

Design/methodology/approach

The treatment was carried out under a variety of conditions in terms of the power of the microwave, the time of microwave treatment and the use of urea in the treatment solution. The physical chemical properties of the treated flax fibres were characterised using a variety of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X‐ray diffractometry, spectrophotometric measurement and tensile measurement.

Findings

It was found that the treated flax fibres had significantly improved dyeability. The causes to the improvement of the dyeability of the flax fibre were found to be the increased absorption of dye on the fibre and the increased reaction probability between the dye and the fibre. The procedure for optimum modification appeared to be soaking the flax fabrics in 10 per cent urea solution; treating the fabrics with microwave at 350 W for 2.5 minutes; and treating the fabrics with microwave at 700 W for one minute.

Practical implications

The treatment method developed addressed a problem of great concern in textile coloration, i.e. poor dyeability of flax fibre. The method developed provided a practical and effective solution to such a problem.

Originality/value

The method of treatment of flax fibre, involving soaking in urea and baking in microwave, for the improvement of dyeability was novel. The method could be adapted for use in industrial scale flax dyeing with satisfactory levels of exhaustion and fixation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

C. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Bai, N. Huang and B. Wang

To evaluate the photoelectrochemical characteristics of polymer doped with CdSe and CdSe/TiO2 for improved photoelectric conversion efficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the photoelectrochemical characteristics of polymer doped with CdSe and CdSe/TiO2 for improved photoelectric conversion efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A method was set‐up to dope the nano‐CdSe with poly‐perylene‐tetracarboxylic imide (PPI) in the nano‐TiO2/ITO films, which were characterised by X‐ray diffraction; electrochemical analytical system; multifunctional grating spectrometer; digital photometer and ultrasonic cleanout instrument, etc.

Findings

The modification of PPI doped with CdSe and CdSe/TiO2 showed significant elevation of the monochromatic incident photo‐to‐electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the photoelectrode, which was about 3 per cent. The doping caused a tone up separate efficiency of charge, restraining the complex of electron‐cavity by doped nano‐CdSe. Therefore, the photocurrent of the TiO2 film doped with nano‐CdSe was about three times higher than that without.

Research limitations/implications

The mixed film could also be formed from conjugated polymer mixed with polymer and inorganic particle, based on polymer doped with CdSe and CdSe/TiO2. In addition, the monochromatic incident IPCE of the photoelectrode needs to be extensively studied.

Practical implications

The treatment method developed provided a practical and effective solution to increasing the ICPE.

Originality/value

The method for doping polymer with CdSe and CdSe/TiO2 was novel and could probably be adapted for the manufacture of solar cell.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Jing Xie, Shaoxian Bai and Chunhong Ma

The purpose of this paper is to improve opening performance of bi-directional rotation gas face seals by investigating the hydrodynamic effect of non-closed elliptical grooves.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve opening performance of bi-directional rotation gas face seals by investigating the hydrodynamic effect of non-closed elliptical grooves.

Design/methodology/approach

A model of non-closed elliptical groove bi-directional rotation gas face seal is developed. The distribution of lubricating film pressure is obtained by solving gas Reynolds equations with the finite difference method. The program iterates repeatedly until the convergence criterion on the opening force is satisfied, and the sealing performance is finally obtained.

Findings

Non-closed elliptical groove presents much stronger hydrodynamic effect than the closed groove because of drop of the gas resistance flowing into grooves. Besides, the non-closed elliptical groove presents significant hydrodynamic effect under bi-directional rotation conditions, and an increase of over 40 per cent is obtained for the opening force at seal pressure 4.5 MPa, as same level as the unidirectional spiral groove gas seal. In the case of bi-directional rotation, the value of the inclination angle is recommended to set as 90° presenting a structure symmetry so as to keep best opening performance for both positive and reverse rotation.

Originality/value

A model of non-closed elliptical groove bi-directional rotation gas face seal is established. The hydrodynamic mechanism of this gas seal is illustrated. Parametric investigation of inclination angle and integrity rate is presented for the non-closed elliptical groove bi-directional rotation gas face seal.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article

X.L. Wang, X.D. Bai, X.K. Jiang, C. Wang and C. Chen

The purpose of this paper is to prepare polypyrrolone nanofibres and investigate the effects of concentration of polypyrrolone precursor and voltage on polypyrrolone…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare polypyrrolone nanofibres and investigate the effects of concentration of polypyrrolone precursor and voltage on polypyrrolone precursor nanofibres by electrospinning, in order to achieve ideal nanofibres.

Design/methodology/approach

Polypyrrolone nanofibres were prepared by polypyrrolone precursor electrospinning. Various fibres were made with different concentrations of polypyrrolone precursor and different voltages. Morphology of fibres was characterised by scanning electron microscopy to study the effect of different preparation conditions on morphology of fibres.

Findings

A method of preparation of polypyrrolone nanofibres with the polypyrrolone precursor by electrospinning was introduced which had not been reported. The effects of concentration of polypyrrolone precursor and voltage on the morphology of the nanofibres were studied. It was found that the concentration of polypyrrolone precursor was the major factor and the voltage also affected the distribution and dimension of polypyrrolone fibres to an extent.

Research limitations/implications

Polypyrrolone nanofibres provided potential applications in solar cells and field‐effect transistors.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no literature on the preparation of polypyrrolone nanofibres by electrospinning. Herein the preparation of polypyrrolone nanofibres by electrospinning is first reported. The polypyrrolone nanofibres might be used in solar cell, non‐linear optics, conducting and semi‐conducting materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

X. Jiang, L. Lin, X. Bai, S. Wang and C. Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the mechanical, thermal and colour properties of solvent-containing two-component…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the mechanical, thermal and colour properties of solvent-containing two-component polyurethane (PU) coating.

Design/methodology/approach

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and observation of dispersion stability were used to assess the effects of acid treatment on CNTs. The CNTs and PU composite coating was synthesised by in situ polymerisation and bending polymerisation, and the mechanical, thermal and colour appearance properties of coating were characterised.

Findings

It was found that desirable modifications to CNTs occurred after acid treatment; thus, mainly carboxylic acid groups were introduced onto the surface of CNTs. And the acid-treated CNTs could improve the mechanical and thermal properties of PU coating, and the properties of composite coating was improved more successfully by in situ polymerisation than by blending polymerisation.

Practical implications

The investigation established a method to synthesise CNTs and PU composite coating. The mechanical and thermal properties of PU coating could be improved by the inclusion of CNTs.

Originality/value

This study established a method to synthesise CNTs and PU composite coating by in situ polymerisation and blending polymerisation; the effects of CNTs on modifying mechanical, thermal and colour properties of PU coating were investigated and compared in detail.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Xiaomi An, Wenlin Bai, Hepu Deng, Shuyang Sun, Wenrui Zhong and Yu Dong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between different mechanisms for integrating national archival resources, leading to the development of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between different mechanisms for integrating national archival resources, leading to the development of a knowledge management-based framework for facilitating the optimal utilization of national archives resources in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a mixed-methods approach consisting of a review of existing mechanisms for integrating national archival resources and site visits and interviews for investigating the effectiveness of these mechanisms in real world practices for managing and utilizing national archives resources in China.

Findings

The knowledge management-based framework is shown to be useful for building interdependence, interconnections and interactions between diversified integration mechanisms to meet national, societal and public needs in China. The framework is significant for rearranging the role of knowledge management in collaboration to protect the value of national archives resources as the knowledge asset of a state. It can reengineer the knowledge management activities in communication to share the value of national archives resources as the knowledge asset of a society. Furthermore, the framework can reconfigure knowledge management artifacts in connectivity to increase the value of national archives resources as the knowledge asset of the public.

Research limitations/implications

The review of the related literature is selective rather than comprehensive, and the interviews are based on a self-selected convenience sample, which is rather skewed demographically.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can be used to guide the development of a national strategy for the effective integration of national archives resources to promote a better delivery of public-centric knowledge services in a specific society.

Originality/value

This study provides a knowledge management framework for the effective integration of national archives resources toward their optimal utilization. It contributes to the examination of the role of different integration mechanisms in interactive knowledge management processes and the advancement of academic debate on the effectiveness of these mechanisms for the integration of national archives resources to facilitate their optimal utilization in China.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Book part

Christin L. Munsch and Elizabeth S. Zack

An accelerometer is a device that measures force due to gravity or a change in speed or direction of travel. This paper describes accelerometers and their application in…

Abstract

Purpose

An accelerometer is a device that measures force due to gravity or a change in speed or direction of travel. This paper describes accelerometers and their application in other disciplines and, by way of an example, explores the utility of accelerometers for studying aggression. We end with a discussion of additional ways accelerometers might be used in group processes research.

Methodology

We first review the use of accelerometers in other disciplines. We then present the results of four studies that demonstrate the use of accelerometers to measure aggression. Study 1 establishes the measure’s concurrent validity. Study 2 concerns its stability and representative reliability. Study 3 seeks to establish the measure’s predictive validity by associating it with an existing measure. Study 4 demonstrates the ability of accelerometers to address a sociological research question.

Findings

In Studies 1 and 2, we find that accelerometers can be used to differentiate between distinct levels of aggression. In Study 3, we find that men’s average peak acceleration correlates with a previously validated measure of aggression. Study 4 uses accelerometers to reproduce a well-established finding in the aggression literature.

Practical Implications

We conclude that accelerometers are a flexible tool for group processes’ researchers and social scientists more broadly. Our findings should prove useful to social scientists interested in measuring aggression or in employing accelerometers in their work.

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